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there we are likely to find kernels on the corn all in one place, at the base of the cob, or we are likely to find the kernels distributed on the limb or shorter branch.
Mr. Chauncey: I would like to ask the professor, in those seed ears whether they used all the grain on the ear, or whether the tips or butts were shelled off ?
Professor Williams: The tips and butts were shelled off.
A member: I would like to ask a question or the professor. If his address reveals anything, it reveals that great care should be taken by the farmer to select his seed corn, and I would suggest that a great deal of time and a great deal of labor is necessary for the proper selection of that corn. Is not this fact then the one that has led to the organization of corn breeders' societies, whereby they can secure someone to take charge of a breeding plot, that they may not be bothered with the work necessary to get the corn for them?
Professor Williams: I think corn breeders may be very helpful to each other by organizing. The improvement of our seed corn is a vital, if not an easy proposition. Progressive farmers will not care to turn it over to others, particularly to breeders of other states, for corn improvement, unlike some other crops, must ever be a local matter. Ohio might well have an organization of her own corn breeders.
Mr. Rankin: I would like to ask Professor Lazenby if he thinks his explanation of the imperfect filling out of the ear would affect the grains that were perfect on that ear; whether it would affect the reproduction of it; I would like to know what he thinks about this question.
Professor Lazenby: No, sir; if the grains were perfect, and the pollenation perfect up to a certain point, I do not think it would. I would like to think of an ear of corn just as I like to think of a nicely fruited branch on a fruit tree, and we know that the branch can only perfect so many fruits. Now, we know the corn has got in the habit—many of our varieties—of filling right out to the end, whose every flower is perfect, and if pollenated, producing its fruit. But we have some other very good corn, and I think where we find that lack of filling out to the end, it is due sometimes to lack of pollenation probably, but in other cases often due to the fact that that particular stock has only the strength to produce so many flowers that were capable of being fertilized.
Mr. Rankin: Simply because they were not filled out to the end would not necessarily cause them to be rejected, would it?
Professor Lazenby: No, sir: not wholly. I think that was brought out in the experiment.
Mr. Snider: I don't exactly get that right. Does the protein reproduce itself in the ears that had the more protein ?
Professor Williams: Yes. In the breeding work which I have reported, while yield was the main object aimed at, each seed ear was analyzed for its portein content. They varied in per cent of protein from 8.56 per cent. to 14.63 per cent. The seed which had the most protein and the best protein ancestry yielded corn with high average protein content.
Mr. Snider: I would like to ask another. question of the speaker, if he will be kind enough to answer. I have heard it said that the kernels on the butt end of the ear are formed first, and so by planting those for a number of years, you would get an earlier ripening corn than by planting the middle or any other part of the ear. I would like to know whether such is the case or not?
Professor Williams: I may say that Professor Hickman conducted experiments for nine years, in which kernels from the butt and middle and tip were planted, year after year, and each year after the first the butt kernels, for instance, were taken from seed ears grown from butts the year previous; the same with the tips and the middle of the. ear, and there was practically no difference in yields, and as I understand it, no difference in season of maturity.
Mr. Snider: Then it makes no difference what part of the ear you plant?
Professor Williams: No, sir; save that a more uniform stand can be secured from kernels of uniform size.
A member: In our locality, a few days in the time of ripening made a great deal of difference in the yield of corn. In going through a piece of corn before cutting, some ears seemed to be ripe, while others were not. Can we, with the same variety of corn, get an earlier maturing corn by going through the corn and selecting these ears that ripen first?
Professor Williams: Yes, sir; I think you can affect the earliness of your corn by that sort of selection. I would not, however, remove the ear from the stalk at that time. There is no place so good for that ear for some time as on the stalk. Tie a string to the stalk so you can find it and leave it there until the field is husked.
The President: We will have to close the discussion in five minutes.
A member: Did I understand Mr. Williams to say that the use of seed ears that filled out over the tip would tend to shorten the ears?
Professor Williams: I think if you select seed corn with that one end in view that will be the tendency. The completely capped ear nature has finished. She has done all she could for it. Likely she could have done no more, even under more favorable environment. Whereas, the ear with bare cob at the tip was looking for something in the way of environment which it did not receive. Its use for seed would tend to lengthen the ear and likely call for a longer season.
Mr. Taylor: As I was called out, I intended to ask Mr. Judy how he cared for seed corn. I did not get the chance at the time. Mr.
Judy stated that he put it upstairs. Is it better to put it upstairs or in the cellar? I am very particular in picking my seed corn, and after picking it, I put it in the cellar, and I find that a very good place to keep it. I string wires between the posts or joists and hang it up between the joists. We get from that very excellent results.
Professor Williams: I have never tested that matter, and it would be guess work on my part. I have met several men in the state who have had your experience. They speak favorably of it, and if you have secured good results I certainly would not discourage you in continuing the practice. There is nothing so good as actual experience. My plan with seed is very much like Mr. Judy's. I would hate to have the corn in a damp cellar, and yet if the temperature is uniform there may be no damage to it. Extremes of temperature and moisture are to be avoided.
Mr. Taylor: We have no furnace in our cellar, but we have a very good cellar. I found one year in putting our corn in, that we put in some that was not quite dry enough and there was a slight mould formed between the grains, and we were afraid that might hurt the corn. In selecting the corn in the spring we always select it the second time, and we planted some of that that had the slight mould on it, and it did not affect it at all. The corn grown from that was just as good as the corn grown from the grain that was not mouldy. I think if the corn is a little damp when it was put in it might do some harm. Our cellar is very dry and we have had very good results, and I believe, under such conditions, it would be as good as the room upstairs. Of course, the temperature should be kept uniform.
