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Halevy. "He made himself famous here, not so much by his dance-tunes," <fec.: why, his "Bridal" and " Olga" waltzes were the most successful pieces of dance-music ever produced in England.
The next charge is still more extraordinary. Jullieu is accused of having had "dim and romantic notions of art," and of having, at his Promenade Concerts, "sprinkled the tawdry performances necessary to attract the million with selections from the classical composers." In other words, he undertook the management of promenade concerts, when such entertainments were usually composed of the most frivolous and worthless music, and entirely changed their character, by devoting one-half of each evening to the works of the great masters. This, we are told, was "charlatanry"—in which case we can only say that we wish there was more charlatanry (or charlatanism, as we usually call it) in the world, and especially in the world of music.
What can be the meaning of these aspersions on the character of one who was a good, charitable man, and an honourable, conscientious artist? "We are assured by the same critic, that when Jullien founded his English Opera, having engaged such a company as was never gathered together before on the English stage, he gave "princely commissions—to be executed in years to come." This passage causes us to reflect, and reminds us of something we read a few days since in Thackeray's admirable novel, now in course of publication in the CornMU Magazine. You have remarked, says the wise man, that when one man hates another, the real reason is never assigned. "You say, 'The conduct of such a man to his grandmother, his behaviour in selling that horse to Benson, his manner of brushing his hair down the middle'—or what you will—' makes him so offensive to me that I cannot endure him.' His verses, therefore, are mediocre; his speeches in Parliament are utter failures; his practice at the Bar is dwindling every year, his powers (always small) are utterly leaving him, and he is repeating his confounded jokes until they quite nauseate." Or, if he be a musician (and dead), he wa3 a charlatan—never received a musical education—and was, if the truth is to be told, not a musician at all but a—sailor.
And all this because Jullien gave "princely commissions," and was not able to "execute" them (" act up to them" would be better, because it is the person receiving the commission who is expected to execute it)! Merely because he had
undertaken to produce a certain version of , and was
unable, from the force of circumstances, to bring it out.
In the report of a concert given by Alex. Dreyschock, at Berlin, the Preussische Zeitung gives vent to its enthusiasm in the following magniloquent sentences :—
"If the trio in C minor ia one of the first written by Beethoven at the age of sixteen ( ? ), how many first and last ones of his successors ■re such first ones? Look at the andante: with what gentle sorrow it gushes forth; and the master's joy, his first boon, his son whom the coy, sacred love of his soul, beautiful melancholy, gave him, and whom he, with a father's holy love, cradled in his arms. Look at the scherzo! how does the father's pensiveness, and the tearful gaze, wet with woe, of the mother, smile from out its eye! Wonderfully were both entwined, moving in the sounds of the three players, especially in those of the pianist, whose magic tones melted away again, yet possessing a gentle decision and stamp of their own, even in the smallest detail, so tliat the chains of trills ( ?? ) rolled over the keys, like daw-drops over the leaves of flowers; but like dew-drops which appeared to confirm the notiou of tho ancients, concerning the origin of pearls, namely, that sucked in by the mussels, they formed the costly goms! Under Dreyschock's fingers, the tones, breathed out, as it were, poiscjsed such a purity and plastic roundness of sound, that anyone would
have fancied he was working the keys into the well-known micro technical wonders of ivory; a Calibrates of the ear, who, as the other enabled the eye to distinguish, by the aid of a glass, polished ivory balls of the size of a pea fashioned to represent the four-horsed car of the sun-god, charmed similar piano-sounds of amazing perfection out of the keys, whose apparent smoothness resolved itself for the ear into the most astonishing musical toreutics. Then, again, the hammering hand struck mighty sources of harmony out of the death of the instrument, which flew out and disappeared in a hazy cloud of the finest tonediamonds. The piano appeared to have stormed into an organ, which, roaring in surging chorals, melted away into the gently lisping flute-work of the * Saltarello' arpeggios, which sounded as though ripped out of rocks with Neptune's trident, died off into a piano, as sweet as the fragrance of night violets. Then we bad extemporaneous variations on ' Heil dir im Siegerkranx' played with the left hand, bnt hammered out with an iron touch, like that with which Qotz was accustomed to hammer out his iron Victoria-wreaths, and that upon the skull for which they were intended."
