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Bartolommeo Ciriuolo and his son, and several others, that some wished to write the following words in the who were not guilty, were discharged.

place where his portrait ought to have been, as aforeOn Friday, the 16th day of April, judgment was said:- Marinus Faletro Dux, temerilas me cepit. also given, in the aforesaid Council of Ten, that my Pænas lui, decapitatus pro criminibus." --Others, Lord Marino Faliero, the Duke, should have his head | also, indited a couplet, worthy of being inscribed upon cat off; and that the execution should be done on the his tomb. landing-place of the stone staircase, where the Dukes “Dux Venetum jacet heic, patriam qui prodere tentans, take their oath when they first enter the palace. On Sceptra, decus, censum perdidit, atque caput." the following day, the 17th of April, the doors of the palace being shut, the Duke had his head cut off, about

Note [B.] the hour of noon. And the cap of estate was taken from the Duke's head before he came down stairs.

PETRARCH ON THE CONSPIRACY OF MARINO When the execution was over, it is said that one of the

FALIERO. (1) Council of Ten went to the columns of the palace over "Al giovane Doge Andrea Dandolo succedette un against the place of St. Mark, and that he showed the vecchio, il quale tardi si pose al timone della repubblandy sword unto the people, crying out with a loud | blica, ma sempre prima di quel, che facea duopo a Foice — The terrible doom hath fallen upon the traj- lui, ed alla patria : egli è Marino Faliero, personaggio tor! "--and the doors were opened, and the people all a me noto per antica dimestichezza. Falsa era l' rashed in, to see the corpse of the Duke, who had been opinione intorno a lui, giacchè egli si mostrò fornito bebeaded.

più di coraggio, che di senno. Non pago della prima It must be known that Ser Giovanni Sanudo, the dignità, entró con sinistro piede nel pubblico Palazzo: councillor, was not present when the aforesaid sentence imperciocchè questo Doge de' Veneti, magistrato sacro was pronounced; because he was unwell and remained in tutti i secoli, che dagli antichi fù sempre venerato at home. So that only fourteen balloted; that is to qual nume in quella città, l' altr'jeri fù decollato nel say, five councillors, and nine of the Council of Ten. | vestibolo dell'istesso Palazzo. Discorrerei fin dal And it was adjudged, that all the lands and chattels principio le cause di un tale evento, se così vario, ed of the Duke, as well as of the other traitors, should be ambiguo non ne fosse il grido. Nessuno però lo farbeited to the state. And as a grace to the Duke, scusa, tutti affermano, che egli abbia voluto cangiar it was resolved in the Council of Ten, that he should | qualche cosa nell' ordine della repubblica a lui tramanbe allowed to dispose of two thousand dacats out of dato dai maggiori. Che desiderava egli di più ? lo his own property. And it was resolved, that all the son d'avviso, che egli abbia ottenuto ciò, che non si watcillors and all the Avogadori of the Commonwealth, concedette a nessun altro : mentre adempiva gli uffici those of the Council of Ten, and the members of the di legato presso il Pontefice, e sulle rive del Rodano Juola, who had assisted in passing sentence on the trattava la pace, che io prima di lui avevo indarno ten

trattava la pace, che io prima di lui avevo Dake and the other traitors, should have the privilege tato di conchiudere, gli fù conferito l'onore del Du

carrying arms both by day and by night in Venice, cato, che nè chiedeva, nè s' aspettava. Tornato in and from Grado to Cavazere. And they were also to patria, pensò a quello, cui nessuno non pose mente be allowed two footmen carrying arms, the aforesaid | giammai, e soffri quello, che a niuno accadde mai di Jootmen living and boarding with them in their own soffrire: giacchè in quel luogo celeberrimo, e chiarishouses. And he who did not keep two footmen might simo, e bellissimo infra tutti quelli, che io vidi, ove i transfer the privilege to his sons or his brothers; but suoi antenati avevano ricevuti grandissimi onori in anly to two. Permission of carrying arms was also mezzo alle pompe trionfali, ivi egli fù trascinato in wanted to the four Notaries of the Chancery, that is modo servile, e spogliato delle insegne ducali, perdette

say, of the Supreme Court, who took the deposi- | la testa, e macchiò col proprio sangue le soglie del ans; and they were, Amedio, Nicoletto di Lorino, | tempio, l'atrio del Palazzo, e le scale marmoree renSteffanello, and Pietro de Compostelli, the secretaries dute spesse volte illustri o dalle solenni festività, o of the Sigpori di Notte.

