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GLANDERS OR FARCY

In Horses.

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Cases of Glanders

reported and disposed of Showing counties in which

by local veterinarians. Glanders in Horses has been discovered and investigated by the Board during the past year. Showing where horses are in quarantine or under observation

on suspicion of having glanders.

As in past years, investigations of reported outbreaks of glanders (or farcy) in horses and mules have occupied more of the time of the Veterinarian and funds of the Board than any other discase. During the year ninety-nine horses and mules have been examined for glanders, as compared with eighty-one for the preceding year. With a few exceptions all of these animals were tested with niallein which was furnished the Board by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture. In one case only was an animal condemned without a mallein test.

The disease was distributed as follows:

No.
Examined.

No. Affected.

Place.

Kind of Animal.

Feesburg Georgetown

Sardinia Winchester West Union Blue Creek

Decatur

...............
Lynx
Otway .........
Henley
Dunkinsville
Stout ..
Bentonville
Locust Grove
Wakeman ...
Lorain
Holmesville ..
East Mecca
Clyde.
Shawnee .............
Salem

Horses .......
Horses ......
Mules
Asses
Horses
Horses
Horses ...
Horses
Mules
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses
Horses ......
Horses
Horses (destroyed vol-

untarily by the
owner) ............

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Total number examined and tested with mallein.
Total number affected with glanders........

30

The appraised value of twenty-one of these horses, which were destroyed by order of the Board, was seventeen hundred and twenty-five dollars ($1,725). Of the remaining eight, two are still in quarantine, having as yet not been destroyed, and the other six, having had glanders in an advanced stage, rendering the animals incapable of further service to the owners, no appraisals are given for these.

The disease was distributed over the following counties: Columbiana, Trumbull, Fulton, Brown and Adams. Brown and Adams counties furnished all but three of the thirty cases that came under the observation of the Board. The following map shows the distribution of the disease in the latter two counties as well as indicating the points where animals were held in quarantine during the year, under suspicion of having glanders.

In the case of Brown and Adams counties it was clearly shown that the disease was introduced with a shipment of Western horses that were brought from Columbus, Montana, in the fall of 1902. About one hundred and twenty-five horses were included in this lot. All but about forty of these were sold in Georgetown and to the farmers of the sur

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Glanders in Brown and Adams Counties, 1903-1904.

X Showing approximate location, in towships , where horses

affected with glanders were destroyed; ó Showing where
suspected or exposed horses have been examined,or are
in quarantine; @ Same as o, but indicating from ten
to twenty horses.

rounding country, the remainder being taken to West Union, the county seat of Adams county, and scattered broadcast over the country from that point.

The disease was first reported from Feesburg, in Brown county, September, 1903. It was reported that most of the horses in the shipment above referred to, were suffering from "shipping fever” when they arrived in Georgetown. “Shipping fever,” which term signifies no definite form of disease, in this case seems to have been glanders, pure and simple.

Steps were taken to make a thorough investigation and locate every horse, as far as this was possible, that was included in this infected lot.

Thus far not more than half of these animals have been examined and tested with mallein. Of the other half single animals are from time to time reported to the Board and these are tested at the earliest possible date. Most of them will however never be located since, without a doubt, they have died from the effects of the disease with which they were afflicted.

In all cases, where any of these Western horses were discovered, all other horses that had been in contact with them, as far as could be ascertained, were examined, and where it was deemed advisable tested with mallein. Nearly two hundred horses were examined and ninety were subjected to the mallein test. The mallein test requires taking of the temperature of the suspected animal at intervals of three or four hours during the day, the subcutaneous injection of the mallein at a late hour in the evening, either at 10 P. M. or at 12 P. M., and then resuming the recording of the temperature of the animal the next day at 4 A. M. or 6 A. M., respectively, and every two hours thereafter for eighteen hours, or until it has been definitely ascertained whether or not a reaction will follow the application of the mallein. Since it rarely happened that more than one or two suspected animals could be located at the same time, and in the same locality, the work connected with this investigation was enormous.

The Board was fortunate in being able to secure the services of Dr. M. B. Lamb in assisting Dr. Fischer in this work. The expense incurred during the few weeks that it was necessary to employ Dr. Lamb, however, proved to be a severe strain on the finances of the board, and it seems that in future, emergencies of this character should be provided for by a somewhat larger appropriation for general expenses. Ten thousand dollars per annum for the strictly veterinary work would enable the Board to make a vastly better showing at the end of the year, for good accomplished. This is just half the amount of money placed at the disposal of the cattle commissioners of the smallest state of the Union, Rhode Island, with a live stock valuation, for the state, of $2,281,807.00, while the live stock of Ohio is valued, at least, at one hundred and twenty million dollars, or over fifty times as much as that of Rhode Island. Yet the latter state finds it profitable to expend twenty thousand dollars yearly for the protection of its live stock against the invasion of infectious diseases from other states and countries.

A live stock sanitary commission, or a cattle bureau, is not a luxury, but a stringent necessity, and whatever money may be expended in the conduct of its work is a profitable investment for the whole state. Nor would the farmer and stock owner alone profit by this investment; the health of the domestic animals of the state concerns everybody. It is important that the four hundred and.twenty-five million gallons of milk produced annually in this state come from healthy cows and that the eighty-seven million pounds of butter and nineteen million pounds of cheese be produced from pure milk. Some of the most dreaded diseases of the human family, such as glanders, anthrax, tuberculosis, rabies, etc., also occur in animals, and the latter are frequently the cause of the spread of these diseases to human beings.

But to return to the subject of glanders; to a slight extent, this disease exists, no doubt, in every part of the state, and particularly in the large cities, in which the Board has done very little active work. To what extent the disease may spread, if neglected even for a comparatively short time, has been shown in Brown and Adams counties. Under present conditions it would be a comparatively inexpensive matter to thoroughly control this disease in Ohio, even to exterminate it completely but if the work is neglected we must soon face conditions like those- existing in some of the other states, eastern and western, but notably Massachusetts, wliere, during the last two years the loss from this disease, among horses, exceeded six hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, and the problem of ridding the state of the disease is approaching the magnitude of that of tuberculosis among cattle.

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