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During this period, the master, accompanied by the superintendent singing monitor, should go first to one class and then another (without following any fixed order), and observe whether the questions are answered satisfactorily; he should sometimes make an examination himself in this sort of manner.
He should vocalize (not solfa) an interval, and ask of what notes it is composed; touch on his hand two or three notes, for all the pupils (or one) to solfa; solfa a bar, and demand the shape (i. e. length) of each note ; describe a bar, and make the class beat and repeat the notes composing it.* All this should of course be done with reference to the advancement of the class examined.
If the result of the examination be satisfactory, the master will (also on the report of the superintendent monitor as to the execution of the exercises) put the class down on the progress table for a new tablet next lesson.
The master should also occasionally unite several—sometimes all-the classes in one general examination, putting a stray question here and there at random. Exercises on time (describing a bar to be beat and named) should often be given on these occasions. "A feeling for time” is much more rapidly and easily communicated by the sympathy of numbers than by the most careful and analytical process of individual instruction.
These individual and general examinations will be found highly useful, both as exciting the pupils themselves to exertion, and affording satisfactory evidence of their progress to the master himself.
At the signal given by the master or superintendent monitor, the monitor of order reassumes his position as monitor general, and disperses the singing classes in the manner customary in the school.
When the lesson is ended, the superintendent singing monitor directs his « lieutenants" to collect the tablets and the class numbers, and inserts the names of the absentees in the list of the class below them. Having put everything in its proper place, he returns to his own seat among his companions.
* In these examinations it will often happen that two or three, or even more, classes require to solfa different passages at the same moment. These passages, however, are in general so short, that, provided great pains be taken by each individual monitor that they be executed very softly, little inconvenience will arise from them,
SPECIFICATION of Works to be performed in erecting a School-
in reference to the accompanying
EXCAVATOR. Dig out for the foundations of all the walls, for the cesspools and drains, and wherever else required for the full performance of these works. Where the soil is of a sound and uniform nature, the trenches for foundations, &c., are to be cleanly cut at the required level, and the level is not to be formed by replacing earth where it has been cut out. If in any place, and wheresoever the earth be defective, loose, or in any way unsound, such earth is to be removed to the requisite depth, and the level is to be formed by filling in and well ramming earth of the same kind and quality as that which forms the bottom of the other parts.
Dig out to the depth of 8 inches from the under side of the floor-joists the whole area within the walls of the intended SchoolHouse, and leave the same at a perfect level.
Provide and convey to the site, and fill in so much good sound earth, brick, or other rubbish of the nature required by the
as may be necessary to bring up the surfaces of the ground of the yards, gardens, fore-court, to the required levels or inclines, and form the same levels and inclines.
Fill up, and dig anew for ditches, drains, cesspools, as may be directed.
Remove and cart away from time to time, and at the completion of the works, all superfluous carth, building rubbish, and building materials.
Concrete.*-Form, for all foundations of walls, beds of concrete; those for the walls of the School-house inches thick, and spreading inches on each side beyond the lowest course of footings; those for
inches thick, and spreading inches on each side beyond the lowest course of footings.
The concrete to consist of clean sharp gravel or fine sharp broken stones and hydraulic stone-lime in the proportion of 1 to
* If requisite.
7, mixed with water, and thrown from stages 10 feet above the bottom of the foundations.
Bricks. The whole of the bricks used in the building to be new, good, sound, hard, and well burnt; those which are not otherwise described are to be Mortar.-The mortar to be carefully compounded of
stone-lime, and clean sharp sand, in the proportion of one-third lime to two-thirds sand; the lime to be fresh, and to be carefully kept from exposure until required for use.
Cement.-The cement to be
Walls.-Carry up the footings for the external walls in courses : the first course being laid feet below the level of the adjacent external ground in bricks, regularly diminishing to the thickness of the walls which are to be carried up in bricks to
; the gables are to be carried up in brick, Dwarf Walls.-Build the dwarf walls of the ground floor
with footings, the lowest in larly diminishing in three courses to bricks, of which thickness these walls are to be carried up courses to receive sleepers.
Partitions. *-Form the internal partitions of brick-flat nogging.
Fender and Walls.-Build, in half brick, fender-walls for hearths of ground-story with brick-footings.
Trimmers to Hearths.—Turn trimmers in half brick to hearths of other stories, to be 12 inches longer than the openings.
Foundations to Steps.-Carry up foundations for steps.
Fire and Air-flues-Carry up the fire-flues 9 inches x 41 inches in the clear; the air-flues 44 inches square in the clear, with openings for ventilation where directed ; all properly cored and pargetted.
Course of Slates in Walls. 7-Lay a course of slates between two beds of cement each į inch thick, throughout all the walls, at the level of the finished ground surface.
