still must afford our applause to that of Ugo Foscolo, with extracts the design of this new annual, to from his private letters, and interthe great merit of Prout's drawings, esting particulars relating to his and to the superior manner in which last hours. they have been engraved by Le The New Volcanic Island.-The Keux, Willmore, Roberts, Wallis, eruption has now ceased, and the Kernot, Carter, Fisher, Floyd, and crater is filled with boiling water, Barber.

from which a sulphurous smoke The Literary Souvenir.-To the continues to issue. The isle is editor of The Literary Souvenir,' chiefly formed of a spungy lava and we have also to return our thanks puzzolane. The brink of the crater for the proofs of the illustrations is thirty feet in height at the lowest which he has collected for his forth part, in other places eighty feet, coming volume. To his taste in and in the centre two hundred feet. the choice of his subjects and of his It is easy to land on the south-west artists, we have frequently paid the side. Smoke issues from several just tribute of our praise, and he has points of the sea around. seldom put forth better titles to that Spontaneous Combustion.— The fair reward of his exertions than on Philadelphia Chronicle mentions the the present occasion. In reviewing following instance of spontaneous his new volume, we shall advert combustion. A large piece of coarse more particularly to these engrav muslin, thoroughly oiled for the purings, which tend to sustain the long pose of making covers for boxes, established character of " The Lite was left over night, folded up loosely, rary Souvenir.' We have been told, in a shed. It was found, when the but upon this point we reserve our store was opened next morning'

, opinion, that its melange of poetry burnt entirely through, and appaand prose is also of a high order. rently about to blaze. The fire ap

Political Unions. These socie- peared to have begun in the middle; ties are likely to become very nu and could not have been applied merous in England before the open from without. ing of the next session of parlia Emigration to Canada.-Compament. They have been already or rative statement of the arrival of ganized in most of the great towns, settlers at Quebec, to the 15th of and measures are in active progress August of the past and present year: for forming them in all the princi- 1830, Settlers 22,839 ; 1831, ditto, pal parishes of London. It is pro 38,955. posed also to have a general Me The Weavil.–Salt is said to be tropolitan Union, and we believe it an effectual preventive against the is intended that a certain number of destruction of wheat by the weavil. the members of each society should Mix a pint of salt with a barrel of furnish themselves with arms, in wheat, or put up the grain in old order to be prepared to assist the salt-barrels, and the weavil will not army and the civil magistrates, in attack it. In stacking wheat, four case the Tories and high Church or five quarts of salt to every hunmen should succeed in exciting any dred sheaves, sprinked among them, commotions.

will entirely secure them from the Ugo Foscolo.The new edition depredations of this insect, and renof the Rev. Mr. Stebbing's “ Lives der the straw more valuable as food of the Italian Poets,” is to comprise

for cattle. several additional lives, including Madame Catalani. -At a public

entertainment at Weimar, Catalani, 1,555,416—the number which apa few years since, was placed next peared in 400 British papers in the to the venerable Goethe. The pe same period was only 1,105,000.culiar attention paid to her neigh- Advertisements which in England bour, added to his imposing appear cost in dollars, cost in America ance, attracted the curiosity of the little more than one. fair syren, and she inquired his name. Garrick Club.A new club, which The celebrated Goethe, Madame.” bids fair to be a very numerous and " Ah ! celebrated-pray on what in well supported Society, has been just strument does he play?" was the formed. The Duke of Sussex is rejoinder.

the patron, the Earl of Mulgrave Approaching Calamities in China. the president, and Sir G. Warrender -A sort of revelation from the the vice-president. Gods is now published by writing, Travelling in India.--Intelligence and by word of mouth, in


di has arrived that the luxury of rection, declaring that this year, in coaches has at length been adopted the 6th, 9th, and 10th months, a in India. Between Panwell and great pestilence will prevail, and Poona, several vehicles have been cause the deaths of persons innu established, consisting of a sociable, merable. The first intimation of shigrampo, buggies, and a carriage the approaching judgments was of a peculiar construction, capable made by the deified astronomer of accommodating three passengers Chang-Teen-Sze to Tung-Ta-laon with comfort. On the completion yay, of Hoo-pih province, on his of the new road on the Bhore Ghaut, way from Pekin, when in Kwang two mail coaches are to be started

There will be an to run regularly. abundant harvest this year, but Fires in Chimnies.-By a late human beings will suffer greatly. ordinance, the Prefect of Police at The virtuous shall be spared, but Paris requires that at the different the wicked will find it impossible to stations of the fire-men there shall escape. Those who will not believe be kept in readiness an adequate shall see.

