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of the above-mentioned interrogation, the publishers of the score of this symphony, Messrs. Breitkopf and Hartel, inserted in the Leipzig Musical Gazette, July 1846, Nr. 27, the following communication :—
"In comparing the original manuscript of Beethoven's Symphony C minor with the one published by us, a scruple with regard to the 2nd and 3rd bar, page 108, has arisen. We have, therefore, been induced to look over the correspondence with Beethoven, and the following letter, dated August 21, 1810, will
S've the explanation on the subject. The subjoined part of eethoven's letter in fac-simile relates to it." Beethoven writes :—
"The following errors I find in the Symphony C minor, viz.: 3rd movement J time, where after the major tjjj the minor commences again, standing as follows:
I take only the bass part; the two bars which are crossed are too much, and must be blotted out, and let it be well understood, also, in those parts which have rests."
The subject wants no further explanation. The mistake arose partly through the engraver, partly from the manuscript of Beethoven's score, from the reason that he intended, in this symphony, as in some of his others, to have repeated the minor parts three times, and the major parts only twice.
In the original score arc those two bars which are crossed, figured with I, and the two following ones with II. This, and alio the term "Si replica con trio allora II," which has been written with a red pencil on the top of the page, have been overlooked by the engraver.
The discovery and regulation of this error is the merit of Mendelssohn, to whom we are indebted; and but for him most likely we should have remained in the dark even to this day.
There is another error in the same symphony, in the first movement, and also in the symphony B flat,
„ F major, Nr. 8,
which Schumann, Czerny, and other musical authorities have detected and revised, and of which I shall speak at a future time.
Da. Febmnand Rahles.
90 St John's Wood Terrace, Regents Park, May 1860.
MOZART AND JELIOTTE THE SINGER*
The Duke de Rohan-Chabot possesses, in his magnificent chateau at Reuil, a dozen leagues from Paris, a small picture, forming part of a rich collection of family portraits.
It represents Mozart, as a child, seated at a harpsichord, in a saloon of the chateau de la Roche-Guyon, in Normandy, and formerly the property of the Duke de Rohan-Chabot. Mozart is playing or singing, and Jeliotte, the actor of the Opera, is accompanying him on the guitar; the Prince de Beauveau, in a scarlet surtout, and decorated with the blue cordon, is seated behind the young musician, reading, with a careless eye, a paper he holds in his left hand; the Chevalier de Laurency, a gentleman in the suite of the Prince de Conti, dressed in a black velvet coat, is standing behind the arm-chair in which Mozart is seated; the Prince de Conti is chatting with M. de Trudaine, the son of him for whom David painted his celebrated picture of the "Death of Socrates ;" while Mdlle. Bargoty, in front of a group formed of the Marcchale de Mirepoix, Mme. de Viervelle, Mdlle. de Boufflers, afterwards Duchess de Lauzun, and the Prince de Henin, is making tea, though listening attentively at the same time to. Mozart's beautiful playing. In another group we perceive M. Dupont de Vclse, brother of M. d'Argental, the Countess of
• From the Brussels Guide Musical.
Egmont, senior, the Countess of Egmont junior, formerly Mdlle. de Richelieu, and the President Hcnaut, seated on one side of the fireplace. The last group shows us the Countess de Boufflers standing before a table luxuriously laid out, and by her side the Count de Chabot, afterwards Duke de Rohan, talking to the Count de Jarnac, while the Marshal de Beauveau is pouring out a glass of wine for the Bailli de Chabrillant, who is opposite M. de Meyrond, the famous geometrician.
It is astonishing how these noble and intelligent faces appear to acknowledge the ascendancy of the young genius, who charms and captivates them! All eyes are fixed upon him; every one is listening to him with surprise and ccstacy. Even the family portraits let into the panels of the apartment seem to share the sensations of this brilliant audience.
The picture contains many illustrious heads, and many women celebrated for their birth as for their beauty. Yet that which rivets us, that which attracts and interests us more than aught besides, is the sublime child, not yet eight years old, and nevertheless the equal of the greatest masters.
Mozart is represented in an apple-gre«n coat and knee-breeches. He is so small that his feet, which dangle in the air, scarcely reach below the fingerboard of his harpsichord. He has a round face, rosy lips, a broad projecting forehead, and a meditative eye, while his little powdered wig gives him quite an amusing magisterial air.
Up to the present time we know nothing more about Mozart's first visit to Paris than what is reported in the chronicles of the period. He performed three times; at Versailles before the king, the queen, and the court; and at two public concerts. This is all we knew; but respecting his relations with the society and artists of the period, nothing worth mentioning had reached us.