Rain-drains.-Lay from rain-water down-pipes 6 inch earthenware drain-pipes, bedded in clay and jointed with cement.
Provide here for the performance of all other bricklayer's works, such as
cross-walls for paving, area-walls, piers for columns, tiling of roofs, foot. tiling, brick-paving, lacing of walls, mouldings, and projecting courses of
bricks, chimney-pots, &c. Workmanship.-All the brick-work is to be well bedded and
* State which partitions are to be of brick-nogging, if any are to be lath and plaster.
+ This provision is to prevent damp from rising in the walls; in very dry situations it may be omitted.
flushed in with mortar as the work proceeds, care being taken that no vacuities are left between the joints or courses.
No four courses to rise more than one inch in addition to the height of the bricks. Turn in cement inch relieving arches over all openings, and invert arches under same. All reveals to be carefully performed. Bed and point in mortar all bond-timber, lintels, woodbricks, and templets, and other tinaber so requiring; and bed and point with lime and hair all the door and windowframes; and back up with solid brick-work to all timbers, stonework, iron-work, and other things to be set in the brick-work: The faces of the walls to show Flemish bond; the headers being all whole bricks and the perpends truly kept.
CARPENTER AND JOINER. Timber.-All the oak timber is to be of English growth; all the other timber is to be either Dantzic, Riga, Memel, or yellow fir; all the joiner's work, flooring-boards, skirtings, and other wood-work are to be of the best yellow Christiana deal, except where otherwise described. The timbers and deal are to be cut square, and to be free from sapwood, shakes, large, loose, and dead knots, and all other defects. No American timber is to be used.
Workmanship.—None of the joists, rafters, or quarters are to be more than 12 inches apart. All plates, purlins, and bond timber are to be in as long lengths as possible, and well scarfed and secured at the junctions. The tie-beams and all other timbers of roofs and floors are to be in whole lengths, unless shown otherwise in drawings, or described otherwise herein, or allowed in writing by the
Materials, &c.- Provide and fix all necessary shores, struts, beads, stops, fillets, angle staves, wood-bricks, centering, templets, and all other joiner's work and labour necessary for the due execution of these works, providing all materials, including ironmongery, to render the same complete and perfect.
Frame Three Months before setting up.-All the joiner's work is to be rough framed as soon as possible after the signing of the contract, and no framework is to be set up until at least three months after it shall have been so framed. All timber-work which shall split, fracture, shrink, part at the joints, or show any flaw or defect from unsoundness, want of seasoning, or bad workmanship, is to be removed and put together anew or replaced by new materials: so that the whole of the carpenter's work may be delivered up in a perfect state at the completion.
Scantlings.-All the timbers are to hold their full scantlings at the completion of the works. The scantlings of the principal timbers are to be as follows :
Here supply a list of scantlings.
Folding Floors.-Lay 14 inch yellow deal folding floors to the
Straight-joint Floors.-Lay 17 inch yellow deal straight-joint and iron-tongued floors to the Window-frames. The windows of
to have solid fir frames
wrought, rebated, framed, and chamfered ; oak sunk and weathered sills.
Double-hung Sashes.-Fit up the windows of with inch ovolo sashes double-hung, with iron weights, axlepulleys, patent lines and patent spring sash fastenings in dealcased frames, with oak sunk and weathered sills.
External Doors. The external doors are to be inch deal framed and braced, lined with inch battens tongued, in Gothic rebated and beaded frame
tenoned into stone steps; each to have two
inch butts and strong lock, Norfolk thumb-latch, and two inch barrel bolts. Fix an iron spring to each door to prevent it from slamming.
Internal Doors. The internal doors are to be inch fourpane square; each to have two inch butts, Norfolk thumblatch, and two inch barrel bolts and strong door-spring; with wrought, framed, and chamfered door-cases; those on stone floors or thresholds to be tenoned into same.
Lead-casing to Feet of Door-cases.—Completely wrap round and separate from the stone the feet of all door-cases tenoned into stone with a piece of milled lead. All the faces of the joiner's work are to be wrought.
Provide here for all other carpenter's and joiner's works, such as to stairs,
with balusters, hand-rails, &c., closets and shelves, skirting, window. shutters, &c., sky-lights and borrowed lights, raising the floor in steps for class-desks and galleries, &c.
Stone. All the stone used in the mason's work is to be
of the best quality, free from shakes, flaws, rents, and all other defects, and laid so as to be compressed according to its natural bed.
Foundations of .t-Bed for the foundations of walls a complete course of
laid at the depth of
below the finished surface of the ground. String-courses.—Put to string-courses of
stone inches, moulded, mitred, and run with lead at all the joints therein.
Water Table to Chimneys.—Put at the foot of each stack of chimneys a water table of
stone, wrought, weathered, and throated.
• Provide for openings.