Can the official press in Berlin find no saner musical reporter 1
If the foregping be a fair example of Teutonic criticism, the Berlin Punch deserves rating for flagrant neglect of duty. A more efficient system of literary police must be instituted, or the reputation long formed, and still loudly claimed, by the Germans as art-judges, will speedily merge into a theory of the past, or—in more familiar language— "go to pot."
Marriage Of Mademoiselle Victoire Balfe.—This favourite vocalist has just been united, at St. Petersburgh, to Sir John Fiennes T. Crampton, Bart., K.C.B., Her Majesty's Minister at the court of Russia. Sir John, who succe ded as second baronet on the death of his father, the late Sir Philip Crampton, Bart., Surgeon-general to the forces in Ireland, in 1868, was formerly Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, and is now in his fifty-third year, having been born in 1807.
English Opera, Drurt Lane.—The English Opera, under the direction of Dr. James Pecb, which was to have appeared at the Princess's, has, we see, been transferred to the boards Drury Lane, which opens on Monday, and for which, we understand, a good working company has been secured.
Philharmonic Society.—At a meeting of directors, members, and associates, on Tuesday morning, in the Hanover-square Booms, the following new compositions were tried:—
Symphony, Perry; Symphony, Beaumar; Overture (Recollections of the Past), Stephens; Overture, Banister; Overture, Graves; and Overture (Don Quixote), Silas.
Each composer directed the performance of his own work, Professor Bennett, the Society's conductor, being in the orchestra as president of the meeting. A symphony in E flat, by Herr Kapellmeister Kietz (of Leipsic—Mendelssohn's pupil), was also to have been tried; but as the overtures of Mynheer Silas, Mr. C. E. Stephens, and Mr. Banister were played through twice, and many parts of the symphony of Mr. Beaumar (a very young and adventuresome composer), gone through more than once, there was no time left for the German work. The occasion was one of high interest, and will win many friends for the Philharmonic Society.
M. Felicien David, the well-known French composer, has arrived in London.
Eoyal Academy Of Music.—The first concert this season for the exhibition of the students took place on Saturday, in the rooms of the Institution, Tenterden-street. The programme was made up of sacred music, with the exception of the instrumental pieces, as is customary in Lent, and the first part Was devoted to Mozart's Requiem, evidently in memory of the departed Lord Westmoreland, the late President of the Academy. The choruses were uniformly well sung. A less noisy accompaniment to the eoli parts, and a little more confidence on the part of the principal singers, was all that was requisite to render the execution satisfactory. The Recordare was well sung by Miss Henderson, Miss Ibbetson, Mr. J. F. Goodban, and Mr. Tovey. The other pupils who took prominent parts were Miss Eowcroft, Miss Flewitt, and Mr. Bassett. The second part of the concert opened with the first movement of a MS. symphony by Miss Condron. Miss Bramley sang "But thou didst not leave" fairly, and Miss Henderson gave a careful and earnest version of "Hear ye, Israel." This young lady has an excellent voice, and achieved a success. Miss Eowcroft, in "Gratiaa agimus," gave great satisfaction. The clarinet obUigato was beautifully played by Mr. A. Williams, a son of the well known clarionetist. Mr. Tovey sang a MS. song by Q. H. Thomas, "Bow down thine ear," a composition possessing good points; and Mr. Bassett was allotted " Honour and arms." A MS. duet, by Baumer, " Like as the hart," was given by Miss Rowcroft and Mr. Goodban, and well received. Miss Agnes Zimmerman essayed Beethoven's concerto in G. He execution was careful, but wanting in spirit. There was a large company present, and complaints were rife that the concerts are not given in a larger room. For an orchestra and chorus to be packed into rooms not so capacious as a private suite at the west-end is really preposterous, and we feel quite sure that it is against the interests of the Academy for any such arrangement to be continued.
