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constantly died in a short time after of them returned to the river, and being touched.”—(P. 481.)— And were caught, no doubt could remain as then the Doctor expresses his “surprise to their being of the number so markwhen" (says he) “ we read of smolts ed. Two of these smolts, then becaught" (it is not said how, but it mat- come grilses, I caught in six or seven ters not), " and after being, according weeks after they had been marked, to all accounts, rather roughly handled, when they weighed about 3} lbs. and even mutilated by the amputation each. In the month of April, 1795, of a fin, replaced in water, and arriv. I caught another of the number, then ing at mature years as a full grown a salmon, which weighed between 7 salmon ; we are, we repeat” (continues and 8 lbs. ; and in the month of Authe Doctor), “ left in wonder at the gust of the same year I caught a amazing contradictions between such fourth, weighing 8 lbs."—P. 391. observations and those we have per- But in case the author of the paper sonally made, observing every possible may object, that all these experiments care."-(P. 482.)
were made and related by men not This passage only proves Dr Knox's known to the world as scientific, I shall awkwardness, or the deadly nature of add to their testimony that of an illushis gripe ; for no one point in the trious naturalist, Lacepede, who, in natural history of the salmon is better stating the curious fact of salmon asascertained than that they survive the cending the particular rivers in which mutilation of a fin, and even live years they were hatched, thus writes : “ It with a ring round their body, close to is worthy of remark" (says he) “ that the tail. Thus Mr William Stephen salmon return every year to the place says in evidence, “ we have marked where they were spawned, as swallows fry going down, and have got them return to the buildings where they forthat season as grilses, and in the follow. merly had their nests. The physician ing season we have got them as sal. Deslandes bought twelve salmon at mon."— Report, 1828. Mr George Chautelain, a small town upon our Hogarth marked a number of smolts coast, near to which they capture to the in the month of May, by cutting off amount of 4000 salmon per annum. the mort fin; in the course of the He attached a ring of copper to the month of June, several of these, grilses, tail of these salmon, and then restored were found without that fin; in this them to liberty. Five of these fishes year (1825) there have been already were retaken the following year, three got three salmon marked in the same the second year, and three others in the way.-Report, 1825, p. 92. And Mr third.”- Lacep. Son. Buff. xii. 133. Murdoch Mackenzie marked a grilse kelt in the month of March, 1823, in The history of the salmon, as dethe river Oykell, by tying a piece of tailed in the evidence before Parliawire round the body of the fish, im- ment, and by writers on natural hismediately above the tail; and in March, tory, may be told in a few words. 1824, the same fish was caught as a Impelled by instinct to ascend the salmon in the same river.—(Report, various rivers for the purpose of 1825.) But these experiments were spawning, at a certain period of the made by the provoking people who year, they reach the remotest streamhave forestalled all the Doctor's dis- lets, where their ova may be deposited coveries, and anticipated him in every in safety, and the young, when hatched, point of the salmon's history, and who find their food. When this purpose are, therefore, on that very account, is accomplished, they return again to unworthy of belief.