dalle ostili spoglie. Ho notato il luogo, ora noto il After the traitors had been hanged, and the Duke tempo: è l' anno del Natale di Christo 1355, fù il had had his head cut off, the state remained in great giorno 18 d' Aprile. Si alto è il grido sparso, che se ranquillity and peace. And, as I have read in a Cliro- alcuno esaminerà la disciplina, e le costumanze di made, the corpse of the Duke was removed in a barge, quella città, e quanto mutamento di cose venga minacith eight torches, to his tomb in the church of Sanciato dalla morte di un sol uomo (quantunque molti slovanni e Paolo, where it was buried. The tomb is altri, come narrano, essendo complici, o subirono l' how in that aisle in the middle of the little church of | istesso supplicio, o lo aspettano) si accorgerà, che Santa Maria della Pace, which was built by Bishop nulla di più grande avvenne ai nostri tempi nella Italia. sabriel of Bergamo. It is a coffin of stone, with these | Tu forse qui attendi il mio giudizio: assolvo il popolo, se words engraven thereon: “ Heic jacet Dominus Ma si deve credere alla fama, benchè abbia potuto e castiWas Faletro Dux."-And they did not paint bis por- gare più mitemente, e con maggior dolcezza vendicare rat in the ball of the Great Council :--but in the place il suo dolore: ma non cosi facilmente, si modera un' ira there it ought to have been, you see these words : giusta insieme, e grande in un numeroso popolo princiHic est locus Marini Faletro, decapitati pro crimi- | palmente, nel quale il precipitoso, ed instabile volgo libus." - And it is thought that his house was granted aguzza gli stimoli dell' irracondia con rapidi, e scono the church of Sant' Apostolo; it was that great one sigliati clamori. Compatisco, e nell'istesso tempo lear the bridge. Yet this could not be the case, or else mi adiro con quell' infelice uomo, il quale adorno di le family bought it back from the church; for it still un' insolito onore, non so, che cosa si volesse negli elongs to Cà Faliero. I must not refrain from noting, | estremi anni della sua vita: la calamita di lu diviene

1) "Had a copy taken of an extract from Petrarch's rino Faliero, containing the poet's opinion of the matter." allets, with reference to the conspiracy of the Doge Ma. B. Diary, Feb. II. 1821.-L. E.

ene

sempre più grave, perchè dalla sentenza contra di struggles between the different constituted bodies, - ! esso promulgata aperirà, che egli fù non solo misero, I to those enterprises carried on by the mass of the ma insano, e demente, e che con vane arti si usurpo nobles against the depositaries of power,-to all per tanti anni una falsa fama di sapienza. Ammo those projects of innovation, which always ended by nisco i Dogi, i quali gli succederanno, che questo e un' a stroke of state policy; we must add a cause net esempio posto innanzi ai loro occhi, quale specchio, nel less fitted to spread contempt for ancient doctrines, quale veggano d' essere non Signori, ma Duci, anzi this was the excess of corruption. nemmeno Duci, ma onorati servi della Repubblica. “That freedom of manners, which had been longi Tu sta sano; e giacchè fluttuano le pubbliche cose, boasted of as the principal charm of Venetian so sforziamoci di governar modestissimamente i privati ciety, had degenerated into scandalous licentioasaess: nostri affari.”--LEVATI, Viaggi di Petrarca, vol. iv, the tie of marriage was less sacred in that Catholic p. 323.

country, than among those nations where the laws The above Italian translation from the Latin epistles

and religion admit of its being dissolved. Becaase

they could not break the contract, they feigned that of Petrarch proves1stly, That Marino Faliero was a personal friend of

it had not existed; and the ground of nullity, in Petrarch's; "antica dimestichezza," old intimacy, is

modestly alleged by the married pair, was admittal the phrase of the poet.

