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condition of general health for many months, or even several years, and during that time be the cause of the spread of this fatal disease to his other horses, or to those of his neighbor. The insidious nature of glanders in the horse makes the disease more difficult to deal with than almost any other. Live stock sanitary measures, to be effective and of value, must be absolutely thorough. For the successful control of glanders, nothing short of this will do. This requires the examination of every exposed animal that can possibly be located and, in certain cases, animals must be placed under prolonged quarantine. Such measures often seriously interfere with the owner's occupation and means of making a living. If the owner is ignorant, or uninformed, which is sometimes the case, the measures of the Board seem unjust and unwarranted. At the same time the neighbor of such a man has a right to demand protection for his stock. · Fortunately, the liberal and highly commendable policy of the legislature, in the past, that of paying the unfortunate owners of these animals for their losses, together with the very general hearty co-operation of the owners of horses and other live stock, has enabled the board to accomplish what it has, though not without a few unpleasant occurrences. In two instances, for example, it has become necessary to resort to the courts to carry out orders of the Board, both in Brown county.
The first case was that of an owner of several horses and mules; it was learned that among these animals there was one, a gray colt, that had been shipped from Columbus, Montana, with about one hundred and twenty-five other Western horses, of which many were affected with glanders. An investigation by the Veterinarian developed that this colt, and another horse kept in the same stable, were affected with the same disease, in the chronic stage. Owing to the resistance met in carrying out the order of the Board, viz., the destruction of the affected animals, after they had been duly appraised as provided by law, and their secretion by the owner at a later date, legal proceedings, to enforce the order, were begun. Before the case was settled, by the agreement of the owner to give up his horses and permit their destruction, the disease had become so far advanced in one of the animals that he killed it voluntarily, and a third animal (a mule which had been exposed to the affected horse) contracted the disease and had to be destroyed.
Thus this man learned a valuable lesson which cost him two horses, a mule and a law suit. He is now convinced that chronic glanders is a disease that may at any time become acute and terminate in death, besides infecting other animals that may be kept in the same stable.
The second case referred to, in which it became necessary to resort to the courts for aid in carrying out the provisions of the law, occurred in the same locality and is still pending.
On the whole, however, the work of the Board progresses smoothly. This is as it should be, since the interests of the Board are those of the owner of live stock as well as the public in general. Willing co-operation of the stock owner and shipper, and of railroad and transportation companies, with the Board, is the rule.
The amount of funds at the disposal of the Board for carrying out its object, namely, “the promotion and protection of the live stock interests of the state and the prevention of the spread of infectious and contagious diseases among domestic animals and the extirpation of the same, etc.” (live stock valued at over one hundred and twenty millions of dollars) is the only serious hindrance to the normal development of the work.
For the two years beginning February 15, 1904, the total appropriations for the use of the board in carrying on its work, amount to ten thousand, two hundred and thirty dollars and nine cents. Four thousand, two hundred and thirty dollars and nine cents of this sum being a special appropriation for the payment for glandered horses and other animals destroyed by the Board, thus leavng only three thousand dollars a year for carrying on the operations of the Board, paying salaries, traveling expenses of the Veterinarian, etc.
The sums appropriated by the legislatures of other states which, with only one or two exceptions, have a live stock valuation that is much below that of Ohio, would be interesting in this connection. The Live Stock Sanitary Board of Illinois has an annual appropriation of ten thousand dollars; the Cattle Bureau of Massachusetts, ninety-four thousand, two hundred and eighty-seven dollars; Minnesota appropriates nineteen thousand dollars annually for this work; Montana, eighteen thousand dollars; New Mexico, thirty-five thousand dollars, with a live stock valuation just one twelfth as large as that of Ohio; New York, twenty thousand dollars; North Dakota, eighteen thousand dollars; Missouri, nineteen thousand dollars; Pennsylvania, fifty-seven thousand, five hundred dollars; Oklahoma, eight thousand, two hundred dollars; Texas, thirteen thousand dollars, and Rhode Island, twenty thousand dollars.