the sea.* The same instinct guides A still more particular experiment the fry, when of a certain age, to fall is, however, related in the Highland down their native streams to the disSociety Transactions, Vol. ii., by Mr tant ocean, there to remain till the Alexander Morrison, “ In May, 1794" imperative call of nature for reproduc. (says Mr Morrison), “ I marked five tion impels them to seek again the smolts in the presence of five fishermen, places of their birth. It is not ascerand in such a manner, that if ever any tained satisfactorily whether salmon
From experiments now in progress by Mr Shaw, Dumfries-shire, he is led to believe that the salmon fry do not leave the rivers or descend to the sea in the year in which they are hatched. Mr Shaw is even inclined to believe that they remain two years in fresh water before descending to the ocean,
ever ascend rivers beyond the tideway against all opposition, that preserves for any other purpose, than that of the present supply. Were not the salspawning. The practical inference to mon one of the most prolific of fishes, be drawn from such facts is, that the its fishery on our coasts would soon fishery of salmon should cease, and the cease to be of value. animals be protected while spawning As not at all connected with the or seeking the spawning-bed. But as subject of these observations, I pass this period varies with the seasons, and over the uncalled-for attack upon Dr the situation of the different rivers, Paley and our celebrated associate Sir and as, moreover, all the species do Charles Bell, in page 499. I only renot come into full roe at the same time, mark, that, in Dr Knox's paper, the the close time, so far as legislative reader will in vain look for inferences, enactments can do so, must be regu- drawn from the circumstances detaillated by periods fixed arbitrarily on ed, of the wisdom and beneficence of the knowledge of the general habits that Great Being, who directs the miof the salmon, when the greatest num- grations of fishes, and teaches them, bers are observed to ascend the rivers, with unerring aim, to deposit their and the greatest number of spawned ova where the young, when hatched, salmon and smolts descend to the sea. are sure to find a supply of food. To prohibit the fishery in every month in which salmon are observed to as- I have, I trust, satisfactorily decend and descend, would narrow the monstrated, that the food of the her. period of fishery without perhaps any ring and salmon was known and deequivalent advantage. The general scribed long before the appearance of migration of the mass, it is evident, Dr Knox's paper in the Transactions ought alone to regulate this close time; of this Society : That the food of the and there is full and satisfactory in- herring, in the first place, was well formation as to these periods, in the known and described by Neucrantz, evidence led before the Parliamentary by Leuwenhoek, by Müller, by FaCommittee in 1824 and 1825. Pro- bricius, by Bloch, and mentioned by tection in the rivers for the ascending Lacepede, by Bosc, Latreille, Penfish, and till they have spawned and nant, Turton, Scoresby, MacCulloch, returned to the sea, is absolutely ne- and many others—indeed by almost cessary to insure the deposition of a
every person who has written upon sufficient quantity of the spawn; and the natural history of the herring. this protection secured, there is no And that, in the second place, the food fear of an abundant supply. The na- of the salmon, in rivers and in the sea, tural increase of the salmon, did not its periodical ascent of rivers for the human ingenuity limit that increase purpose of depositing its spawn, the by the destruction in every shape of developement of the ova, and the dethe spawning fish that ascend the mi- scent of the fry to the sea, were all nutest streams, is quite equal to sup- perfectly well known, in every partiport the devastations which may be cular, before the year 1833, is equally committed on their ova or fry by ene- manifest, from the facts and authori. mies in their own element. According ties I have mentioned. to Mr George Little, there are in a I trust I have not, in attempting to salmon 17,000 ova, and in a grilse do justice to the claims of the illustri10,500 at an average ; and, according ous men who have written upon this to Bosc, 27,850 ova have been found subject, and in my remarks on Dr in a salmon of 20 lbs. weight. Even Knox's paper, gone beyond the limits the angler, under certain restrictions, of fair criticism. I should be sorry, would not be able materially to abridge indeed, if I was considered to have the number of the young, produced, as failed in the courtesy due by one memthey would be, if the spawning fish her of this Society to another. But were protected, in myriads, and waft- there were statements which, in treated to the ocean in shoals which might ing of the subject, I was bound to confeed a whole people. It is only the tradict- there were claims of discovery wholesale destruction of the adult sal- to be disproved by the statement of mon, when ready to spawn, and when prior discoveries—and if the author of it ascends the rivers for this purpose, the Memoir has appeared to disadvanthat obstructs the habitual fecundity tage in the comparison of rights, it of nature; and it is only the uncon. was a situation of his own choosing. trollable impulse of instinct, acting
THOUGHTS AND IMAGES,
5. There are countenances far more How many ought to feel, enjoy, and indecent than the naked form of the understand poetry who are quite inMedicean Vepus.
sensible to it! How many ought not 2.
to attempt to create it who waste How overpowering are the mingled themselves in the fruitless enterprise ! murmur, clang, tramp, and rattle of a It must be a sickly fly that has no pabody of troops, with all their footsteps, late for honey. It must be a conceithorses, arms, artillery, and varied ed one that tries to make it. voices! How insignificant compared
6. with this uproar the speech of a single There can be poetry in the writings mouth ! Yet the whisper of one of few men ; but it ought to be in the mouth sets in motion and drives on hearts and lives of all. to death and devastation twenty such
7. bodies, comprising, perhaps, a hun- Many have the talents which would dred thousand human lives.
make them poets if they had the ge3.
nius. A few have the genius yet It is trivial to say that geometrical want the talent. truth means only consistency with
8. hypothesis, unless we add, that the No man is so born a poet but that hypothesis is necessary and immutable. he needs to be regenerated into a poe4.