Dubus—(From the "Evening MavF),—It would appear that Italian Opera in Ireland takes a different phase from its wont elsewhere. We suppose this is as it should be, as there is much difficulty in keeping quiet those who visit the upper portion of the theatre. Lately, on the second representation of Maria, Madame Rudersdorff introduced "St. Patrick's Day" in the third act, leaving out the original song to make place for it. This so delighted the galleries, that we suggest that each singer should give an Irish melody at the next performance of that opera. Flotow has afforded a precedent in "The last rose of summer." Mdlle. Piccolomini could sing "Lesbia hath a beaming eye," and insinuate that the ladies were all " Norah Creinas," and "Oh, haste and leave this sacred isle," which might contain a sly hint that it was time for heretics to think of leaving "The Island of Saints," ere they were driven into the sea by the true sons of Mother Church. It would be too severe for her to venture on "When first I met thee warm and young," after the chilliness of her late reception, so we won't suggest that. Signor Belart might introduce "To ladies' eyes around, boys," Signor Aldighieri " Wreathe the bowl with flowers of soul," and Mr. Patey "Oh, that sight entrancing," a compliment to the dress circle. Then we would suggest to Signor Arditi to arrange in chorus, "Oh, the shamrock, the green immortal shamrock," and ■ Let Erin remember the days of old ;' the latter of which would resuscitate glorious memories of the past. Thus might we have an Hibernian-Italian Opera, which would turn the yellings and interruptions of the Celtic occupants of the top gallery into sincere and hearty enthusiasm ; and we do not for a moment think that the portions of the audience who pay the sum would be so anti-national as not to join in the furore. We throw out this suggestion to Mr. Beale, as it might be worth something wnen he next brings an operatic party to Dublin.
Public Exhibition Of The "Apollo And Mabsyas" With The "Sposalizio" In The Beeba At Milan.—Count Borommeo, director of the Brera Museum, on hearing of Mr. Morris Moore's arrival at MDan, at once invited him to exhibit there Raphael's "Apollo and Msrsyaa" iii order that the capital of Lombardy might enjoy the advantage of seeing this famous master-piece. It is now on exhibition with the "Sposalizio." Several ofthe first connoisseurs of Milan who have already visited it have warmly ratified the decision of Paris, Munich, Dresden, Vienna and Venice, where, as it is well known, it created the greatest sensation among the artists and lovers of art, and have confessed their expectations to have been outstripped by the reality. Ibe Cavaliere Giuseppe Molteni, Conservator of the Brera Gallery, •ad Sir C. Eastlake's chief adviser here, to whom, as we read in the annual reports on the National Gallery, our national pictures are from time to time entrusted for repair, has announced the "Apollo and
Marsyas" to be a Raphael recognisable at a glance, a magnificent one, a stupendous work, a real wonder, opera s! upend a una vera meraviglia, while, as well aa others, he acknowledges the accurracy of Mr. Morris Moore's judgment with regard to its date, namely, 1605-6; that is after the " Sposalizio" and after the Borgbese "Entombment." The Cavaliere Molteni considers the exhibition of the " Apollo and Marsyas" in the Brera Gallery as of paramount interest on account of its obvious relationship to the "Sposalizio." He declares that Milan ought to be its home, and that he would be the first to vote for retaining it here. Another significant circumstance is that the Brera Gallery possesses authentic and good specimens of both the Montagnas, aa well as of Andrea Montagna, of both the Francias, and of Timoteo della Vite, names that ignorance, malignity, and self-interest have alternately to the detriment of the public service, so long endeavoured to fasten upon Raphael's exquisite creation of " Apollo and Marsyas." Sir C. Eastlake's friend and adviser, the Cavaliere Molteni, treats these efforts of Mr. Morris Moore's enemies with supreme ridicule and contempt.
W. A. MOZART.
BY OTTO JAHN.—(FOURTH PART.)
Mozart now received the mysterious commission to write a requiem. The secret is at present solved ; the person who gave the order was Leutgeb, the steward of Count Wallsegg, of Stuppach. This person, a passionate musician, was vain enough to wish to pass for a composer. His wife had died in January, 1791, and it was in memory of her that the requiem was ordered. The secresy observed in ordering and afterwards fetching it away was solely part of Leutgeb's plan of copying out, publishing and producing the same as his own composition, as was subsequently really the case.