The ground will be quantity of common sulphur. It covered with dead bodies. At the has been found that sulphur ignited third watch, when cocks crow, and at the hearth of a chimney gives out the dog's bark, a malignant God elements which effectually prevent will go forth to slay by the pesti the burning of the soot. This prolence. Those who hear their names cess, however, is only applicable to called must be careful not to answer. fires in chimnies.

Taxes on Literature.-A few facts New Knights.-In conferring the are better than a hundred argu honour of knighthood on several ments. The following curious cal recent occasions, his Majesty has culation was placed before a meet obviously been led to distinguish ing very recently held at the London men of literary and scientific merit. Literary and Scientific Institution. We thus find Mr. South, Mr. RenThe number of newspapers annually nie, Mr. Charles Bell, Mr. Herschell, issued in America is 10,000,000 : and Mr. Harris Nicolas, in the list the number issued in Great Britain, of persons so marked by the royal faabout one-tenth of that amount. vour; and we have heard that a simiThe number of advertisements which lar honour is intended for Mr. Ba appeared in eight newspapers printed bage, and several other gentlemen in New York, in one year, was

eminent in literature and science.

yuen district.

Peculiarities of the present year. Sons, of Bristol, has recently taken -The new Volcano off Sicely ; the out a patent for an improved progreat number of the Auroræ Borea cess of tanning leather, by wbich, les which have been seen through the thickest hides may be tanned out Europe ; the unusual quantity in one-tenth of the usual time, with of insects of small kinds that have a great saving of expense. appeared, and other remarkable Education in France. According phenomena, show a very uncom to the last report of the board of mon disturbance of the atmosphere public instruction in France, the during the present year.

number of communes supplied with Lee Sugg, one of the first ventri schools is only 3728 out of a total loquists who exhibited that curious of 38,135. Out of a population of talent in England, died last week 32,000,000, only 1,372,206 scholars at Southampton, aged 85.

are instructed in winter, and no Birth-place of Lord Brougham. more than 681,005 in summer. --Sir John Sinclair has just pub Out of 282,985 young men of from lished an analysis of his “ Statistical twenty to twenty-one years of age, Account of Scotland,” and in the who sought instruction in the last preface are inserted two short letters

year, only 150,000 could read or from Lord Brougham, one of which write. sets at rest the question, whether his lordship was born on this or the other side of the Tweed : “ You

TO CORRESPONDENTS. ask (says Lord Brougham) after my place of birth, and relationship

Wehave received another pile of announceto Dr. Robertson. I was born in ments of works in the press, and in preparaSt. Andrew's-square, Edinburgh; tion, by u whole army of authors. We have and Dr. Robertson was my mother's frequently stated that to such paragraphs we uncle.” The house in St. An cannot devote our space, and that they should drew's-square referred to by Lord be sent to the publisher as advertisements. Brougham, is now occupied by Mr. We confess that we cannot understand the J. F. Williams, the artist. The paper, entitled Color Images in the Brain." family afterwards removed to the The question put by Mr. E. Smith, of house in George-street, now occu

Liverpool, should be addressed to the pubpied by the Wine Company of Scot lisher; and the Numbers which he wants land.

should be specified. We shall take an early The Clergy.-Charles the Second opportunity of noticing the little work to used to observe, that of all the per

which he alludes, sons he had ever met, the clergy of The pamphlet to which Mr. Barrett al. England were the most tenacious ludes, has been received, and shall be noticed. of their rights, and the most neg

Article III, in the present Number of this ligent of their duties. The clergy journal, entitled What will the People of the present generation have in do?is intended to be forthwith re-printed no way degenerated from the vir in a separate form as a pamphlet, which may tues of their ancestors.