tic artist. Conceive an arch wanting only the
9. keystone, and still supported by the Luxurious and polished life, without centreing, without which it would fall a true sense for the beautiful, the good, into a planless heap. It is now held and the great, is far more barren and up merely by the supports beneath it. sad to see than that of the ignorant Add the keystone, and it will stand a and brutalized. Even as a mere wil. thousand years, although every prop derness would be less dreary to traverse should be shattered or fall in dust. than a succession of farms and garNow, it is idle to say that this change dens diligently and expensively cultiin the principle of the structure was vated to produce no crops but weeds. accomplished by the mere addition of
10. one more stone. The difference is There are minds, or seem to be such, not only that of increase, but also that which we can only compare to a noble of almost magical transmutation. No cathedral of vast size, beautiful prostone before helped to hold up its portions, and covered with graceful neighbour, and each having its own ornaments. Notbing that art can prop, any one might have been remo- supply to devotion appears wanting ved without shaking the support of till we approach the great door and the others. Now, each is essential to try to enter, when we find the seemthe whole, which is sustained not ing building only a solid rock outfrom without but by an inward law. wardly carved into that appearance. So is it with religion. It not only
11. adds a new feeling and sanction to A botanist with a conscience will those previously existing in the mind, understand the saying, that no weeds but unites them by a different kind of grow on earth except in the heart of force, and one for the reception of which all the invisible frame was pre
12. pared and planned, though it may A fierce polemic often pulls down stand for years unfinished, upheld by the temple in order to build a fortified outward and temporary appliances, wall for the defence of its site against and manifesting its want of the true all profane invaders. What worse bond and centre which it has not yet could they have done to it? But if received.
he merely uses the sacred shields and
weapons, armoury of the invincible of events and the significance of huknights of old,” hung in the sanctuary, man life intelligible and manifest to for the purpose of defending it against all, not merely to a few recluse or destroyers, he does the God service scattered doers and sufferers. who, as the Genius Loci, will surely
16. fight beside him.
What an image of the transitoriness 13.
and endless reproduction of things is What is the one indispensable qua- presented by the gumcistus plant, colity for a polemic controversialist ? vered to-day with fresh white flowers, Not learning, nor talents, nor ortho- while the earth around is strewn with doxy, nor zeal. But the Spirit of Love, those which similarly opened but yeswhich implies an anxiety to find good terday. The plant, however, abides in all, and to believe it where we can- and lasts, although its flowers fall and not find it. God admits into his perish. courts no advocates hired to see but
17. one side of a question.
Man is a substance clad in shadows. 14.
18. We look with wonder at the spec- The firm foot is that which finds tacle which astronomy presents to us,
firm footing of thousands of worlds and systems of
19. worlds weaving together their harmo. The weak falters although it be nious movements into one great whole. standing upon rock. But the view of the hearts of men
20. furnished by history, considered as a Sylburgius is a narrow fierce man; combination of biographies, is immea- a kind of dark lanthern; a mass of surably more awful and pathetic. iron blast, but still burning hot. With Every water-drop of the millions in little vision or sense for the outward, that dusky stream is a living heart, a and with but weak and scanty sympaworld of worlds! How vast and thies, he wants the awakening and sugstrange, and sad and living a thing he gesting influences of external beings, only knows at all who has gained which might have given him a conknowledge by labour, experience, and sciousness of Truths not immediately suffering ; and he knows it not per- arising from his own character. As fectly.
there is no predominance of Reflection 15.