The picture which I have just sketched, as faithfully as I could, proves that Mozart went out visiting; that he played in private houses in Paris and the country; and that, when he was only seven years old, he had excited sufficient interest in Jeliotte, the celebrated singer of the Opera, to cause the latter to accept the modest post of his accompanyist.
As Jeliotte's name comes naturally under my pen, let me relate a few facts concerning him.
Jeliotte was born in the neighbourhood of Toulouse in 1711. Gentle, good-natured, and wearing on his countenance the serenity of happiness, he inspired others with it, while he enjoyed it himself. He was a man completely happy. In the first place a chorister, and then counter-tenor at Toulouse Cathedral, an excellent musician, and an adept on several instruments, he possessed a voice of incomparable beauty. His provincial fame reached the ears of the Prince de Carignan, Inspector-General of the Opera. Jeliotte was summoned to Paris, made his first appearance at once at the Opera, and passed through the ordeal with enthusiastic applause. From that moment he enjoyed the favour of the public, whose idol he was for twenty years. The audience trembled with delight when he appeared on the stage; they listened to him with intoxicating pleasure, and their applause was always ready when he concluded. His voice was full, admirable, sonorous, of a pleasing quality, and reaching, without the slightest effort, the highest notes of the counter-tenor.
Jeliotte was neither handsome nor well-made; but he had merely to sing and he was superb. It seemed as though he charmed the eye at the same time as the ear. Being a good musician, his talent cost him no trouble, and his profession was only a source of pleasure. Cherished and esteemed by his comrades, he led the life of a man of the world, — welcomed and longed for everywhere. At first, what people wanted was to hear his singing, and his complaisance in acceding to their wishes was as charming as his voice. He made it his especial study to pick out and learn our prettiest songs, which he gave to perfection, accompanying himself on the guitar. But people soon forgot in him the singer in their appreciation of him as an amiable man. His wit and obliging disposition procured him as many friends as he had numbered admirers: some belonged to the middle classes, while others moved in the very highest society. Invariably simple and modest, he accumulated, by his talent and the favours bestowed on him, a small fortune, which he employed in placing his family in comfortable circumstances. In the offices and private cabinets of the ministers he enjoyed considerable credit, which he employed in rendering most important services to persons in his native province, Languedoc, where, in return, he was adored.
His generosity proved most injurious to him; and he died at Paris, in 1782, in a state bordering on poverty, having no resources but his pension, which, luckily, could not be touched by his creditors. Tokchbt.
Ojj the 10th November, 1859, the public journals brought news from Munich that Sophie Schrocder, at the age of nearly eighty years (her maiden name was Burger, her first married name Stollmers) had excited such a jubilee by her recitation of Schiller's Bell as would have been possible to few of the younger notabilities of the stage. And now (February 9, 1860) we read of the decease, in Coburg, of her equally renowned daughter, Wilhelmina Schroeder-Devrient, by second marriage, Madame Bock. Five and twenty years younger then her mother, her shorter career was not less eventful, not less rich in triumphs. Born in 1805, at Hamburg, in her fifth year she figured on the stage in a ballet: thence she went with her mother to Vienna, where she first appeared as an actress at the age of fifteen, and in such parts as Alicia in Phadra, Louise in Kabale und Liebe, Beatrice in Der Braut von Messina, did honour to the teaching and example of her mother. At the same time she received musical instruction from Griinwald and Mozatti, and already, in the year 1821, turned her attention to opera. Emmeline in Weigl's Swiss Family, Maria in Gietry's Blue Beard, and Eleonore in Fidelio, were her first most prominent parts. If the story that it was she who first caused the world to recognise the power and beauty of Beethoven's opera is untrue, inasmuch as Fidelio had maintained its place in the repertoire of the Vienna Opera since 1816, it is true that in her study of the part of Eleonore, Wilhelmina Schrocder, at sixteen, did enjoy the personal instruction, and, by her performance, obtain the hearty applause of the composer. Ihus equipped, she went first (in 1823) to Berlin; and thence to the Court Theatre at Dresden, with which she remained connected, notwithstanding her artistic tours, until her retirement from the stage (in 1848). Here she never tired of making progress in her art; but even when she had long shone as a model, she repeatedly began anew at the foundations, availing herself of the instructions of the celebrated singing-master, J. Miecksch. At Dresden she laid the foundation of her fame, which, after her journeys to Paris in 1830 and 1831, and to London in 1832, 1833, and 1837, spread over the greater part of cultivated Europe.
