Examples. Page. Division as for prophecies

Gen. 111 15. 40 for texts taken from disputes

Rom iii. 28. 40 for conclusions of long discourses

Rom.v.1.viii.1. 40

Heb. i. 5, 6. 41 for quoted texts

ii. 6. 41

iii. 7. 41

Dan. ix. 7. 41 for texts treated of in different views

Heb iii. 7, 8. Division of the text after the order of the words Eph. i. 3. 42 How to divide a text in form

Heb. X. 10. 43 Natural order twofold

44 Arbitrary divisions

2 Tim. ii, 10. 44 Some texts divide themselves

Phil, ii. 13. 45 Nothing must be put in the first branch of division

45 that supposes a knowledge of the second

John xv. 5. 46 Division of subject and attribute

vi. 47, 56. 46 Rom. vii. 1.

46 Sometimes the connection of subject and attribute? 2 Cor.v. 17. 47 must make a distinct part

S Jobn vi. 47.

47 How to divide when texts need much explaining Acts ii. 27. Discussion of terms Syncategorematica

John vi. 47. 47 How to divide texts of reasoning

Rom. iv, 1. 48 of objection and answer

Rom. vi. 1, 2. 50 Division of difficult texts

John iv. 10. of texts which imply something

Isal. lv. 6. 51 of texts of history

52 Division must be expressed simply for the sake of be.]

52 ing remembered must be connected together

53 Subdivision

53 CHAP.V.-OF TEXTS TO BE DISCUSSED BY WAY OF EXPLICATION. Preacher must understand the sense of the text ·

54 comprehend the whole subject toge. ther, and perceive the parts of

54 which it consists have a general idea of theology

54 study the nature of his text

54 Two general ways of discussing a text; explication

55 and observation Rules to determine the choice

55 Difficult passages must be treated by way of expli.

55 cation Difficulties arise from words or things

55 How to explain difficult words

56 Difficult and important subjects must be explained

56 Controverted texts, how to explain

John xvi. 12. 57 Different ways of explaining disputed texts

57 How to explain an intricate subject

57 exemplified

John i. 17. 58 How to explain texts not difficult but important 2 Cor. iv. 7. 67 Explications with and without proof

77 Proofs of fact

Phil. ii. 6. 78 right

Phil. ii. 14, 15. 78

Phil. ii. 6—8. 78 both fact and right

Heb. xii. 6. 78

Phil. ii, 13. 79 Explications of texts which have many parts

Isai.ix. 6. Explication of simple terms

1 Tim. i. 5. 82

81 109



112 113

Examples. Page. Explication of simple terms by comparison

Luke ii 8-11, 91 of phrases peculiar to Scripture

Mark viii. 34. 96

S John iii. 16.100 of terms Syncategorematica

Rom. viii. 1. 100 sometimes not to be explained

100 How to explain and illustrate a proposition

101 exemplified

Eph. i. 18. 102 Explication of propositions which contain divers truths Eph. i. 18 105 considerable in divers views {{Psal.Isiz 2.- 108

Exod. iii. 7, 8. 108 which have different degrees of accom.

Heb. ii. 13. 109 plishment

Ez.xxxvii.1.11| 109

Psal. xxxvii.3. 109 Inconsiderable propositions

Prov. xv. 3. CHAP.VI.-OF TEXTS TO BE DISCUSSED BY WAY OF OBSERVATION. Some texts must be discussed by way of observation

110 as clear texts

110 historical texts

John xii. 1, 2. 110 Some texts require both explication and observation Acts 1. 10.

110 How to arrange the discussion of passages of this kind Observation sometimes includes explication

Acts ii. 1. 112 Observations should generally be theological But in some cases they may be taken from other topics

112 Observation should neither be pedantic

112 nor vulgar Topics As I Genus

Psal. I. 14. 114 II. Species

Psal. cxxiij. 2. 114 III. Character of a virtue or a vice

2 Thes, iii. 5. 115 IV. Relation

127 V. Implication

Rom. xii. 17. 129 VI. Persons speaking or acting

Rom, xii. 17. 131 VII. State

1 Thes. v. 16.1 132 VIII. Time

1 Tim. ii, 1. 133 IX. Place

Phil. üi.13, 14, 133 X. Persons addressed

Rom. xii. 17 134 XI. Particular state of persons addressed

Rom. xii. 17. 135 XIl. Principles

John v. 14. 135 XIII. Consequences

137 XIV. End proposed

138 XV. Manner

Rom. viii. 37. 139 XVI. Comparison of some subjects with other

Acts i. 1. 140 subjects

vii, 22. 140 XVII. Difference

Rom. xiv. 3. 141 XVIII. Contrast

142 žix. Ground

John i. 14. 143

144 XX. Composition

Mat. xvi. 22. 145 I.uke xvii. 10.