with equal facility by priests and magistrates, alike 2dly, That Petrarch thought that he had more cou

corrupt. These divorces, veiled under another name,

became so frequent, that the most important act af! rage than conduct, “più di coraggio che di senno."

civil society was discovered to be amenable to a tri3dly, That there was some jealousy on the part of Petrarch; for he says that Marino Faliero was treat

bunal of exceptions; and to restrain the open scanda! ing of the peace which he himself had “vainly at

of such proceedings became the office of the police

In 1782, the Council of Ten decreed, that every wotempted to conclude."

man who should sue for a dissolution of her mar4thly, That the honour of the Dukedom was con

riage should be compelled to await the decisioa d ferred upon him, which he neither sought nor expected,

the judges in some convent, to be named by the "che nè chiedeva nè aspettava," and which had never been granted to any other in like circumstances, “ ciò

court. (1) Soon afterwards, the same council son

moned all causes of that nature before itself. (2) che non si concedette a nessun altro," a proof of the

This infringement on ecclesiastical jurisdiction having high esteem in which he must have been held.

occasioned some remonstrance from Rome, the Coupal 5thly, That he had a reputation for wisdom, only forfeited by the last enterprise of his life, “si usurpò

retained only the right of rejecting the petition of the

married persons, and consented to refer such caexes per tanti anni una falsa fama di sapienza”—“ He had

to the Holy Office as it should not previously have re usurped for so many years a false fame of wisdom," rather a difficult task, I should think,

jected. (3) People are

“ There was a moment in which, doubtless, the generally found out before eighty years of age, at

destruction of private fortunes, the ruin of youth, the least in a republic.

domestic discord occasioned by these abuses, de From these, and the other historical notes which 1

termined the government to depart from its established have collected, it may be inferred, that Marino Faliero

maxims concerning the freedom of manners allowed possessed many of the qualities, but not the success, of

the subject. All the courtesans were banished from a hero; and that his passions were too violent. The

Venice; but their absence was not enough to reclaim paltry and ignorant account of Dr. Moore falls to the ground. Petrarch says, “that there had been no

and bring back good morals to a whole people brought

up in the most scandalous licentiousness. Depravity greater event in his times" (our times literally),

reached the very bosoms of private families, and even " nostri tempi,” in Italy. He also differs from the

into the cloister; and they found themselves obliged historian in saying that Faliero was on the banks of the Rhone," instead of at Rome, when elected; the

to recall, and even to indemnify (4) women who some

times gained possession of important secrets, and other accounts say, that the deputation of the Vene

who might be usefully employed in the ruin of me tian senate met him at Ravenna. How this may have

whose fortunes might have rendered them dangerous been, it is not for me to decide, and is of no great im

Since that time, licentiousness has gone on increasing; portance. Had the man succeeded, he would have

and we have seen mothers, not only selling the inchanged the face of Venice, and perhaps of Italy. As it is, what are they both ?

nocence of their daughters, but selling it by a con tract, authenticated by the signature of a public of

ficer, and the performance of which was secured by Note (C.)

the protection of the laws. (5) VENETIAN SOCIETY AND MANNERS.

“The parlours of the convents of noble ladies, and « Vice without splendour, sin without relief

the houses of the courtesans, though the police careEven from the gloss of love to smooth it o'er , fully kept up a number of spies about them, were the But, in its stead, coarse lusts of habitude," etc. only assemblies for society in Venice; and in the

(See p. 387, col. 1.}

two places, so different from each other, there was "To these attacks, so frequently pointed by the equal freedom. Music, collations, gallantry, were government, against the clergy,—to the continual | not more forbidden in the parlours than at the ca

(1) Correspondence of M. Schlick, French chargé d'af, faires. Despatch of 24th August, 1782.