Should we undertake to recall all the parts in which Wilhelmina Schroeder appeared during a period of twenty-seven years, we should not wander far from the truth in maintaining that she represented all the leading characters in all the operas written and produced before and during her theatrical career. AVhile she revealed to us the perennial freshness of Gluck, Grctry, Mozart, Beethoven, Cherubini, Spontini, she understood how, at the same time, to make Rossini and Bellini, Auber and Donizetti, Halevy and Meyerbeer exceedingly enjoyable; and any one who has admired her in German works of later times, — the operas of Weber, Spohr, Marschner, and Richard Wagner, — will find it hard to tell how much these masters owed to her, and how much she to them. We shall not see such another Arinida, Iphigenia, Donna Anna, Fidelio, Euryanthe, Rebecca, or Adriana; we shall not see again that perfect harmony between composer and interpreter which we enjoyed in her creations. But perhaps the highest thing was the soul with which she quickened and ennobled weaker and even weak forms. To the end of her career she was on this account besieged by an uninterrupted scries of artists, who, not knowing how to find the true and shortest way to glory, found it convenient to bespeak the mediation of the disinterested artiste. Schroeder-Devrient was always glad to help where she
* From the Leipzig Zeitung.
was able. Most glad when it would really serve the cause of Art. She had sincere joy in her art; for her it had nothing mechanical, nothing slovenly, nothing aiming at mere applause or gain. When she made pilgrimages to Paris, London, Vienna, and Berlin, it was no Barnum raid, but to test tie correctness of her efforts before new and perhaps severer judges; not the desire to take her talents to richer markets. Hence we do not see her seeking an uncultivated public of backwoodsmen, but going to the places where all her great predecessors had been; where ;she found living rivals, where the public had seen andjappreciated the highest and best. In fact, her artistic journeys were more productive of fame than of any material advantage.
The same zeal for Art she'always'showed towards other talents striving in the same direction. If it was not possible to carve, as she said, a Schroeder-Devrient out of every piece of wood, yet there were a great number of younger talents which she helped to develope, or at least carried along with her. We must not imagine her instruction to have been systematic schooling; lessons to be learned and said by rote. Where no real soul for art betrayed itself, where the capacity to understand and follow her was wanting, her influence could not of course avail; but where there glimmered any spark of native fire, she knew well how to quicken, sustain, and cause it to shine out. From Agnes Schebest to Johanna Wagner, a whole list of singers could be named, who, if just and candid, would ascribe the best they have ever done to her example and her teaching.
Her zeal for the aspirations "of more recent composers has been alluded to. There has hardly been one of any importance who, living at the same time with her, did not seek her acquaintance, and, if deserving of it, win her friendship. She was one of the first to recognise Wagoner; she belonged to that prophetic circle, who, not led astray either by the unmistakable excrescences in • the first works of that master, or by the fault-finding criticism of the day, foretold the rising of a new star; she it was who in the parts of Adriano and of Senta, decided the victory. Kay, for the first representations of the Tannhihiser, she undertook the part of Venus. This was the last creation of her genius. The part in many respects was not suited to a woman of forty; but wc shall not see such another Venus. It was her unmistakable enthusiasm that lent a colouring to her performance, which those presen never can forget, and which those who have only seen the opera without her, can never understand.
For all who knew her, there is and can be no description even remotely corresponding to the impression she left; and it is hardly possible for one who has not seen her, to form any conception of her performances. Who can imagine a Fidelio, who, with the first words she uttered seized upon every public, and in the prison scene moved even the actors on the stage to tears? or a Donna Anna, who, in the brief words of the introduction : ",Padre mio!" thrilled every nerve of our being? or a Euryanthe, who could breathe an ecstacy of love into the duet: "Hin nimm die Seele mein ?" who, if he has not seen or heard,—nay, if he has not lived it,—can form any idea of the cry with which Rebecca was wont to greet the trumpets of Ivanhoe.
We shall again see Clytemnestra rage, and Marie toy in Blue Beard, and perhaps an Emmeline smile amid tears ; we shall often hear" Adelaide" and the "Erlkonig" sung, and again be thrilled by their imperishable beauty; but the highest enjoyment we shall feel in them can only be, that the singer falls not too far short of the ideal which has been realised for us once and cannot be again. Such identity of the artiste with her part, such faultless dramatic expression, such a union of splendid resources, of most highly cultivated singing with complete impersonation, we shall never witness again. The happy instinct with which Schroeder-Devrient saw and caught the spirit of every part, and the peculiar signification of its every moment, has often been a theme of wonder. This was native to her. But the reason of it was, that she had perfected her taste to the finest degree, and was never weary of probing the task set before her, and never ceased to study it until she had found its truest expression.