in his mind, he has not been led to exAll the ordinary intercourse of life pand and deduce to their full extent is big and warm with poetry. The the principles he acknowledges. But history of a few weeks' residence in a with some power of insight he sees circle of human beings is a domestic that there is a Truth to be believed, and epic. Few friendships but yield in with strong zeal he clings to and hugs their developement and decay the stuff it as all that he can trust in. Propose of a long tragedy. A summer day in to him any thing as additional and the country is an actual idyll. And supplementary to this, and he thinks it many a moment of common life something which you would substitute sparkles and sings itself away in a for his own peculiar possession, and light song ; wounds as the poisoned so would rob under pretence of enbarb of an epigram; or falls as a riching him. And herein is the heavy mournful epitaph. But in all essence of the man's individuality, he who has an ear to catch the sound namely, in his view of Truth as somemay find a continuous underflow of thing which can be his property, and quiet melody, bursting sometimes into under his dominion, and therefore as chorusses of triumph, sometimes into limited, for so all property must be, funereal chants. The reason why and cut off from a larger field left open these archetypal poems of real life are to be divided and possessed by others. so often unfit for the use of the poetic He does not discern Truth as rather a artist, is not their want of the true Law, or Sovereign Constitution, to meaning of poetry, but their unsuit- which we look up, than as areas of clay ableness to the apprehension of any and sand which we may mete out and except the few, perhaps the one, im- occupy; as the Law of the Land ramediately concerned. The poet must ther than the Land itself. Hence, in his choose such a sequence of images as maintenance of his Faith, there is all shall make the harmonious evolution the tenacity, the self-assertion, the at
titude of resistance, which men display those who make a trade of honouring in vindication of their material posses- Him. And how many of the selfsions. Noble art thou, O man who styled, world-applauded holy are mere canst possess Truth as thine own! traffickers in the temple, setting so How far nobler if thou wouldst be by much present self-denial against so Truth possessed, and so ennobled by much future enjoyment ! the Sovereign to whom thou owest
God is the only voluntary Being to 21.
whom we cannot, without absurdity Every man's follies are the carica and self-contradiction, attribute aught ture resemblances of his wisdom. arbitrary and self-willed. And, to
doubt that we can know and compreIf men were not essentially believing hend the principles by which he acts, beings, falsehoods could bave no effect is to deny both that our reason is a on them; for a falsehood operates gleam of his light, and that he has not as known to be false, but only as ever revealed himself to us at all. believed to be true. A falsehood, in
27. its own name and character, is an im- As a sublime statue manifests its pudent nothing. The fictions of the maker's thought, so God's creation artist are only falsehoods, in so far as displays bis mind. But conceive, that they depart from literal and partial while the rude mass is shaped into the truth in order to attain to the ideal and lineaments of a man, it grows more universal.
and more conscious of the advancing 23.
work, so that each new outward line A great truth sometimes sets the and trait is accompanied by a new and world in flames; and men afterwards livelier inward sense of the artist's decommemorate the stoppage of the con- sign, and, consequently, of his chaflagration by some such dead monu- racter, and we have a faint image of ment as that which looks down on the scheme which the history of the London, crowned with a dead brazen world unfolds. resemblance of the active living fire.
28. But in another age the symbol may We are, indeed, clay in the hands burst out again with the old life, and of the potter ; but what a weight of the brazen flames become real ones new meaning, what a revolutionary and kindle the land anew. Even the transmutation, transorganization of the sepulchral images and signs of truth whole image arises, when we only add, have a power to suggest and awaken in one word, that we are conscious the reality, so framed are men for clay. I may mould a plastic lump of truth, born into it as their element, earth or putty in my fingers for an vitally akin to it, and sensitive to the hour, shaping it into a hundred forms,
a least rumour or stir of it. For the a cube, a ball, a crescent, a pyramid. consciousness of truth is nothing else At last the fancy seizes me to give it but the finding of one's self in one's the semblance of a child : and, at the world, and of one's world in one's moment when I have rudely shaped self, and of God in all.
the limbs, they begin to heave and 24.
glow with life; the lips breathe, the God, where the word expresses a faint eyes open, and fix on me with a mere tradition, custom, premise of a gaze of thought and emotion. I thrill theory, or unknown power, is less than with fearful joy and awe. Is the clay to the least of realities ; not so much as meany longera mass which I can mould the African's lock of hair, or bunch of and juggle at with pleasure? Alas! it is rags, which he calls his fetish; but now a sacred, an immeasurable thing ; rather the sound, shadow, or dream of itself a man ; almost a god. Its senthis. When known, believed, loved, sations quiver on into my heart. I reverenced-vaster than the universe, am no longer a potter—but a parent. nay, than man ; more than the Infinite
29. and Eternal, even the Author and There is one class of men in whom Fount of these, and of the reasonable the higher powers of insight, love, and mind that knows them.
faith, appear to want a sufficient appa25.
ratus of the meaner faculties, the quick They who deride the name of God pereeption and sturdy boldness reare the most unhappy of men, except quired for working in this world of