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tures, they have tended to keep up the scourge, to perpetuate the curse, to carry down the degradation through all ages, through all generations of the earth. Upon the former, the curse which they dealt out to mankind will return, and rest for ever upon their unhallowed and blood-stained name; but it is the lattter that will be visited with the highest measure of punishment, and upon them most assuredly will fall the deepest execration of their species. The minions of war and chivalry, Francis and his courtiers, might, as dissolute and mischievous buffoons, have exercised an evil influence on their own age; but such imbeciles could have exercised none on any other, if there had not been found to exist, men so blind and so degraded, as to attempt to hold up such creatures as they, to the adiniration of posterity. We trust that the time is past, or at least passing away, when such men could be found on the face of the earth. man, elevated ever so little by knowledge and civilization above the brutes, fix his attention upon the following picture, and say if he would choose to risk the bare possibility of subjecting himself and all that is dear to him, to so frightful a destiny. The detail is horrible, but it must not, and shall not, be passed over. The hand may shrink from tracing, and the mind from contemplating it, even as the firmest nerves will shrink from the application of the cauterising steel, in which lies the only hope of safety; but the steel and the fire must do their office, or the patient must die.

It would almost defy the imagination to conceive the infamous extravagances, the horrible excesses, which men, released from the only restraint to which for long they have been accustomed, military discipline, and who acknowledge no other law, human or divine, are capable of perpetrating. Of such a character were the indignities which Rome had to endure from the soldiers of Bourbon, inore avaricious, more cruel, more dissolute, and more impious than the Goths and Vandals who had formerly conquered her. Beauty, youth, innocence, and weakness tortured, and abandoned to ignominy; the most shameful outrages committed on women of the highest rank, and on those consecrated to the service of religion,--the former dishonoured in the presence of their husbands and families, the latter violated on the very altars ; churches profaned, plundered of their ornaments, and converted into stables; in one part, old men, bishops, and cardinals mounted, with their faces to the tails, on asses and mules, paraded in the public places, exposed to hootings, to insults, and to blows; in another, processions of soldiers' boys, dressed in sacerdotal robes, counterfeiting the chaunting and ceremonies of religion, having their train borne by the prelates, reduced to the condition of footmen and lacqueys; here, groups of women and girls weeping, dragged with violence by the brigands who had carried them off; there, citizens loaded with irons, lacerated with blows, mutilated and put to the torture, till they discovered the place where they had concealed their treasures ; such were a few of the scenes presented on this occasion by the captured city, and enacted by those followers of fame, those renowned foster-babes of gore and glory.

• It was whether the Spaniards, so skilful in the art of tormenting their victims, or the Germans, almost all furious Lutherans, should signalize themselves most by outrages against religion, decency, and humanity. The former, more practised, carried off the prize of cruelty and debauchery.

They did not spare the foreigners who were in the city, any more than the natives; and they exercised towards the Spanish and German prelates, the most devoted to the emperor, the same treatment, as to the ministers and courtiers of the pope. In a word, this horde of barbarians extended their fury, even to the finest monuments that had escaped the injuries of the Goths, of the Vandals, and of time.'-vol. i. pp. 157-160.

It were much to be desired that our own history were treated somewhat upon the plan which the author of these volumes has sketched out. His compilation bears all the marks of haste; he has not afforded himself sufficient time for giving a finished and artist-like appearance to his plan, which embraces most of the principles that ought to enter into modern historical composition. It is high time for us to get rid of all that conventional nonsense, which has misled historians in general, to sink the defects, and sculpture, in strong relief, the fancied perfections of their heroes. What we want is truth; truth undisguised; truth that disdains the passions, and rises into a pure atmosphere which they cannot reach; truth that prefers virtue even to valour, and puts, vice to the blush, even when it is encircled by a diadem.

NOTICES.

Art. XI.- Transactions of the to which the human frame is sub

Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. III. ject, with their corresponding Part I. 4to. pp. 169.

London : remedies ; and on many other subParbury, Allen and Co.

jects. It was begun in the year WE see, with great pleasure, this 1642, and was completed in four valuable accession to our stores of years from that time.