(2) Ibid. Despatch, 31st August.
(3) Ibid. Despatch of 3d September, 1785.
(4) The decree for their recall designates them as nostre

benemerite meretrici: a fund and some houses, called Car rampane, were assigned to them; hence the opprobriosus appellation of Carampane,

(5) Mayer, Description of Venice, vol. ii. and M. Archer holz, Picture of Italy, vol. i. ch. 2.

sinos. There were a number of casinos for the pur commesso allowed a son to charge himself with the pose of public assemblies, where gaming was the debts of a father, without prejudice to his successors; principal pursuit of the company. It was a strange but it being considered as a point of honour to take sight to see persons of either sex masked, or grave up this burden, the son's son succeeded to it, and the personages in their magisterial robes, round a table, debts of one generation were perpetuated through diinvoking chance, and giving way at one instant to the verse succeeding ones. agonies of despair, at the next to the illusions of "Things were in this state when the old governbope, and that without uttering a single word. ment was overthrown, and the law of fede-commesso

* The rich had private casinos, but they lived in- | abolished here, as well as all over the countries revocognito in them; and the wives whom they abandoned | lutionised by France. The consequence was, the imfoand compensation in the liberty they enjoyed. The mediate seizure of property so encumbered. This corruption of morals had deprived them of their em- was inevitable; and the creditor of the family of Corpire. We have just reviewed the whole history of ner, or any other Venetian house, seized upon his Tesice, and we have not once seen them exercise the own. slightest influence." -Daru: Hist, de la Répub. de « Thus one of the indirect consequences of the rePezise, vol. v. p. 95.

volution was the destruction of an immense number of Venetian families of the sangue blò and morel de

mezo. It was, however, more immediately destrucNOTE (D.]

tive to those denominated the Barnabites, who were ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT VENETIAN NOBILITY, at once cut off from all the lucrative offices of the WITH THE CAUSES OF ITS DECAY.

state. Nor was this all: the daughters of the indigent

nobility had all of them pensions which they brought "She shall stoop to be A province for an empire, petty town

in dowry to their husbands; but place and pension, In lieu of capital, with slaves for senates,

though bestowed for life, were annihilated, and, in the Beggars for nobles, panders for a people!"

place of these, a miserable stipend of two Venetian Act V. Scene 3.

livres a-day (not quite ten-pence English) was beThe nobles of Venice, though all equal in the eye stowed on those who condescended to accept of it, by of the law, were fancifully divided into three classes; the mushroom municipality which flourished for its the first distinguished as that of the sangue blò or day out of the ruins of the aristocracy. Poor as this sangue colombin, i. e. blue blood or pigeon's blood; pittance was, even in this country where necessaries the second, as the division of the morèl de mezo, or bear a price out of all proportion to luxuries, numbers the middle piece; and the poorest of all as Bernaboti, did accept it, under the idea that it would be increased or Barnabites, from their inhabiting small and cheap under happier circumstances; but the French, it will houses in the parish of St. Barnabas.

be easily believed, did not augment it, and (what "It will be easily conceived that the poor nobility could scarcely be believed but by those versed in the mast bave been numerous in a state which considered proceedings of the cabinet of Vienna) the Austrian all the legitimate sons of a patrician as noble; where government clipped this miserable mite, and clogged commerce no longer offered a resource, and the only it with conditions which neither the revolutionary profession left was that of the law. This class, there | municipality nor the French were illiberal enough to fore, subsisting upon the employments of the republic, impose. civil or military, at home and abroad, was necessarily “The municipality gave their compensation, and, ruined by the revolution. But the cause of the al the whole of the terra ferma being in possession of most general havoc which involved the Venetian aris the enemy, perhaps they could give no more—the mutocracy is not so immediately visible; the less so, as nicipality gave it as unrestricted as the pensions it the laws of the fede-commesso, which corresponds was to replace: the French made no alteration in the with our entail, were sufficiently rigorous in old system; but the Austrians have not only limited it to Venice,

