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or a Devil, they never wanted for the marvellous. In the old Romance of Lancelot of the Lake, we have the doctrine and discipline of the Church as formally delivered as in Bellarmine himself. “ La confession (says " the preacher) ne vaut rien fi le coeur n'est repentant; « & li tu es moult & eloigné de l'amour de nostre “ Seigneur, tu ne peus eftre raccordé si non par trois “ choses : premierement par la confession de bouche; “ secondement par une contrition de coeur, tierce“ment par peine de ceur, & par oeuvre d'aumône " & charité. Telle est la droite voye d'aimer Dieu. " Or ya & fi te confeffe en cette maniere & recois la

discipline des mains de tes confeffeurs, car c'est le signe de merite. --Or mande le


ses evesques, " dont grande partie avoit en l'oft, & vinrent tous en “ sa chapelle. Le roy vint devant eux tout nud en “ pleurant, & tenant ion plein point de menuës verges, “ li les jetta devant eux, & leur dit en soupirant,

qu'ils prissent de luy vengeance, car je suis le plus “ vil pecheur, &c.-Apres prinst discipline & d’eux " & moult doucement la receut.” Hence we find the divinity-lectures of Don Quixote and the penance of his Squire, are both of them in the ritual of Chivalry. Lastly, we find the Knight-errant, after much turmoil to himself, and disturbance to the world, frequently ended his course, like Charles V. of Spain, in a Monastery; or turnd Hermit, and became a Saint in good earneit. And this again will let us into the spirit of those Dialogues between Sancho and his master, where it is gravely debated whether he should not turn Saint or Archbishop.

There were several causes of this strange jumble of nonsense and religion. As first, the nature of the subject, which was a religious War or Crusade: 2dly, The quality of the first Writers, who were religious Men: And 3dly, The end in writing many of them, which was to carry on a religious purpose. We learn,

that 4 See Part 2. 1. 5. c. 1.

6 Tor

that Clement V. interdicted Jufts and Tourneaments, because he understood they had much hindered the Crusade decreed in the Council of Vienna. “ neamenta ipsa & Hastiludia sive Juxcas in regnis « Franciæ, Angliæ, & Almanniæ, & aliis nonnullis provinciis

, in quibus ea consuevere frequen“ tiùs exerceri, specialiter interdixit,” Extrav. de Torneamentis C. unic. temp. Ed. I. Religious men,

. I conceive, therefore, might think to forward the design of the Crusades by turning the fondness for Tilts and Torneaments into that channel. Hence we see the books of Knight-errantry so full of folemn Justs and Torneaments held at Trebizonde, Bizance, Tripoly, &c. Which wise project, I apprehend, it was Cervantes's intention to ridicule, where he makes his Knight propose it as the best means of fubduing the Turk, to assemble all the Knights-errant together by Proclamation, 4

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Frederick, Brother to the Duke, and ufurper of bis

Amiens, ? Lords attending upon the Duke in his banish-
Jaques, ment.
Le Beu, a courtier attending on Frederick.
Oliver, eldest son to Sir Rowland de Boys, who had

formerly been a servant to the Duke. Orlando, } Younger brothers to Oliver. Adam, an old servant of Sir Rowland de Boys, now

following the fortunes of Orlando. Dennis, servant to Oliver. Charles, a wrestler, and servant to the ufurping Duke

Frederick. Touchstone, a clown attending on Celia and Rosalind. Corin,

Sylvius, } Shepherds.

Å Clown, in love with Audrey.
William, another cloun, in love with Audrey.
Sir Oliver Mar-text, a country curate.
Rosalind, Daughter to the Duke.
Celia, Daughter to Frederick.
Phebe, a shepherdess.
Audrey, a country wench.
Lords belonging to the two Dukes; with pages, forefters,

and other attendants.

The SCENE lyes, first, near Oliver's house ;

and, afterwards, partly in the Duke's Court; and partly in the Forest of Arden.





O LIVE R's Orchard.

Enter Orlando and Adam.

DAS I remember, Adam, it was upon this,

my Father bequeath'd me by Will, but A

a poor thousand crowns; and, as thou fay'st, charged my brother on his Blef

sing to breed me well; and there begins my fadness. My brother Jaques he keeps at school, and report speaks goldenly of his profit; for my part, he keeps me rustically at home; (or, to speak more

proI As I remember, Adam, it was upon this PASHION bee queathed me by Will, but a poor thousand crowns, &c] The Grammar, as well as sense, , suffers cruelly by this reading. There are two nominatives to the verb bequeathed, and not to much as one to the verb charged: and yet, to the nominative there wanted, [his blessing] refers. So that the whole sentence is confused and obscure. A very small alteration in the reading, and pointing fets all right. As I remember, Adam, it was upon this mY FATHER bequeathed me, &c. The Grammar is now rectified, and the sense allo; which is this, Orlando and Adam were discourfing together on the cause why the younger brother had


U 2

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