Professor Williams: Seed corn can be ruined before it has thoroughly dried by too much heat coupled with too little ventilation. I have known it to sprout under such conditions.
A member: I would like to ask the speaker this question: Which would give the best results, to pick the corn before it is cut, and hang it up with the husks on, or else husk the corn and rick it up?
Professor Williams: How is that?
A member: Which would give the best result, to pick the corn before the corn is cut and hang it up with the husks on, or else take the corn later, and rick it up?
Professor Williams: I would prefer to select the corn on the stalk. I think it important that our good ear of seed corn be grown in competition with its neighbors. The only way you can be sure of this is to select in the stalk. Now, it is quite customary, we have practiced it ourselves, to select corn as it is husked, picking out the largest and nicest ears. I expect if we could follow these ears back to the stalk, we would find they had grown one stalk to the hill—their excellence being due to environment. Select in the stalk before corn is cut, but don't
remove it until the usual husking time. Then hang or rick it up so the air can circulate through it.
Mr. Smith: If corn is matured, or ripe, and it is dry, is there any degree of cold temperature, that will have any effect on the germination of the corn? Is it necessary if the corn is dry to put it in any warmer place than the crib?
Professor Williams: While we have made no tests bearing directly upon this question, the evidence of others is that corn thoroughly dried out cannot be injured by freezing. It should be remembered, however, that corn once dried out may take up much moisture. Old wheat, you know, will take up a good deal of moisture. We have made no tests along this line, but I would prefer to keep it where the temperature was moderate.
Mr. Smith: I have done this a number of times. I don't know whether it is the best thing to do or not. But for fear that the seed corn might not be thoroughly dry, I have taken it into the corner where my oats are stored, and I will throw three or four bushels of corn on to the oats, and then shovel oats on top of that. And if there is any moisture in the corn it would be absorbed by the oats, and any time I need the corn it is all right.
Professor Willianis: If it was dry when you put it in the oats it would be all right.
Mr. Smith: Well, if it was not quite dry what would be the result?
Professor Williams: Well, I would rather have it dry and dried in the open air.
Mr. Rankin: I have experimented a little with the way of taking care of seed corn. Of course, there are a great many advantages of selecting corn while it is yet on the stalk. But so far as preserving the vitality is concerned, I have never seen any appreciable difference in husking corn and hanging it up by the shucks in a dry place, and thus taking care of it through the winter, and selecting good, dry ears in husking time and putting them by themselves where there is a free circulation of air all the time. I have never seen any difference in the germ inating of the grain. However, there was a little instance came under my observation with reference to the vitality of seed corn. Two years ago I had some corn planted it was white corn—and the man who was planting it lacked a few ears of finishing it. So he had gotten a few ears of white corn that had been kept in one of the banks at our county town, and he had selected his seed corn very carefully that he planted, and he lacked these few rows of planting it, so he put these ears that had been kept in the bank all winter, not knowing whether they had ever been subject to freezing or not. Now, I tell you that the vigorous appearance of those stalks was observable for hundreds of yards, looking across that field, particularly because of the fact that those grains had been kept dry and they produced a stronger stalk. Now, up until that time I had thought that if there was vitality enough in the seed to produce a strong stalk, that was all-sufficient. I think it is well enough to always keep seed corn where it will not be subject to any extreme of heat or cold through the winter. By doing this the farmer is pretty reasonably sure of a good crop the following year. But you must keep the corn dry.
30-0. S. B. of A.
The President: We will have to close the discussion. There is a call for miscellaneous business. Is there any miscellaneous business? If there is none to be brought before us at this moment, I am informed that the Cecilian Ladies' Quartette have one of their best numbers selected for us now, and we will listen to their charming voices.
Music by the Cecilian Ladies' Quartette.
Mr. John Begg: It seems to me that we have enjoyed a very nice institute, and everything has been very pleasant. The chairman has executed the will of this body with promptness, faithfulness, and in a very pleasant manner, and I think we can't do anything more fitting than to pass a resolution of thanks, thanking him at the conclusion of this ini stitute for the manner in which he has conducted the work. And, therefore, I move you, Mr. Chairman, that a vote of thanks be tendered our worthy chairman for the splendid manner in which he has presided over this session.
The motion was duly seconded and carried unanimously.
The President: Gentlemen, if you will stay just two or three minutes, I have a word to say to you.
Now, if I should act according to the beating of my heart, I would commence with the State Board, those worthy men who have planned all this, and I would pass down among you missing none, grasping the hand of each one present and congratulating you upon the part you have played in making this institute what it is today. For, in your hearts you have voted success for this institute, and we have been successful.
Standing as I do in an atmosphere of perfect freedom, may I say that I will drop a word for the encouragement of my brother institute workers? I am acquainted with almost all of them, having met them in many ways and places in life. They are modest gentlemen, and I sometimes think that they do not realize the importance of the position they occupy. They carry good news to the farmer. Without exception, 1 think they do grand, good work. And they carry these works with the spirit of truth, resonance and enthusiasm. He who stands highest in the agricultural world of the State of Ohio has said that perhaps the most that we can do is to give good cheer unto the farmer, for the farmer who is in good heart is sure to advance. That advancement will be of a character to leave him on a higher plane, and will lead him up and on