persons not having two hundred ducats a-year (twenty"I shall try, according to the information I have five pounds sterling), but have insisted upon its being received, to explain how this was accomplished. The spent in their own dominions. Of the rigour with first and foremost cause was the excessive indolence which this condition is exacted, take the following exand profusion of the last generations of the nobility, ample:-A lady, ignorant of the regulations which who appear to have resembled the ancestor of Sir had been introduced, was absent two years in the Roger de Coverley; who, he tells us, "would sign a south of France; she returned, and claimed the arWeed for a mortgage covering one half his estate with rears of her pension, without having specified where his glove on:' with this difference, however, that the she had been. The arrears were paid, after the usual Venetian patrician could only mortgage his estate difficulties; but her absence having been ascertained, during his own natural life; a circumstance which, it she was ordered to disgorge her prey, under the threat appears at first sight, should have been the protection of being excluded from all further provision. of the ancient houses of Venice. The protection was, | "I have said, after the usual difficulties: I will however, in most instances, of no avail.

now illustrate these.(1) Another lady claimed seven "In almost all countries the laws of honour often months' arrears of pension, due during a residence in contravene the laws of the land, often mischievously; Lombardy and the Venetian state. Now, this was a but they sometimes come in aid of sound morality. claim verifiable by a single instrument, her passport, Such was their effect here. The law of the fede which ascertained the day of her arrival in every town,

(1) This is by no means a single case: A Venetian judge, displaced, but pensioned by the Austrians, reglected to receive his allowance according to the example of the others. At length be applied for his arrears, wbieh were denied him.

“What!" said he, “ will you not give me what others have received ?” “No!” was the answer, "and those others will be forced to refund."-Note that these pensions had been paid in virtue of a solemn and printed decree.

by the signature of accredited officers of the Austrian the old republic sold titles for a pittance to whoever police. Notwithstanding this, she was seven months could pay for them, though such a person might bet more before she could obtain her demand. These even have had the education of a gentleman.(1) It were spent in the presentation of petitions, always was natural, therefore, that a lord of Crema should by order, always on stamped paper, and in the almost fear being confounded with this countly canaglia, and daily beat of half the official stairs of Venice, either sink his having any thing in common with such a in person or in proxy.

crew. "But I willingly turn away my eyes from a picture, “The great political revolution that has taken place, every detail of which is painful, and, having described destroying the splendour of the libro d'oro, has is. the fortunes of the Venetian nobility, shall give some duced some to produce their terra ferma titles; but account of their honours. The patricians, as I said the majority content themselves with the style of Cabefore, all equal in the eye of the law, had no titles valiere, (2) which does not necessarily denote actual

such, excepting that of your Excellency; though knighthood; and is often used almost as liberally is some bore them, as Counts, etc. of terra ferma, before Italy, as the denomination of Squire now is in Engbeing enrolled in the nobility of Venice; and some land. A striking proof, indeed, of good sense and had titles assigned them as compensations for, or ra- dignity was given by the great body of the Venetian ther as memorials of, fallen greatness. Thus the nobility, on being invited by Austria to claim nobility Querini, formerly lords of Crema, had the distinction and title from her, on the verification of their rights; continued to them, after Crema was absorbed in the the great body of them merely desiring a recognitie Venetian state.

of their rank, without availing themselves of the olfa “These families, however, usually let their titles held out to them. A few, indeed, have pursued a dif sleep, considering the quality of an untitled Venetian ferent line of conduct, and received patents of prices," patrician as superior to any other distinction. Nor etc.—Rose: Letters from the North of Italy, r. il does this seem to have been an odd refinement, for p. 105.

(1) The qualification to be a Count was about what is supposed to qualify for knighthood in England, and the see paid for the title, if I am rightly informed, £20 or £40.

(2) No order of knighthood was peculiar to Venice, and her citizens were precluded by law from becoming members of foreign orders.

The Vision of Judgment.

BY QUEVEDO REDIVIVUS. (1)

NOGGESTED BY THE COMPOSITION SO ENTITLED BY THE AUTHOR OF "WAT TYLER.

"A Daniel come to judgment ! yea, a Daniel!

I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word."

PREFACE.

Ir bath been wisely said, that “One fool makes many;” and it hath been poetically observed, “That fools rush in where angels fear to tread.”Pope.