Before Mozart could seriously think about the work he received a commission from the States of Bohemia to compose an opera for Leopold II.'a coronation in Prague. He set off, sketched his work in his carriage, carried out his sketch in his inn of an evening, and completed the whole in Prague. Thus was the opera La Clemenza di Tito written within eighteen days. Mozart had taken with him a pupil of his, a young musician, named Sussmayer. The latter is said to have written the recitative) secco, a fact borne out by its not being found in Mozart's original score. During the whole period Mozart was unwell, and returned in an ailing condition to Vienna about the middle of September.
On the 30th September, 1791, the first representation of Die Zauberfcbte took place. The success was not at first as great as had been expected, ^though Mozart was called on at the conclusion. Very soon, however, Die Zauberftote drew more than any opera ever known. In October it had been played twentyfour times, while the hundredth representation was given on the 23rd November, 1792, and the two hundredth on the 22nd October, 1795.
Although Herr Jahn adds nothing new concerning this opera,*
* Ulibischeif was, in this instance, from the detailed analysis of the overture to the end, an excellent predecessor. At page G14, in the remarks concerning the three chords in the overture and the second act, Jahn says—" By this means, (namely, by the masonically symbolic significance of the rhythm), is the doubt, so frequently raised, whether the second and third chords ought not to be legato, divided." He cites, among other works the Niederrheinische Mutik Zeilunq, 1856, p. 68 and p. 89; but the question with regard to the " doubt," applies to p. 68 only; in p. 89, et seq, the undoubted propriety of not taking the chords legato is established at length. With respect to what is said at page 619, concerning the peculiar sound of the finale to the first act, the reader is requested to compare the remarks in the first annual series of the Niederrheinische Musik Zeitung, p. 235, on the character of a sustained tone, in our second artiole on the performance of Beethoven's symphonies, especially the symphony in A major.
In justice to our observations on tho duet "La ci damn," and other pieces in Don Juan, in No. 4, p. 26 and p. 27, we direct the reader's attention to the statement, at p. 645, that in the entrance air of the "Queen of Night," the first, and evidently slower movement, as Jahn himself says, "has no tempo marked in the original."
we are particularly delighted with those passages in which the author dwells on and explains the peculiarly German character of the music. As a specimen, we select the following:—
"The part of Saraatro was, in a different way, a new creation, like that of Oamin. If the latter possessed a model in the buffo of Italian opera, the part of Saraatro is without any predecessor properly so called, for the dignified parte" (Anttandtrollen) "which fell to the lot of the basses in the Italian operas, are as little to be compared with it, as barytone parts, like those of Almaviva and Don Giovanni. Directly opposed to the passionate character of such parts is the manly dignity and grave calm of the sage and the ruler, as represented in Saraatro, and which would be much less thankful in musical representation had not Mozart, who here manifests his genuine German nature, fallen back upon their source in the heart. Most unmistakeably is the strongly marked kindliness of nature, which, in many respects, is capable of injuring a high degree of idealism, a peculiar manifestation of the German character, and one which is not essentially changed even by the foreign-like symbolism. For the simple, heartfelt expression of this passionless but warm appreciation of benevolence and confidence, such as is cherished is the mind of a man matured by the seriousness of life, Mozart developed a musical organ in the strong, sonorous bass Toice, and gained a new and essential element of dramatico-musical characterisation.
"A pair of lovers like Pamina and Tamino, so ideal and so enthusiastic, cannot disguise their German origin and character. We shall find nothing like them in Mozart's Italian operas, and even Belmont and Conttanze, although essentially of similar nature, display more humad passion. It is true that Mozart has found for them another mode of expression, not alone in the greater freedom of the forma hut, principally, by hitting upon that tone which, simply and truly, renders German feeling, with all its still, calm fervour and warmth— which expresses the idealistic element of that same feeling without false sentimentality or mawkishness.
** Papageno is, it is true, only a jester, far removed from delicate wit and genuine humour, but his jokes, despite their great simplicity, are healthy and natural, and unmistakeably connected with one aspect of German feeling and sentiment, which, in its limited sphere is exceedingly powerful, and explains how it is that Papageno became, and •till is, the favourite of a great part of the public. Although Schikaneder, who made the part exactly to fit himself, and subsequently represented himself as Papageno, on the front of the new theatre in the Wieden, a theatre he erected with the money he made by Die Zauberfldte, bad some share in this success, the principal merit even here falls to Mozart, who succeeded in imparting to the good humoured jollity peculiar to our nation, suck a happy musical expression in an artistically developed form, that what he had learnt by studying the people was readily welcomed back by them.