147 ZXlll. Character of expression

148 as of Majesty

John xiv. 1. 148 Tenderness

xiv. 6. 148 Meanness

Acts i, 6. 149 Necessity

John xiv. 16. 149 Utility

150 Evidence

Ex. XX. 3-5.

150 Gal. i. 9.

Matt. xii. 10. 153 E

v. 14.

XXI. Supposition
XXII. Objection

XXIV, Degrees XXV. Interests Vol. I.




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Examples. Page. XXVI. Distinction

Cor. xv. 14. | 153 Definition

154 Division

154 XXVII. Comparison of one part of a subject with Rom. viii, 1. 154

another part of the same subject Eph. ii. 4,5. 155

CHAP, VII.-OF APPLICATION. Discussion by application

156 What

156 What subjects should be discussed in this way

Zeph. ii. 1.

1 Cor. xi. 28. 157 Example of this method of discussion at large Phil. ii, 12. 157

CHAP. VIII.-OF PROPOSITION. Discussion of proposition, what

Rom. viii. 13. / 180 Example of this method at large

180 CHAP. IX.-OF THE EXORDIUM, Exordium, what

196 Whether exordiums be necessary

196 The ends proposed in exordiums

199 They are principally two

199 Exordiums must be short

202 clear

202 cool and grave

202 engaging and agreeable

203 connected with the text

204 simple and unadorned

204 not common

205 May sometimes be figurative

John vi, 54. 205 Vices of exordiums

206 Affectation

206 Use of apophthegms

207 Citations from profane authors

207 In whát cases they are proper

Psal. xc. 12. 207 The best are taken from theology

208 How to compose them

208 They may be taken from common-places-sacred his

208 tory-types, &c. .

CONCLUSION. What conclusions ought to be in general

209 In particular, some should be


210 May sometimes be mixed

210 Must always be diversified

211 The best conclusions




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are in general five parts of a sermon, the exordium, the connexion, the division, the discussion, and the application: but, as connexion and division are parts which ought to be extremely short, we can properly reckon only three parts; exordium, discussion, and application. However, we will just take notice of connexion and division after we have spoken a little on the choice of texts, and on a few general rules of discussing them."

Bishop Wilkin says, “ Preaching should have its rules and canons, whereby men may be directed to the easiest and readiest way for the practice of it. Besides all academical studies of languages, sciences, divinity, &c. besides all these, there is a particular art of preaching - I'wo abilities are requisite in every one; a right understanding of sound doctrine, and an ability to propound, confirm, and apply it to others. The first may be without the other; and, as a man may be a good lawyer, and yet not a good pleader; so he may be a good divine, and yet not a good preacher. One reason why men of eminent parts are so slow and unskilful herein, is, because they have not been versed in this study, and are therefore unacquainted with those proper rules and directions by which they should be guided in the attaining and exercise of this gift. It hath been the usual course at the university, to venture upon this calling in an abrupt, over-hasty manner. When scholars have passed over their philosophical studies, and made some little 1. Never choose such texts as have not a complete sense; for only impertinent and foolish people will attempt to preach from one or two words, which signify nothing.

2. Not only words which have a complete sense of themselves must be taken: but they must also include the complete sense of the writer, whose words they are; for it is his language, and they are his sentiments, which you explain. For example, should you take these words of 2 Cor. i. 3. Blessed be God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort, and stop here, you would include a complete sense; but it would not be the apostle's sense. Should you go farther, and add, who comforteth us in all our tribulation, it would not then be the complete sense of St. Paul, nor would his meaning be wholly taken in, unless you went on to the end of the fourth verse. When the complete sense of the sacred writer is taken, you may stop; for there are few texts in scripture, which do not afford mátter sufficient for a sermon; and it is equally inconvenient to take too much text, or too little; both extremes must be avoided.

When too little text is taken, you must digress from the subject to find something to say; flourishes of wit and imagination must be displayed, which are not of the genius of the pulpit; and, in one word, it will make the hearers think, that self is more preached than Jesus Christ; and that the preacher aims rather at appearing a wit, than at instructing and edifying his people.

When too much text is taken, either many important considerations, which belong to the passage, must be left out, or a tedious prolixily must follow. A proper measure, therefore, must be chosen, and neither too little, nor too much matter taken. Some say, preaching is designed only to make scripture understood, and therefore they take a great deal of text, and are content with giv. ing the sense, and with making some principal reflections: entrance on divinity, they presently think themselves fit for the pulpit, without any further enquiry, as if the gift of preaching, and sacred oratory, was not a distinct art of itself. This would be counted very preposterous in other matters, if a man should presume on being an orator because he was a logician, or to practice physic because he had learned philosophy," &c.

IVilkin's Ecclesiastes.

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