If Mr. Southey had not rushed in where he had no business, and where he never was before, and never will be again, the following poem would not have

been written. It is not impossible that it may be as good as his own, seeing that it cannot, by any species of stupidity, natural or acquired, be worse. The great flattery, the dull impudence, the renegado intolerance and impious cant, of the poem by the author of 4 Tyler, are something so stupendous as to form the sublime of himself-containing the quintessence of hai own attributes.

So much for his poem-a word on his preface. In

(1) Had not the chronological order been again departed from, on the same grounds already explained with reference to Childe Harold, the reader would have had before him, ere he reaches this page of our collection, the two first Cantos of Don Juan. Those Cantos were printed without Lord Byron's name; but all the world knew that they were his; and Mr. Southey was far from being singular, in la. menting and condemning the spirit in wbich parts of them had been written

The Laureate, in 1821, published a piece, in English hexameters, entitled A Vision of Judgment, and which Lord Byron, in criticising it, laughs at as "the Apotheosis of George the Third.” In the preface to this poem, after some observations on the peculiar style of its versification, Mr. Soutbey introduced the following remarks:

regarded the morals more than the manner of a composition spirit rather than the form! Would that it were directed aga those monstrous combinations of horrors and mockery, levde and impiety, with which English poetry has, in our days, first Dera polluted! For more than half a century Enelish literature a been distinguished by its moral purity, the effect, and, in its bar the cause, of an improvement in national manners. A father without apprehension of evil, have put into the hands of his chuldre any book which issued from the press, if it did not bear, elibera its lille-page or frontispiece, manifest signs that it was intendre furniture for the brothel. There was no danger in any work and bore the name of a respectable publisher, or was to be procures any respectable bookseller's. This was particularly the case regard to our poetry. It is now no longer so: and woe to tack ! whom the offence cometh! The greater the talents of the ollen! the greater is his guilt, and the more enduring will be his shans. Whether it be that the laws are in themselves unable to abate evil of this magnitude, or whether it be that they are remis ministered, and with such injustice that the celebrity of an ole serves as a privilege whereby he obtains impunity, individeo bound to consider that such pernicious works would be published nor written, if they were discouraged as they might, ought to be, by public feeling: every person, therefore, woo

"I am well aware that the public are peculiarly intolerant of such innovations; not less so than the populace are of any foreign fashion, whether of foppery or convenience. Would that this literary intolerance were under the influence of a saner judgment, and

this preface it has pleased the magnanimous Laureate | ambition of those of an informer. If there exists any to draw the picture of a supposed "Satanic school," where, excepting in his imagination, such a school, the which he doth recommend to the notice of the is he not sufficiently armed against it by his own inlegislature; thereby adding to his other laurels the lense vanity? The truth is, that there are certain

days och books, or admits them into his house, promotes the mischief, and thereby, as far as in him lies, becomes an aider and bettor of the crime,

The publication of a lascivious book is one of the worst of. aners which can be comunitted against the well-being of society. h a sin, to the consequences of which no limits can be assigned, sad those consequences no after-repentance in the writer can countatt. Whatever remorse of conscience he may feel when his toer coers and come it must!) will be of no avail. The poign

of a deatb-bed repentance cannot cancel one copy of the thoujawia wbich are sent abroad; and as long as it continues to be

so long is he the pander of posterity, and so long is be heapyup guilt upon his soul in perpetual accumulation.

These remarks are not more severe than the offence deserves, es when applied to those immoral writers who have not been

scious of any evil intention in their writings, who would ac. Kaulilge a little levity, a little warmth of colouring, and so forth, in that sort of language with which men gloss over their favourite 1894, and deceive themselves. What then should be said of those for whom the thoughtlessness and inebriety of wanton youth can

o lunger be pleaded, but who have written in sober manhood and With deliberate purpose?-Men of diseased hearts and depraved imaginations, who, forrning a system of opinions to suit their own antiappy course of conduct, have rebelled against the holiest ordi

unes of human society, and hating that revealed religion which, with all their efforts and bravadoes, they are unable entirely to disbeleve, labour to make others as miserable as themselves, by terting them with a moral virus that eats into the soul! The band which they have set up may properly be called the Satanic h; for though their productions breathe the spirit of Belial in et lascivious parts, and the spirit of Moloch in those loathsome an atrocities and horrors which they delight to represent, They ate mare especially characterised by a Satanic spirit of pride en alione impiety, which still betrays the wretched feeling of

person wherewith it is allied.