As Schroeder-Devrient was always great and noble in her performances, so she always set herself the highest tasks in her art. Thus she worked for her own time, and her name will live for ever.
Sacred Habmonic Society. — The series of Subscription Concerts was continued on Friday the 18th, with Haydn's Creation. The work, by far the bghtest in the repertoire of the Society, was, generally speaking, well performed. The band executed the Overture ("Chaos") in admirable style. The accompaniments were likewise worthy of commendation. The chorus showed their familiarity with the work, and were steady and correct as usual. We may except the vocalised passages in the last piece, "Praise the Lord, ye voices all," the only phrases of the kind in the work which were sung incorrectly.
The soprano solo was undertaken, for the first time, by Miss Parepa, who did herself infinite credit. Indeed, the part suits her better than any sacred role she has attempted. "On mighty pens" was particularly effective, the ascending passages being delivered with accuracy and brilliancy of tone. Mr. Sims Reeves was never more favourably heard than in "In native worth." The purity of his singing is exceeded by none of his contemporaries; while he renders this (and many other airs) with a manliness which is all his own. Signor Belletti had not quite recovered from his recent indisposition. He took infinite pains, however, with his music, and, in "Rolling in foaming billows," created a marked sensation. The room was crowded in every part.
Philharmonic Concerts.—The programme of the fourth concert on Monday last was unusually rich in material, and attracted a very large audience to the Hanover Square Rooms :— Part L
Overture — Scherzo — Song with Chorus, " You
spotted*snakes," (Miss Augusta Thomson and
Mdlle. Jenny Meyer) — Notturno, March, and
Pinal Cborns ("A Midsummer Night's Dream ") Mendelssohn Air, "Du village voisin," Madame Rieder ("Le
Concerto, Violin, No. 8, Herr Eompel (Scena
Kecit. and Air "Nur einen Wnnsch, nur ein
Verlangcn" (" Iphigenie in Tauris ") — Mdlle.
Jenny Meyer Gluck
Overt are, "Anacreon" Cherubim
Sinfonia in P, No. 8 Beethoven
Scena, "Ah me! he comes not," Miss Augusta
Thomson (" Fair Rosamond ") Barnett
Trio, Madame Rieder, Miss Augusta Thomson and
Mdlle. Jenny Meyer (" Azor and Zemira ") ... Spohr
Overture, "Zauberfiote" Mozart
Conductor — Professor Sterndale Bennett, Mus. D.
We must criticise the performance in our next. At present it is enough to say that the new violinist, Herr Rumpel, was deservedly successful; and that Mendelssohn's Scherzo was played to perfection and encored.
The London Glee And Madbigal Union, under the direction of Mr. Edward Land, will give their 100th performance of glees, madrigals, and old ballads on Friday next, at the Royal Gallery of Illustration,—a very gratifying proof that the public are appreciating more and more this delightful style of vocal music.
Mr. Henbt Leslie's Choib. — The Concert on Wednesday last, the fifth of the season, was quite up to the standard which Mr. Leslie seems to have set up, and above which he will not go on any account. Glees, madrigals, and part-songs sung in a style nearly approaching perfection will always command an audience; but the interpolation of indifferent fantasias on operatic airs is simply distasteful to the musical public, whose opinion neither Mr. Leslie nor anyone else can afford to despise. Last season we had sonatas, pianoforte and violin, and pianoforte and violoncello and other works of equal importance. This matter should be looked to. The motett of Hauptmann, "Source of all power and light," Wilbye's madrigal, "Sweet honey-sucking bees," "Hear niy prayer (Mendelssohn), trio canone, "Placido Sefliretto" (Cberubini), were the noticeable features. A vocal duet, and a
four-part song, by Mr. Henry Leslie, were sung with much effect. Both compositions are agreeable and well written.