be had at Ridgway's, or at Henderson's, Tanning Leather.—Mr. Wm. or at any other Bookseller's, Drake, of the firm of Drake and

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Art.1.-1. A Warning of the expected Manifestation of the Three Per

sons of the Trinity, for the Regeneration of the whole of Mankind, and the Sanctification of a part. Now published in consideration of the portending times we live in. 8vo. pp. 322. London : Sherwood

and Co. 1831. 2. Six Sermons on the Study of the Holy Scriptures, preached before

the University of Cambridge in the years 1827 and 1828; to which are annexed two Dissertations; the first on the reasonableness of the Orthodox Views of Christianity, opposed to the rationalism of Germany; the second on Prophecy, with an original exposition of the Book of Revelations, shewing that the whole of that remarkable Prophecy has long ago been fulfilled. By the Rev. s. Lee, B. D., &c.

Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. The degree of internal conviction as to the truth of their national mythologies, which was required by the ancient governments in Europe and Asia, has never been clearly ascertained.

We speak not of the outward profession of their creeds, or of the external observance of their religious rites and ceremonies: an open infraction of these was considered a legal offence, and as such it was punished. We allude to the mental belief of the truth of the established doctrines; and we think that it has not yet been shown whether the want of this was held to be a religious crime, by which the offender subjected himself to the displeasure of the gods, and to penalties which might be inflicted by them in a future life. It was widely different in the Jewish and Christian systems of government. Under the former, nonconformity was treated as an offence against the state. Jehovah was their legislator, and their immediate Territorial Lord. To call in question the propriety of his doctrine, was an act not only of irreligion, but of treason. In Christian governments this rule was not carried so far. At first the creed of the party and the practice of its precepts was left to his own conscience. Afterwards the non-observance of them was

VOL. II. (1831.) NO, IV.


made an offence against the state, and an alliance took place between the magistracy and the hierarchy, by which each obliged itself to support, by its own particular powers, the ordinances of the other. In this condition things were found by the reformers, when they commenced their operations; they thought the system a very convenient one, and fully adopted it with the view of succeeding to the power of those whom they had dethroned. They accordingly promulgated creeds and forms of discipline, and enforced them by the same penalties as the authorities, in whose places they had established themselves.

The first of the religious sects who rejected this compulsory mode of extending their own creed, were the Arminian divines of Holland, They considered morality to be of greater consequence than religious theory, and therefore their formulæ of belief were exceedingly scanty. They were viewed for a season with great jealousy, both by Catholics and Protestants; their tenets were condemned by the Calvinistic synod of Dort, and those who professed them were banished from Holland. Public opinion, however, was favourable to them; they were latently permitted to return, and by degrees they obtained influence, and the protection of the law. In the meantime a tacit relaxation of the system of the Protestants became general, which considerably modified their creeds, even in the lifetime of Arminius, who foresaw that such would be the consequence of his doctrine, to a much greater extent than he was willing to acknowledge. It is to his example that we owe the ultra-opinions of the Socinians, which have since prevailed so widely, even in the very bosom of the Church. Something of this laxity of opinion may be traced in the writings of Erasmus: but it was not until towards the close of the seventeenth century that it became generally discoverable. In England it first appeared in the writings of the “ cver-memorable" John Hales of Eton, and the “ immortal” Chillingworth :—we give them the epithets which they received from their contemporaries. Hales was originally a Calvinist; as chaplain of the English ambassador at the Hague, he attended the synod of Dort, where he was converted to Arminianism; and he made no scruple of avowing his new opinions after his return to England. Chillingworth was educated in the Protestant religion ; in early life he abandoned it for the Catholic form of worship, to which he at first adhered with the most edifying zeal. He soon, however, returned to his former belief, and propounded his allegiance to it by a maxim, which now contains the whole practical creed of the Anglican Church :-“That the Bible, and the Bible only, as interpreted by individuals, is the religion of Protestants." He denounced and set at defiance all other creeds, confessions of faith, symbolic books and formularies, and thus reduced the whole of the doctrine of Protestants to two articles, that their creed is to be found in the Bible alone, and that each man's conscience is his own interpreter of the sacred volume. Chillingworth and his fol

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