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water is removed and a firm foundation is contrived. The coffer-dams for the new bridge were of an elliptical form, and consisted of three rows of piles dressed in the joints, but without grooving. Some of them measured between 80 and 90 feet, and they were all puddled with clay and shod with iron. Pantechnicon.—A splendid edifice is now nearly finished in the neighbourhood of Belgrave Square, for the storage, exhibition, and sale of works of every description of art. It is completely fire-proof, being supported by iron work from the ground to the roof. All the chimney flues are lined with cast iron, upon Mr. Seth Smith's plan. The Solar System.—Some idea of the vastness of the universe around us, may be collected from the operations of a German astronomer, who has calculated that, assuming the velocity of a cannon ball to be rated at one and a half German mile per minute, with this velocity, a cannon ball fired from the Sun would reach the planet Mercury in nine years and six months; Venus in eighteen years; the Earth in twenty-five years; Mars in thirty-eight; Jupiter in 130; Saturn, in 238; and Uranus, (Herschel) in 479 years. With the same velocity a shot would reach the Moon from the Earth in twentythree days. British Cultivators of Science.— Such is the title under which those persons who are to take a part in the approaching scientific meeting at York are to be designated. They are to deliberate with open doors, and regulations have been drawn up for forming them into a society, which is to invite the co-operation of all foreign institutions. The building in which they are to asSemble in York is situated near the beautiful ruins of St. Mary's Abbey,

and is one of the handsomest and most commodious structures devoted to the purposes of science in the United Kingdom. . Literary Generosity.—When Chateaubriand was a minister, his works had such a prodigious sale in France, that the booksellers of Paris united to purchase the copy-right of them for half a million of francs, about 21,000l., and proceeded to republish the whole series; but Chateaubriand went out of office, and his works were no longer saleable, except at an enormous loss to the booksellers; in consequence of which with that generosity which belongs to his character, and is well worthy of literature, he returned to the booksellers so much of their bills as then remained unpaid, to the amount of 700,000 francs. Lotteries.—It may not be generally known that a lottery, which, under the circumstances, deserves the name of State Lottery, for it was directly sanctioned by the government, has been in existence in Calcutta up to the present year. The profits were dedicated to charity; but, in our opinion, that circumstance does not sanctify gambling. Mushroom Test.—To ascertain whether what appear to be mushrooms are so or not, a little salt should be sprinkled on the inner or spungy part. If in a short time afterwards they turn yellow, they are a very poisonous kind of fungus, but if black, they are to be looked upon as genuine mushrooms. They should never be eaten without this test, since the best judges may be occasionally deceived. Cholera Morbus.-Those physicians who have had the largest experience of cases of cholera on the continent, state as the result of their attention to the natural history of the disease, that whatever be the contagious properties of cholera,

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ably prominent cerebellum in his cranium, a circumstance which is undoubtedly connected with an exquisite sensibility of the organ of hearing. New Gas.-The Birmingham papers have just announced the discovery of a new gas in that fruitful depôt of inventions. It is for brilliancy superior to any now in use, for illuminating streets or for domestic purposes, and it is entirely the produce of water. Burns the Poet.—The monument to the immortal Burns, which has been for so many years the subject of newspaper paragraphs and tavern speeches, is really about to be practically begun. The spot selected is exactly to the west of the entry to the new burying ground, Calton Hill.

What can there be so peculiar in

the erection of a monument to departed worth, that it should be so uniformly preceded, as we find it to be, by talking and postponement

England, Ireland, and Scotland. —A French publication, generally of much accuracy, gives the comparative state of education, crime, and lunacy, as follows, in the three countries above-mentioned. The proportion of educated persons is, in England, 1 in 20, in Scotland 1 in 17, in Ireland 1 in 35 ; of criminals in England 1 in 900, in Scotland 1 in 5093, in Ireland 1 in 468; of lunatics in England 1 in 783, in Scotland 1 in 652, in Ireland 1 in 911. Mr. Allan Cunningham.—We were gratified by the perusal, in a recent number of the Dumfries paper, of an account of the proceedings at a dinner which was given by some of the principal inhabitants of that town to Mr. Cunningham, upon his return to his native place, after a protracted absence. What gave unusual interest to the scene, was the presence of the master mason, whom Mr. Cunningham had actually served as a working stonemason, before he ventured upon that ambitious flight which he has proved that he possesses strength enough to sustain. Goethe.—On the 28th ult. (the anniversary of his birth-day), a beautiful gold seal was to have been presented to Goethe, on the part of those literary men of England, who are admirers of his genius. The gold work is exquisitely chased and enamelled, with the blended roses of England surmounted by the oak and ivy,with blank mask introduced. The engraving on the stone is a star emblematic of the poet ; it is surrounded by a serpent, representing eternity, with his own words, “Ohne has, aber ohne rast ’’ (without haste but without rest). There is also this inscription on the present, “To the German Master, from Friends in England, August 28, 1831.” Hackney Coach Office. —We regret to say that a Bill is now before parliament, for the purpose, it would seem, of suppressing the Hackney Coach Office, and to transfer their jurisdiction to the Commissioners of Stamps. There was no public office in the country where the grievance which it was instituted to redress was more speedily, more courteously, more effectually remedied than at this office, and we trust that the Bill will be effectually resisted. If the commissioners be too numerous, let them be reduced, but the office should be retained. Dramatic Persecution. — It is with a feeling of shame that we record in this enlightened age, that a Mr. Nevill, late proprietor of a minor theatre at Manchester, is now in prison, and actually undergoing the torture of the Treadmill, in consequence of being unable to pay the sum of 50l. imposed on him for allowing an Italian Opera to be performed at his theatre, there being no other place to be found in the town suited to the exhibition. Newspapers.-There are now published in the United States of America 364 newspapers, of which eight are in German, five in English, and two in Spanish, the rest being all English. Of the total, 157 are in favour of federal principles; and 158 in the republican interest. The annual issue from the newspaper press of the States amounts to no less than 25,000,000 of numbers. A New Metal.—We mentioned some numbers ago, that a new metal has been discovered in Sweden, to which the name of Vanadium has been given. We now learn that undoubted specimens of this very same metal have been found for the first time, and exactly about the period of its being met with in the north, in two other countries, viz. Mexico and Scotland. In the latter place, Mr. James