The live stock industry of Ohio can be compared with that of only one of the states mentioned, namely, Pennsylvania. An appropriation of fifty thousand dollars, for live stock sanitary, work in Ohio, would be the very least that would enable the board to do work of the character of that which is being done in the state of Pennsylvania today, and where its benefits are being reaped by every citizen of that state.
The great problems that are presented by the existence of tuberculosis in dairy cattle and hog cholera and swine plague among swine have been much neglected on account of the lack of funds.
It is hoped that the following report of the work done toward the control of the diseases occurring in the state, and those exotic diseases that are liable at any time to be introduced, will show the wisdom of increasing the funds at the disposal of the Board to such an extent as the great live stock industry of our state deserves.
On the following pages will be found general outlines of the work accomplished by the Board toward the control and extirpation of the various dangerous contagious and infectious diseases of domestic animals. For the more important diseases maps have been prepared to show the extent of their prevalence as far as they have come under the observation, or to the knowledge, of the board. For the sake of convenience in referring to them, they have been arranged alphabetically, irrespective of their importance, or of their occurrence in different species of animals.
Map showing only point in Ohio (Suraya it County) where Anthrax in Horses and cattle is known to have occurred. (August 1903).
Several reports of outbreaks of anthrax were received during the year, but investigation by the Veterinarian proved all of them to be unfounded. For more than a year not a single case of anthrax has come to the notice of the Board. The importance of a knowledge of the distribution of the disease and of the localities in which it is most likely to reappear, make it seem advisable to repeat what was said on this subject in the last annual report.
“During the past year (1903) the appearance of true anthrax has for the first time been observed in the state. This is true at least
in as far as any accessible records are concerned. Anthrax is one of the most dangerous of all known diseases. It affects all domesticated, and most wild, animals, as well as human beings, and generally terminates fatally. These facts alone emphasize the importance of a careful control of this disease.
"It seems that Ohio has been peculiarly fortunate in thus far having been free from anthrax. However, this is probably true in a restricted sense only. Anthrax is found in all parts of the world and very few countries are free from it. Nothing definite can be said of its distribution in the United States, but the following, quoted from the report of the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture (1901), will be of interest: 'Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas have lost millions of dollars worth of horses, mules, cattle, and other animals, and an undetermined number of human beings from this disease (anthrax). . Other states, among them Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, Wisconsin, and the Dakotas, have suffered to a greater or less extent, etc.'
“The following is from the same report: ‘There are certain regons where the disease seems to be indigenous, as on the alluvial soils of portions of the southern part of the Mississippi Valley, where it apparently develops when the conditions of the soil and climate are favorable. There are, however, other outbreaks which occur as a result of importing the contagion with hides, hair, wool, etc.'
“The origin of the disease in Ohio has not yet been determined and possibly never will be. It is probable, however, that there exist in this state certain areas of infection, especially in the less improved (undrained) portions of the country, and that the disease may crop out again and again in restricted areas. The duty of the state would be to make careful observations, with a view to locating these dangerous areas and then guarding them carefully. In 1902 a herd of cattle that had been exposed to this disease in Kentucky, was held in quarantine in Columbus, but none of the animals developed the disease. They were finally slaughtered.
“The outbreak of anthrax in 1903 occurred on the farm of John Henry, near Hudson, Ohio. On August 12th, Mr. Henry called on Dr. Fischer, who was at that time continuing the investigation of glanılers among the horses of Lorain. Mr. Henry reported the loss of one horse and six cattle (five steers and one cow), from a disease that was suspected to be anthrax.
“The statement of the owner, however, that his cattle had been in a cornfield on the night before the death of the first steer, and had helped themselves liberally to green corn, made it appear possible that the latter might have been the cause of the deaths. For this reason, Mr. Henry was advised to procure the services of Dr. C. B. Frederick, of Canton, to make a preliminary examination and report results.
46–0. S. B. of A. .