"If there is a personage in Die Zauberfldte who displays German character it is Papageno. Despite his feather-dress, this child of nature is, from the crown of his head to the sole of his foot, a German. The essential difference between him and the comic personage of the Opera buffa, especially Leporello, who, outwardly considered, appears to come nearest to him, is good nature and feeling, which, under all circumstances, bursts out frankly and naively. The musical characterisation which produced, in Papageno, a completely new creation, altogether removed him from that subordinate region in which the Casperles used to move, by falling back exclusively on the heart, and by presenting us, m all their cordial simplicity, with the involuntary, immediate manifestations of a natural, if not a noble, feeling, just as the situation called them forth j thus the musical expression came to be, in the best tense of the word, a popular one, because not founded upon accidental and detailed traits, at least, not on such as conceal the true nature of the character, but upon what is genuine and true in the heart and disposition of the people, and which, through the soul and by the hand of the artist, has now been born again, and is a living thing. The German stamp already mentioned on the musical form is,'therefore, most palpably manifest in Papageno; in no other part is the relationship, already alluded to between the formation of the melodies and that which most obtains to Mozart's instrumental compbsitions, so strikingly plain. In addition to this, with the exception of the character of Songiness" (rfes Lied haflen) "necessitated by the nature of the subject, we nowhere discover any need of obtaining material means of characterisation by dragging in definite forms, such, for instance, as the generally favourite waltz or other dances, or sharply marked turns of national vocal melodies. Everything that calls to mind old forms, developed by Italian opera, is avoided, and every foreign influence cut off, and then, completely out of German feeling, the form is freely developed, according to the
standard of the universal laws affecting musical shape, and the requirements of the situation in each oase.
"This genuine German nature of the mental and musical conception, as well as the consequent freedom in the treatment of the form, the result of whioh, by the way, is the closest adherence to the dramatic movement, has struck us, even when considering most of the principal characters, the Queen of Night alone being a partial exception, and, finally, appears to be that which constitutes the peculiar character of Die Zauberfldte as a genuine German opera.
"Mozart did not seek content alone in Freemasonry, the universal and profound interest in which was a characteristic sign of the period and its movement, and German feeling and German heart are plainly displayed in the manner in which Freemasonry waa conceived, developed and applied. Here, also, then, Mozart stood upon national ground; it is precisely what, in intention, is noblest and best, and, in artistic delineation, highest and most significant, which is conceived in a truly German way ; and the more profoundly the artist was moved in the recesses of his heart, the more strongly and the more directly his he stamped the musical impression with a German character. It is not, therefore, merely by acoident that, in order to pourtray a moment of the most solemn gravity, he selected an old German choral melody, and made up his mind to treat it in a way which, also, was peculiar to Germany. It is a fortunate thing that musical delineation, from its nature, was obliged to leave on one aide the characteristic element— which produces so chilling an effect in allegory—and derives its impulses from the deeply-moved and solemnly exoited feelings alone. Here is clearly the foundation of musical creation! hence proceeds a higher spirit through the whole, a spirit which imparts even to what is in itself unimportant, to what is naive and merry, an expression that causes us to feel that these elements, also, are part and parcel of the whole.
"Whenever the mystic element is brought prominently forward, the orchestra assumes a totally different character. Not only are unusual expedients, such as trombones and basset-horns, employed, but, by means of various combinations, a strange description of sound is produced, which, in conjunction with the richest light and shade, and the most delicate gradations from heavy sorrow to dazzling brilliancy, always preserves its fundamental tone of solemnity and elevation, so that the hearer fancies himself I transported to some sphere removed from the every-day world. Not only are unsuspected capabilities of the orchestra brought into play, but justice was first done, on a large scale, to the power possessed by the orchestra to characterise by colouring) and Die Zauberfldte is the starting-point for everything which onr music—so inventive in tliis particular—has since done. We must not forget, however, that, with Mozart, instrumental colouring ie merely one means in conjunction with others, to do full justice to the artistic idea, and never by itself pretends to repress the latter, far less to replace it."