*This exa is political as well as moral, for indeed moral and Pitical evids are inseparably connected. Truly has it been affirmed by one of peablest and clearest reasoners, that the destruction of Pret may be proved and deduced from the general corrup

of the subjects manners, as a direct and natural cause thereof, by a feministration as certain as any in the mathematics.' There is wa matin more frequently enforced by Machiavelli, than that where the Bangers of a people are generally corrupted, there the governest not lang subsista truth which all history exemplifies;

there is no means whereby that corruption can be so surely and rapidly diffused, as by poisoning the waters of literature.

*Let ralens of the state look to this, in time! But, to use the Cords of South, if our physicians think the best way of curing a Warum is to pamper it, the Lord in mercy prepare the kingdom to Wat what He by miracle only can prevent!

o apology is offered for these remarks. The subject led to lem, and the occasion of introducing them was willingly taken,

se it is the duty of every one, whose opinion may have any tance, to expose the drift and aim of those writers who are la. wering to subvert the foundations of human virtue and of human

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-the government exacted too much, and the people could neither give nor bear more. Without this, the Encyclopedists might have written their fingers off without the occurrence of a single altera tion. And the English revolution--the first, I mean-what was it occasioned by? The Puritans were surely as pious and moral as Wesley or his biographer? Acls-acts on the part of government, and not writings against them, have caused the past convulsions, and are tending to the future.

" I look upon such as inevitable, though no revolutionist; I wish to see the English constitution restored, and not destroyed. Born an aristocrat, and naturally one by temper, with the greater part of my present property in the funds, what have I to gain by a revolution ? Perhaps I have more to lose in every way than Mr. Southey, with all his places and presents for panegyrics and abuse into the bargain. But that a revolution is inevitable, I repeat, The government may exult over the repression of petty tumults; these are but the receding waves repulsed and broken for a moment on the shore, while the great tide is still rolling on and gaining ground with every breaker Mr. Southey accuses us of attacking the religion of the country, and is be abetting it by writing lives of Wesley? One mode of worship is merely destroyed by another. There never was, nor ever will be, a country without a religion. We shall be told of France again : but it was only Paris and a frantie party, which for a moment upheld their dogmatic nonsense of theo-philanthropy. The church of England, if overthrown, will be swept away by the sectarians and not by the sceptics. People are too wise, too well informed, too certain of their own immense importance in the realms of space, ever to submit to the impiety of doubt. There may be a few such diffident speculators, like water in the pale sunbeam of human reason, but they are very few; and their opinions, without enthusiasm or appeal to the passions, can never gain proselytes--unless, indeed, they are persecuted--that, to be sure, will increase any thing

** Mr. Southey, with a cowardly ferocity, exults over the anticipated death-bed repentance of the objects of his dislike ; and indulges himself in a pleasant Vision of Judgment, in prose as well as verse, full of impious impudence. What Mr. Southey's sensations or ours may be in the awful moment of leaving this state of existence, neither he nor we can pretend to decide. In common, I presume, with most men of any reflection, I have not waited for a · death-bed' to repent of many of my actions, notwithstanding the

diabolical pride' which this pitiful renegado in bis rancour would impute to those who scorn him. Whether upon the whole the good or evil of my deeds may preponderate is not for me to ascertain : but as my means and opportunities have been greater, I shall limit my present defence to an assertion (easily proved, if necessary), that I, in my degree,' have done more real good in any one given year, since I was twenty, than Mr. Southey in the whole course of his shifting and turncoat existence. There are several actions to which I can look back with an honest pride, not to be damped by the calumnies of a hireling. There are others to which I recur with sorrow and repentance; but the only act of my life of which Mr. Southey can have any real knowledge, as it was one which brought me in contact with a near connection of his own,+ did no dishonour to that connection nor to me.