Madame Puzzi's Concebt.—A large and fashionable assembly attended the annual concert of Madame Puzzi, which came off at the Hanover Square Rooms on Monday morning. The pro
framme was more than usually varied. The artists included lesdames Borghi-Mamo, Lenimens-Sherrington, Parepa, Rudersdorff, Everardi, Lemairc, and Rieder; Signors Mariano Neri, Solieri, Ciabatta, Dragone, M. Despret, and Mr. Patey, vocalists; and M. Leopold de Meyer (piano) and Signor Pezze (violoncello), instrumentalists. The special feature of the concert (to quote the Morning Post) "was the first appearance this season of the great 1 lion-pianist,' Leopold de Meyer, who executed a new fantasia on original themes, of his own composition, with extraordinary effect. We never heard him play with more brilliancy, power, delicacy, and finish." Being unanimously encored, he returned to the instrument and repeated the last half of the fantasia.
The Neapolitan air and variations, introduced by Madame Borghi-Mamo in the lesson scene of the Barbiere, and sung by the same lady on the present occasion, was the most brilliant vocal display of the concert. The fine duo, "No, Matilda," from Rossini's Matilda di Shabran, was admirably given by Mdlle. Parepa and Madame Borghi-Mamo. Madame Everardi, wife of the eminent barytone, in the cavatina, "D'amor sull' ali," from the Trovatore, displayed a voice of nice quality, and a good style and method. Two compositions by Signor Giuglini, a duet sung by Mesdames Lemmens-Sherrington and Borghi-Mamo, and a chorus by the entire company, were introduced. The rest of the performance calls for no particular remark.
Monday Popular Concerts. — Out of eight pieces in a programme devoted to various masters, no less than five were heard for the first time at the concert of Monday last. This looks well, as it shows that the continued success attendant on these interesting series has not made the directors indifferent or content (as is too often the case) to fall back upon works with which the public are now, thanks to them in a great measure, tolerably familiar. Nor is it alone in the construction of their scheme that the effects of judicious management are shown: not only fresh pieces but fresh artists are heard. This season we have had Her Becker, a valuable addition to the ranks of our classical violinists; and now a (comparatively) new pianist, Her Lubeck, is introduced.
The instrumental novelties comprised two quartets,— Mozart's in D minor, and Beethoven's in F minor; both played to perfection by Messrs. Sainton, Goffrie, Doyle, and Piatti: Mendelssohn's trio in C minor (No. 2), in which the first and last named gentlemen were joined by Herr Lubeck, who also gave Beethoven's sonata in C sharp minor, best known as the Moonlight Sonata.
The remaining novelty was the "Sleep song" from Auber's Masaniello, given with the utmost delicacy of expression by Mr. Sims Reeves, who also contributed Rossini's barcarolle, "La Gita in Gondola," in such a manner as to elicit an encore, which it was impossible to resist. To Mr. Santley for his admirable rendering of Vincent Wallace's capital song, "The Bell Ringer," a like
compliment was deservedly paid, and much applause was earned by the said gentleman in Mr. J. W. Davison's "Rough Wind that moanest loud." Mr. Benedict as usual accompanied the vocal music with consummate ability.
On Monday next—an Italian night—Miss Arabella Goddard, Miss Laura Baxter, Mile. Parepa, Herr Becker, &c, will appear. The selection (except one air repeated by desire) will be entirely new.
Swansea.—The Jullien Concert came off on Monday evening at the Guildhall, under the patronage of the Mayor. Considering the benevolent object in view, namely, to aid tho fund on behalf of M. Jullien's widow and family, who have been left totally unprovided for, the attendance was not so large as we anticipated. Sufficient, however, we hope, has been realised to enable the promoters to transmit a sub • stantial sum to the fund. The following artistes kindly gaie their services on the occasion :—Madame Enderssohn, the last vocalist who accompanied the great maestro on his tour through England; Miss Evans, of Newport; Miss Harrison; Miss Pincott; Mr. Merrick, of the Bristol Cathedral; Mr. W. Bowcn, and the members of the Swansea Musical Union, led by Mons. P. Ternon. Dr. Wastfield, Dr. Denning, and Mr. Frickcr, also kindly gave their services. The concert opened with Auber's overture, Masaniello. Madame Endcrssohn sang Donizetti's aria, " L'Amor Suo," Hadyn's Canzonet, "She never told her love," "Homo, sweet Home," and M. Enderssohn's " Only in jest." We were much pleased with Miss Rachel Evans' pianoforte solos. She was loudly encored. Miss Harrison sang Meyerbeer's "Robert toi qui j'aime," and "Wallace's "Gentle Troubadour." Mr. Merrick, of the Bristol Cathedral, sang. Mr. Bowen and Miss Fincott assisted as amateurs. The former sang "Good Rhein Wine" with much spirit, and was encored. Miss Pincott received a similar compliment. Dr. Wastfield and Dr. Denning conducted.
HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE.—This evening, Saturday. Mar 36, second niglit of SEMIRAMIDE. — Tittins, Alboni, Belakt, Via urn, and Evebardi. On Monday-, May 2ft, Grand Extra Ni«ht, IL DON GIOVANNI. On Tuesday, May 29, IL TROVATORE. — Titiens, Alboni, Aldiohibri. Vialktti, and Gicglini. On Thursday, May 31, Rossini's Opera of SEMIRAMIOE—Titikns, Alboki, Bblart, Vialettj, and Evrrardi. On Saturday,
June 2, first nittht of ERNANI First appearance of Millie. Lorn Della Santa.
Conductor—Signor Arditi. To conclude each evening with the new ballet of SCINTILLA, In which Mdile. Pocchini and M. Duiianu will appear. The box-office of the Theatre in open daily from 10 to 6.
HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE.—Second Night of
ROYAL ITALIAN OPERA, COVENT GARDEN
! Principal characters by Madame Penco, Madame Tagiiafico, Mdlle. Didiee, Signor Ronconi, M. Faure. Signor Tagiiafico. Signor Lucchesl, Signor Polonlnl, Signor Rosai, Signor GardonL
At the conclusion of tha Opera, the New Floral Hail will be illuminated. The Band of Ihe Coldstream Gua'ds will perform until Twelve o'clock, by permission of Colonel Newton. Each Visitor to the Boxes, Pit Stalls, or Pit, will have the prlviledge of entree, free of extra charge. Carriages can take up at the Bow Street entrance of the Floral Hall.
EXTRA NIGHT NEXT MONDAY.
I Priiicip.il characters by Madame Mioian-Carvalho, Madame Tagiiafico. Signor
An>r which (aecond tune) a New Ba'let Divertissement, arranged by M. Desplaces, entitled l.ES AMOURS DE DIANE.
The Music arranged by M. Nadaud. Supported bv Mdlle. Zina, Mdllej. Esper, Maraquita, Mulot, and Laure, Mr. W. H. Payne, and M. Di splaces.
On Tuesday next, May 29th, will be repeated Rossini's Opera
LA GAZZA LADKA. After which the New Ballet Divertissement
LES AMOURS DE DIANE.
EW FLORAL HALL.—A GRAND MORNING
CONCERT will take place In the New Floral Hall, on Wednesday next. May 30. To commence at Two o'clock. Supported by the following eminent Artists, Meidames Gniai, Rosa Csiliao, Dint*. CouaW, P«»co, Miolsn C/.»v»ui •. Signori Mario, Graziani, Faure, Neri Iurai.im. Poloniki, Zfu.kr, Taiiuatico, Garooni, Ronconi. Also the B ind and Chorus of the Royal I'aliau Opera. Extra Night, not Included in the Subscription, on Thursday next, Mav 31st, will he jierfotm.d (for the third time this season), Verdi's Opera. IL TROVATORE, with the following powerful cast, Madame (iaiM, Mile. Rosa Csili.au, Madame Tauliapico, Siirtiors Graziani, Taoliapico. Luccnisi. Itossi, andMaalo. Conductor, Mr. Costs. Doors open at 8, commence at half-past. Pit, 7a.: Amphl'.heatre stalls, 7s. and 8s.; Amphitheatre, 2s. 6d. —
'T'lIE illness of M. Jullien having, with fatal rapidity,
JL terminated In death. It has been resolved that the donations to the JULLIEN FUND shall be applied in the manner which would have been most in consonance wii h the wishes of ihe deceased had it been permitted him to express them, via. to the relief of his Widow and Family, who, by bis loss, are left totally unprovided for. Committee Tor the distribution of the Jullien Fund. Mr. Jnhn Mitchell; Mr. W. R. Sams; Mr. Thomas Chappell; Mr. W. Duncan Davison; Mr. Robert K. Bowley; and Mr. Julea Benedict.
Honorary Treasurers. Mr. John Mitchell, 33 Old Bond Street; Mr. Thomas Chappell, 60 New Bond Street; and Mr. W. R. Sams, 1 St. James's Street.