"The fact that Die Zauberfldte, in its whole musical conception, is truly German as to tone, treatment and form, and that, on it, German opera first employed, in the domain most peculiar to it, all the resources of developed art with freedom and mastery, gives it a most particular importance and position even among the operas of Mozart. If, in his Italian operas, he has assumed the inheritance of a long tradition, and, by peculiar development, brought it, in a certain degree, to a conclusion, with Die Zauberfldte he steps on the threshold of the future, and unlocks the sanctuary of national art to his countrymen. The latter understood him, for Die Zauberjlote forced its way, immediately and universally, among the people, us no musical work of art had ever done before, and it still maintains its place even at the present day. What an influence Die Zauberjlote has excited upon the progress of German music is something which can escape no one who has on eye for the development of art."
Sr. Martin's Hall—Messrs. Griffiths and Perkins gave a concert on Thursday night. The conductor was Mr. H. Matthews, late director of the Islington Choral Society; and the chorus was composed of members of the Handel Festival Choir. Miss Charlotte Tasker played a fantasia on English and Irish, melodies, and Beethoven's "duet concertante, for flute and pianotorte, in D, the flute being taken by Mr. J. Sander. Miss Banks sang an air by Bnlfe, and was encored in the "Bailiff's Daughter of Islington" (from Chappell's collection of English airs), which she had given with much expression, but which she did not repeat, substituting for it the "Merry ^Zingara."
JUVENILE PIANOFORTE MUSIC,
Price One Shilling each piece.
Power of Love
Slave*' Chorus ,. Do.
Oar hearts are not Do.
Oh, would she but Do.
The Shadow Air Dinorah.
Santa Maria .. ,. «. ., Do.
Fanciulle (canzonet) Do.
Hunting Song Do.
M' appari tutt' amor Martha.
Drinking Song ., ,. Do.
Servants' Chorus Do.
Finale to First Act Do.
La donna e mobile Rigoletto.
Frapoooame ,, »« ., Lucia,
O luce di quest' anima Donizetti.
A te o cara Furitaai.
Suona la tromba Do.
Bon Vergin (Polacca) Do.
As X view Sonambulo.
Maid, tl'ose bright eyes Do.
While this heart Do.
Stillsn gently o'er mo Do.
Com' e gontil Dou Pasquile.
II Segreto Lucrezla J
Beautiful Star and Ring de Banjo.
We are coming Siator Mary; and Walt forjtho Waggon.
I'm off to Charlcatown.
Ma Brunette (Arnaud)
Summer Bloom is past (Miss Hay.)
Annie Laurie (Scotch Air.)
La Sirene de Sorrente (Arnaul.)
Fartant pour 1a Syrie.
Cradle Song (Mendelssohn )
When the Swallows (Abt.)
Old Fo'ks at Home (American.)
Tied, White, and Blue (National.)
Bonnie Dundee (Scotch Air.)
Home, Sweet Home (Swiss Air.)
Les yevx bleues (French Soug.)
In the Greenwood Free (Richards.)
Bright Things can never Die (RlmbaulL)
Oonsiglio a Nice (Gugliclmo.)
Trab, Trab (Kucken.)
Io te voglio bene aasaje (Neapolitan Air.)
RONDOS, PIECES, &o.
Alexis .. Him me!.
Hue belle fleur Hunten.
La pensee Neuland.
Air Favori (A flat) De Beriot.
Ghost Melody aa Corsioan Brothers.
Nuns' Prayer Oberthur.
La Florentine 4 Burgmuller.
Rheinweinlied .. .. Accou.
Greek Pirates' Chorus Alvara.
Alice Waltz Browne.
Violet Muzurka Duchesne.
Merry Gipsy Polka Wensell.
Pate de LUas Quadrille Lnmotte.
Crown Polka KOhlcr.
Vrrlikins Valae Laurent.
Electric Galop Qollmick.
Boosey and Son* Holies-street, London.
HANDEL, MOZAET, BEETHOVEN, MENDELSSOHN, MEYERBEER, &o,
ARRANGED FROM THE ORCHESTRAL SCORES FOR THE
WITH PEDAL OBBLIGATO,
J. T. STONE.
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