I am not ignorant of Mr. Southey's calumnies on a different occasion, knowing them to be such, which he scattered abroad on his return from Switzerland against me and others: they have done him no good in this world, and if his creed be the right one, they will do him less in the next. What his death-bed' may be, it is not my province to predicate; let him settle it with his Maker, as I must do with mine. There is something at once ludicrous and blasphemous in this arrogant scribbler of all work sitting down to deal damna. tion and destruction upon his fellow-creatures, with Wat Tyler, the Apotheosis of George the Third, and the Elegy on Martin the Regi. cide, all shuftled together in his writing-desk. One of his consolations appears to be a Latin note from a work of a Mr. Landor, the author of Gebir, wbose friendship for Robert Southey will, it seems,

be an honour to him when the ephemeral disputes and ephemeral reputations of the day are forgotten.' I for one neither envy him *the friendship,' nor the glory in reversion which is to accrue from it, like Mr. Thelusson's fortune, in the third and fourth generation. This friendship will probably be as memorable as his own epics, which (as I quoted to him ten or twelve years ago in English Bards) Porson said would be remembered when Homer and Virgil are for gotten,--and not till then.' For the present, I leave him."

Mr. Southey was not disposed to let this pass unanswered. He, on the 5th of January, 1822, addressed to the Editor of the London Courier a letter, of which we shall quote all that is of importance:

*"Here Lord Byron very modestly informs us, that he has done more good in any one year of his life, than Mr. Southey has done in the wbole of the years he has lived upon the earth. We are mach at a loss to understand the drift of this very candid communication. Does Lord Byron mean to say, that he has given away more money in charity than the Laureate could afford to do? We believe that this may very well be so; but why trumpet his own almsgiving in such a pompous fashion upon the house-top ? There are plenty of good rich old widow ladies, who have subscribed lots of money to all sorts of charities, and advertised all their largesses in the newspapers ;-but are they entitled on that account to talk of themselves as doing more good than Southey?" Blackwood, 1822.-L. E.

+ Mr. Coleridge See Moore's Life of Byron.

Lord Byron rejoined as follows: Mr Seathey, in bis pions preface to a poem whose blasphemy as warmless as the sedition of Wat Tyler, because it is equally and with that sincere production, calls upon the legislature to M to it,' as the toleration of such writings led to the French Reration: Rot such writings as Wat Tyler, but as those of the Satarool. This is not true. and Mr. Southey knows it to be not

Every French writer of any freedom was persecuted; Vol. and Rousseau were exiles, Marmontel and Diderot were sent e Bastille, and a perpetual war was waged with the whole class the existing despotism. In the next place, the French Revolution

el Gerasioned by any writings whatsoever, but must have Ted bad no such writers ever existed. It is the fashion to al. pate every thing to the French Revolution, and the French ReWion to erery thing but its real cause. That cause is obvious

"Summi poetæ in omni poetarum seculo viri fuerunt probi : Bestris id vidimus et videmus : neque alius est error a veritate yes qaam magna ingenia magnis necessario corrumpi vitiis. Se

plerique posthabent primum, bi malignitate, illi ignorantia ; am aliquem inveniunt styli morumque vitiis notatum, nec inum tamen nec in libris edendis parcum, cum stipant, prædideupant, amplectuntur. Si mores aliquantulum vellet corri.

stylam curare paululum, si fervido ingenio temperare, si TR tantillum interponere, tum ingens nescio quid et vere epi. quadraginta annos natus. procuderat. Ignorant verò febriDan indicari vires, impatientiam ab imbecillitate non differre; al a levi hotnine et inconstante multa fortasse scribi posse raam toediocria, nihil compositum, arduuro, æternum." Sava

Landor, De Cultu atque Usu Latini Sermonis. "This essay, tich is full of fine critical remarks and striking thoughts felici. siy expressed, reached the from Pisa, while the proof of the present

was before me. Or its author (the author of Gebir and Count

A) I will only say in this place, tbat, to have obtained bis S ition as a poet, and possessed his friendship as a man, will remembered among the honours of my life, when the petty

ties of this generation will be forgotten, and its ephemeral pulations shall have passed away." -Mr. Southey's Nole.

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