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be employed by professional men only, and that its utility should be left to experience to determine. As to whether a magnetic fluid exists or not, the committee do not take it upon them to decide. They recommend the encouragement of researches into magnetism, as a very curious branch of psychology and natural history. . Boring Machine.—M. Jobard, of Brussels, has discovered a new machine for boring the earth with the greatest facility, to any depth, and in any soil. Gold a Medicine.—The attention of the scientific bodies of France has been recently directed to a proposition made by an eminent medical practitioner, for using preparations of gold, in that particular complaint for which mercury has been so long deemed a specific. The author of the proposal has ascertained, by experiment, that gold, modified by certain processes, acts favourably on the digestive organs, that it does not weaken the patient, but exhilarates his spirits.

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THE

M O N T H LY REVIEW.

OCTOBER, 1831.

ARt. I.-The Private Correspondence of David Garrick with the most Celebrated Men of his time: now first published from the Originals, and Illustrated with Notes, and a new Biographical Memoir of Garrick. In Two Volumes, 4to. Vol. the First. London : Colburn and Bentley. 1831. It has seldom been our lot to perform a pilgrimage over such an extensive waste as the large quarto before us, and meet so little that is capable of relieving the fatigues of the tedious way. This huge book is really enough to remind us of one of those awful and infinite deserts of the east, where, as far as his eye can pierce, nought but the sterile sand fills up the traveller's prospect, save when, here and there, he descries, in some isolated spot, the wrecked, and almost overwhelmed traces of a mighty power, which had fled to other and distant scenes for the display of its noblest energies. We have indeed here monuments that recall the names of Edmund Burke,

of Earl Camden, of Warburton, the winning apostle of paradox,

and others of immortal fame : but had the authors’ names been concealed, no human being would have suspected the real lineage of such productions. Let us not be understood to scatter ambiguous words amongst the multitude. We blame neither the editor nor the publisher of this work. Here was a collection of letters, written by, or written to, a man whose name is conspicuously enrolled in our national calendar; whose history his countrymen feel it almost a religion to commemorate. These relics were preserved by Garrick himself: they were the selected gift of which he appears to have intended the public to be the legatee. The editor necessarily felt that he had no discretion in the case; they constituted all that survived perhaps of the correspondence of Garrick, and, however intrinsically destitute of all interest and value, (and they are sadly obnoxious to such a charge,) they were still the general property, and surrounded with all the inviolability which attaches to a trust. As some of the remains of David Garrick, we are disposed to vo L. III. (1831.) No. 11. N

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regard the present volume and its destined successor, with the veneration which we would yield to any other valueless trifle which may descend to us from such a man. But if we ask to what department of literature, of science, of morals, philosophy or religion, any portion of the work which we have just perused is likely to be serviceable,_nobody, we make bold to assert, will have the temerity to pretend to satisfy our inquiry. Perhaps a little bitterness is infused into our disappointment, by recollecting what mighty things we expected from the cabinet of such a man as Garrick. He was courted by the high—he had a great deal to do with the many. Life and character in their broad and practical development were his professional studies, and his wonderful success as an actor was but the sign of his profound and accurate acquaintance with the human heart. Private letters from such a man—communications unrestrained, and written to confidential friends from such a man—how interesting ! thought we, how instructive how fruitful of information on questions of the greatest and most pressing importance! Such, at least, would be the meditations of him, who had considered the opportunities and the qualifications of Garrick. But all such anticipations are destined to be wofully disappointed. Mere commonplace themes, the indifferent conversation of the hour, stories of jaunts to the country and visits to town, with flattering criticisms from anonymous friends on the acting of Garrick, and some very harsh commentaries from open enemies on the stage management of the same gentleman,—form pretty nearly the whole substance of the correspondence of the first volume.

Most of the early letters belong to the class of anonymous criticisms which we have mentioned. They are in general sufficiently dull : they are, however, now and then, in some respect relieved, as for instance, by the following lively communication, which was addressed to Garrick in Dublin, upon his first visit to that metropolis. The letter deserves attention, as displaying to us some of the strange pantomime which was used on the stage even so late as the time of Garrick.

* “Sir, * “Dublin, Saturday, Aug. 14, 1742.

* “As I am entirely unknown to you, I take the liberty to give you my opinion upon some few things that I have taken notice of in your public performances, most of which I have attended, and do really think that you will in time, and with a little more experience, be the best and most extraordinary player that ever these kingdoms saw. I cannot therefore but mention with regret some things that not only displease me, but, I am pretty sure, offend the most judicious and discerning part of your audience.

“The first thing that I shall mention (and which I insist upon that you reform) is your false pronunciation of several words, which can be owing to nothing but custom and prejudice in a man of sense, as I am sure you are. In your last performance I took notice of several false pronunciations, many of which I have forgotten. The words that I chiefly remember are these:

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