It may be Asiatic History, Science, and Liter considered as a kind of Indian Enature. The first article consists of cyclopædia. The articles here given letters from the late Sir William were selected and translated by Jones to the late Mr. Samuel Davis, Major David Price, from a copy of F.R.S. They relate to India, and the work in his possession. . This throw light on some parts of its is supposed to be the only one in early history. A plate at the end of Europe, unless it be that which was the volume, engraved under the made about thirty years ago, by direction of Mr. Davis, illustrates M. Bruys, formerly a French resithe astronomical remarks contained dent at Surat, for the library of the in the letters. It represents the King of France. The third article Hindoo zodiac, and the lunar man contains a discourse on Budd’ha and sions. It is observable, that it the Phrabal, by Captain James Low. differs much from the zodiac con It is chiefly derived from Baily and tained in the second volume of the Siamese books. The Phrabal is Asiatic Researches. The second the divine foot of Budd'ha, impresarticle contains extracts from the sions of which are shewn in different Mualdjat David Shekohi; a com places in India. This article is pilation in three folio volumes, ex extremely curious.--In the fourth tending through not less than 3338 article by William Marsden, Esq. pages, in discourses on the diseases an interesting account is given of

New Guinea, an island less known us with a critical account of the to Europeans than almost any other present state of our acquaintance part of the eastern archipelago. with Indian science and literature. The notices are not sufficiently The advances which have been ample, and we anxiously look for made in the knowledge of these, further information on the subject. since the formation of the Asiatic --The fifth article contains notices Society, have been very great, and of China, by Padro Serra. He was must surprise those who remember a missionary of the college of San that institution in its infancy. Joși de Macao, and assistant in the That civilization, the arts, and imperial observatory. He resided the sciences, have immemorially exat Peking from 1804 till 1827, isted in Asia, seems now to admit during which period matters of of no doubt. It may be asserted, great secrecy came to his know with great confidence, that, in differledge. We do not find much im ent parts of that country, a people portant matter in this communica once existed who had made great tion, but we hope the society will progress in science, literature, and favor us with other communications the arts of government; that the from the Jesuit missionaries in Sanscrit was their vernacular lanChina. The character of the infor

guage; that they were divided into mation coming from them, has, four castes, and that a portion of during the last fifty years, been them separated from the other part, always on the increase as to its and received the appellation of authenticity and accuracy; and their Buddhists; that from some circumaccounts of the early antiquity of stance or other, the Sanscrits have the Chinese, and the early civiliza disappeared; and the Sanscrit lantion and science of that people seem guage ceased to be spoken ; that at present to be generally acquiesced vestiges of their knowledge and in. The sixth article contains a language remain; that we trace curious comparison by Lieut. Col. their scientific memorials to a period James Todd, of the Hindu and The of about 300 years after the birth ban Hercules.- In the seventh arti of Christ; that they were then in a cle, Mr. Hodgson has favored the high state of advancement, and conpublic with an important disputa- sequently this era must have been tion respecting Castes, by a Budd preceded by many ages of progreshist, in the form of propositions, sive improvement.

It seems cersupposed to be put by a Saiva, and tain, that in the year 750 after refuted by the disputant.--The Christ, more algebra was known in volume closes with the eighth arti India than was known in Europe in cle, containing an account, by the 1650. This is surprising, but it is late Col. Colin Mackenzie, of the equally so, that from the time we marriage ceremonies of the Maho have mentioned, till the present, metans, as practised in the southern Indian knowledge bas been stationprovinces of India.

ary. We may, however, mention Viewing together the whole con from authority, entitled to great retents of this volume, we think it spect, that there is reason to believe, does great honour to the society, that greater advances in science and should stimulate its members have been made in India, than is to further exertions. We earnestly generally supposed. It is even wish that Mr. H. T. Colebrooke, whispered, that something like the Col. Davis, or some other gentle - integraland differential calculus has men properly qualified, would favor

been found among them; and that

an account of it will soon appear in for finding a card thought of, has a England will not surprise us, as place in Professor Saunderson's we have long been found among Algebra. the number of those, who think it evident that the sciences and arts came to us from the East ; that the Art. XII.— The Algebra of Moportions of them which have reached hammed Ben Musa. Edited and us, are fragments of earlier know translated by Frederick Rosen. ledge than we are yet acquainted

Printed for the Oriental Transwith, and that there is reasonable lation Fund ; and sold by Murground of hope, that the zeal now ray, Parbury, Allen and Co., displayed by Europeans for literary

London: Thacker and Co., Caland scientific discoveries in the cutta : Treuttell and Wuertz, East, will be repaid by ample spoil.