Messrs. Coutti & Co., Strand; Heywood, Kcnnards, & Co., Lombard Street;
1 2 0
I 0 0
1 0 0
0 10 0
0 10 0
0 5 0
Proprietors of Punch 5 5
Lady B. Luton 2 0
Countess Caroline Bellew ... 1 1
Dr. Besset Hawkins 1 1
2d Collection, Coffee Room
Henry Fentumt Esq
T. W. B
H. S. Flinn, Esq
Sundry small subscriptions ;—
Mr. Austin 0 17 6
Mr. Hammond 12 0
Mr. Duncan Davison 0 4 0
Messrs. Cramer ft Co 0 6 0
Sunday Times Office 0 2 0
Messrs. Keith ft Co.,per J. N. 1 3 0
Messrs. Keith ft Co 0 12 0
Messrs. Bailey, Brothers ... I 2 6
Mr. Mitchell 0 10
Deposit Bank, Leicester Square 0 7 0
Parkins ft Gotto 0 7 6
Messrs. Hoosey ft Sons ... 0 3 0
Mrs. John Hill 5 0 0
A Washington Friend 2 2 0
J. Williams, Esq., Debdeo Hall,
Thomas Falrbairn, Esq 110
C. R. N 10 0
Lea Richardson. Esq 0 10 0
Shilling subscription, per T.
Burbi ige. Esq 7 10 0
Ditto A. II,.mi, Esq. ... 4 2 0
Deposit Bank 2 12 0
LIST OF COUN
The Rev. Thomas Lambard ... 20 0
His Grace the Duke of Leinster 6 0
The Countess of Scarborough ... I 1
I. adv Marv Thompson I 0
Lady Middleton S 0
Lady Clifford Constable 1 0
Lady Lerhmere I 0
Lady Cooke 1 1
Mrs. Hall (Terrington) 1 1
Mrs. Marten (Beverley)... ... 1 1
Mrs. Wainman Carr Head) ... 1 0
Mrs. Pilot (Dublin) 2 2
_ Howard, Esq.(Birkenhead) 1 0 John Mackenzie, Eiq.(Edinuurgh) 1 0
Shilling subscription, from Gentlemen at St. Paul's Churchyard, per J. Anson, Esq. ... Ditto from Gentlemen at Waggon Bar, Longsight,
Ditto ditto Small subscriptions, per Mr. Hammond ... ... ...
Messrs. Keith, Prowse, ft Co.
Mr. Austin ...
Messrs. Bailer, Brothers
Chappell ft Co
H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge Major George (4th Light Dragoons) - ...
J. Green. Esq w
R. M. Bland, Esq. ... ...
Lady B. Johnstone ... ...
J. I). Dent, Esq ...
H. Y. Z
Small subscriptions per Mr.
„ Mr. Hammond
Keith. Prowse, ft Co....
„ Deposit Bank
„ Mr. Duncan Davison...
„ Mr. Jeffs
,, Mr. Austin
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LONDON: SATURDAY, MAY 20, 1860.
HANDEL'S Israel in Egypt, recently performed by the Sacred Harmonic Society at Exeter Hall, attracted the most numerous audience of the season. This masterpiece, which stands at the very pinnacle of the art, and is perhaps the most transcendent example of choral writing extant, has for some years—especially since the Handel commemoration of 1857—held a place in public regard not inferior to that which the Messiah has maintained for more than a century. It is no longer considered laboured and dry; the choruses are no longer reproached for their profusion, uninterrupted succession, and extreme difficulty; the vocal solos, airs, and duets no longer accounted inexpressive, or too few. All such criticism is consigned to oblivion ; and were it to arise again from the dust, and appeal to the judges and amateurs of the present hour, it would be welcomed with derisive sneers by the musical community at large.
A contemporary has insinuated that Mendelssohn's preface to the edition of Israel in Egypt, prepared for the Handel Society, had some hand in establishing this admirable reform. This is more than probable. When such a man approaches the text with religious veneration, and even offers an apology for the organ part added by himself, —not in the hope of supplying what Handel left unwritten, but as a guide to the generality of organists,—it would be indiscreet on the part of any other to meddle with the score, which, while restoring to its original purity, Mendelssohn pronounced " one of the greatest and most lasting works." Happily the best conductors of our time are of a' mind with Mendelssohn, and will not suffer a single bar to be interpolated, to which reserve, we firmly believe, may be traced the ever-increasing popularity of Israel in Egypt.