Paris : and Fleischer, Leipzig. In the notice that follows this,

1831. Octavo. we shall introduce to the reader a This is a work of great importvaluable translation, under the aus ance, as it is a considerable addition pices of the Asiatic Translation So to our present stock of Oriental liciety, of an important work on Geo terature. The only known copy of metry. We beg leave to submit to the original is in the Bodleian lithe consideration of that society, brary at Oxford. A full notice of and also to that of the other Asiatic it is given by Mr. Henry Thomas institutions, that the most valuable Colebrook, in one of his notes to present which the learned of the

the dissertation prefixed to his inEast can make to the learned of valuable work, Algebra with the West, would be a translation of Arithmetic and Mensuration, from the Surya Sid’hanta. The Orien the Sanscrit of Brahnugupta and talists of Germany and France are Bhascara.' (London. 1817. 4to., actively employed on translations

pages lxxv.-lxxix.) It is also and researches in every branch of mentioned in the catalogue of the Asiatic literature ; we hope that in Bodleian manuscripts. this honourable career of emulation Ben Musa lived in the reign of our countrymen will not be out the Caliph Al Mamun, and wrote done.

the work at his command. The We shall conclude by adverting publication of it, therefore, preceded to one branch of knowledge, which, the year son of the Christian æra. perhaps, has been too much neg Ben Musa was for a long time conlected—we mean the Astrology of sidered as the original inventor of the East. None are persuaded algebra. As such he is mentioned more than we are of the vanity of by the celebrated Cardan. But it astrological predictions. Still we is most certain that he was not the think it probable, that in the forma inventor of the art. Several Orienttion or construction of horoscopes, al writers speak of him as the first nativities, conjunctions, and aspects, Mohammedan writer upon it ; some astronomical notions

may

be the contrary appears from the work traced, which will lead to curious, itself; as the author of it expressly and perhaps important discoveries. says, that the “ Caliph Al Mamun” It has been observed, that some of encouraged him to write a popular the tricks by which children find work on Algebra. This expression out the number of eggs carried by seems to us to imply that treatises, an old woman to market, might generally, at least, of a profound nalead to quadratic equations. One ture, were then already extant. A

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formula for finding the circumfer Art. XIII.-- Palestine, or The ence of the circles seems to inti Holy Land, from the earliest mate that part of the information period the

present time. By comprised in this volume was de the Rev. Michael Russell, L.L.D. rived from an Indian source. Mr. 12mo.

pp.

448. Edinburgh : Rosen mentions that Musa had Oliver and Boyd. London : abridged, at Al Mamun's request, Simpkin and Marshall. 1831. but before his accession to the Ca This is the fourth number of the liphat, the Sindhind, an astronomical Edinburgh Cabinet Library, which, work of an Indian philosopher who we should suppose, has already visited the Caliph Almansur, in made its way to popularity, not773.

withstanding the formidable multiThe work of Mohammed Ben tude and ability of its rivals. LookMusa does not extend beyond qua- ing merely to the admirable style dratic equations, including problems in which it is got up, the clearness with an affected square. These he and beauty of the type, the excelsolves by the rules followed by Di lence of the paper, the number and ophantus; and there is a striking character of the engravings, the similitude in their manner. It does quantity of letter-press, upwards of not however appear that the work four hundred pages given in each of Diophantus was known to the volume, and its neat half binding Arabs before the middle of the in cloth, we must award to it the fourth century after the Hejira, palm of being the cheapest publicawhen it was translated into Arabic. tion that ever issued from the

Between the manner of the Hin press of this country. The subdus and that of our author, there is jects, too, have hitherto been well no resemblance; and it is now quite chosen, and excuted in the most evident that the Hindus were much satisfactory manner. The first vofarther advanced in the knowledge lume embodies the whole of the of Algebra than our author. This actual state of our knowledge of may be thought to afford an argu the Polar regions; the second and ment in support of the Grecian third perform the same office with origination of the Algebra of the respect to Africa and Egypt, and in Arabs.

the volume now before us, we have The translation is preceded by a a complete epitome of all that anwell written preface, accompanied cient and modern authors have by some short notes. These are so written concerning Palestine. Dr. good, that we greatly wish they Russell has happily combined in his were much more numerous. The plan a history of the Hebrew people, work itself then follows.

of their government, literature, and At the end of the publication the religious usages; accurate and ocregulations for the Oriental Trans casionally very beautiful descriplation Committee are printed, with tions of those scenes in the Holy a list of the works printed for the Land which have been rendered Translation Fund, and those now in most remarkable either under the

We are glad to find new law or the old ; an animated among these the Shanama, the sketch of the crusades, and a micelebrated Persian poem, which nute account of the natural pecucomprised the history of Persia liarities and productions of the from its first king to the year 636 country. The author has had the after Christ.

good sense, so far as we have been

the press.

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