The songs and duets introduced by Professor Taylor broke the chain of miracle choruses, interrupted the dramatic interest of the musical description, and disturbed the clear and masterly design, which made one great whole of this unequalled inspiration. Much the same result, indeed, accrued from the officious meddling of Nahum Tate with King Lear, Dryden with The Tempest, Thomson with Coriolanus, Colley Cibberwith Richard the Third, Garrick with liomeo and Juliet and Hamlet—"cum multis aliis." But the uncompromising principle of Mr. Macready cleansed the Augean stable, and restored the drama of Shakspere to its pristine vigour. What Mendelssohn did for Handel, Macready did for Shakspere. Why should not Mr. Costa stir up the half-extinguished embers of the opera, and, like his great contemporaries, earn the name of a reformer, by restoring Mozart, and giving us Don Giovanni as the immortal composer wrote it? Were he to do this, it would ensure him a niche in the Temple of the Unforgotten.
An opinion of Israel in Egypt, as now usually performed by the Sacred Harmonic Society, may be briefly expressed. The choruses, with the exception of three, are almost invariably executed in such a manner as to reduce to a sinecure the office of the critic, who waits in vain for defects whereon to exercise the eloquence of reproach. The exceptions, however, are grave exceptions. It is true that " He sent a thick darkness" is rarely sung in tune; but is that a reason why it should never be sung in tune? Did Handel write under each separate part, Please sing out of tune? Assuredly not. Inasmuch, then, as singing in tune is allowed to be possible by the most noted professors of the art, who even urge it on the student's attention, as the indispensable point to which his industry should be directed, and in default of which the emission of vocal sounds becomes no better than an unpleasant noise, it is the duty of conductors to enforce it with the whole weight of their authority. Sung throughout in tune, the sublime chorus, "He sent a thick darkness," would be both more intelligible and more impressive. Again, — it is true that the chorus, "With the blast of
thy nostrils," is elaborate and difficult, and for this reason is rarely given to perfection. But if a chorus, because elaborate and difficult, may be passed over with as little care as a chorus which is unelaborate and easy, of what use is the custom of rehearsals, and of what advantage an experienced "baton?" Our conductors have it in their power, and should exert their authority, to obtain that precision for "With the blast of thy nostrils" which has hitherto been wanting; and untirachieved, the result upon which Handel calculated must remain a dead letter. Granted there are three distinct subjects in this chorus treated both separately and in combination ; but Handel intended them all three to be heard, which he knew was possible, or would not have planned it so. The effect is evident enough upon the pianoforte, and there is no reason why it should not be equally so in the choral-orchestra.
Again,—it is true that the chorus, "The people shall hear," the most prodigious in the whole series, lias suffered, time out of mind, from the same indecision. Here, indeed, severe discipline is even more necessary than in the others. The confusion of minor and major chords and scales, to which we are accustomed in the execution of this chorus, is nothing short of torture to delicate ears ; and yet, with perseverance, a satisfactory performance might be achieved, or (we repeat) Handel would not have written it. The contemporary, already alluded to, advises Mr. Costa, on the next occasion, to call a special rehearsal "for the two last of these choruses. We join in the recommendation; suggesting the addition of "He sent a thick darkness," and "He smote all the first-born of Egypt."
A model performance of Israel in Egypt would be as welcome as a model performance of Don Giovanni, or of Fidelia. All these are yet to be accomplished. We have heard the Messiah and Elijah to perfection, but not Israel; we have witnessed Guillaume Tell and Der Freischiitz and Masaniello without once being incited to criticism, but never Fidelio, nor Don Juan.
THERE are several Don Juans. Not only are there the Don Juan of Torso de Molina, the Don Juan of Moliere, and the Don Juanoi Mozart, but in the Don Juan legends of Spain there are half a dozen Don Juans of different forms and shades of profligacy, of whom the two most celebrated are the Don Juan de Marana and the Don Juan de Tenorio. Don Juan de Marana, after corrupting his friend's mistress and murdering his friend; after gambling away the money entrusted to him by a dying soldier on the field of battle, to bo given to his orphan family ; after having seduced women into breaking every vow woman i could make to man ; felt that it still remained to him to corrupt a spiritual bride—a nun, who had sworn to love but heaven. Is it not written in the legendary literature of Spain, how, by the mere power of his eye he fascinated an unhappy novice, as a rattlesnake fascinates a bird? How, after the service in the Seville Cathedral was at an end, he thrust a letter through the bars of the cage which held his victim; through the grille which separated the altar from the corridors of the convent, and behind which abbess and nuns knelt (and prayed when there was no Don Juan to trouble them) during mass? How the trembling girl met him in the convent garden; and how in visiting her he well nigh lost his life ; and how, weak and fainting from loss of blood, he fell into a fever, and in his delirium saw his own funeral, and was told by the hundred monks who followed it that they were indeed praying for the soul of the great