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now coming much into use on farms as a substitute for hurdles might be practised in certain cases; an accurate account of all that was done would be kept, and a due proportion of the clear profits assigned to those boys who had been engaged in it. The gardenground so cultivated would be found to return a full rent, and also a profit of several shillings a-year to each boy, according to the size of his allotment. It is reasonable to anticipate that parents, whose earnings were small, or families large, would more readily leave their children longer at school when they found that the time spent there was accompanied by some immediate pecuniary return. If the residence of the master, or master and mistress, were attached to the school, and the garden-ground were of a sufficient size to admit of a cow or pigs being kept, or both, a valuable opportunity would be afforded to the elder girls attending the school to receive instruction in domestic work and management. The training once so usefully afforded in the household of the small farmer, whether preparatory to domestic service, or to the duties of the cottager's wife, is now no longer to be obtained, and, if it is to be restored at all, can only be supplied by opportunities offered at the school. I found, in the instance of one girls' school, that the 30 eldest were so employed, in sections of five each, for a week at a time: thus giving nearly nine weeks' training to each in the course of a year. It may be deemed probable that a system of varied instruction for boys, such as that above indicated, would deprive the farmer of any legitimate ground of objection to the continuance at school, until the age of 12 or 13, of a child destined to agricultural employment, by supplying him with a more intelligent, a better conducted, and a more useful labourer. It has, in fact, already become a matter of experience that boys so trained are sought for by employers, and, by reason of their trust-worthiness and intelligence, obtain higher wages than those whose faculties have not been called forth and habits regulated by a judicious union of religious, moral, and general instruction, with welldevised and appropriate daily labour.
It is to be hoped that the time is not far distant when an enlargement of the scope of elementary instruction, so as to entitle it to the name of education, may be recommended, without a reference so immediate and primary to the question of pecuniary profit. There is a point of view from which the labourer's position may be regarded, and which causes the pecuniary question to fall back into its proper place. If it rests with any one as a duty to provide that the humbler classes around him should not be without such means of religious knowledge, in addition to the opportunities of the Sunday-school, as would impress upon the hearts of the young a clear and definite understanding of the obligations of the Christian faith; if the responsibilities of those to whom much is entrusted extend to the taking care that the temptations to coarse, sensual, and debasing pleasures—the most attractive to the uninstructed and unrelieved mind of those devoted to daily toil—are not aided by the withholding of all other sources of relaxation; if the religious and moral character of those who are brought together, and who subsist by the possessions and capital of others, are a matter of concern to those whose land or capital is thus made productive; if duties and responsibilities of this nature are duly acknowledged, it may be expected that the pecuniary difficulties will be the last which will be found practically to stand in the way. The appeal is ready to those instances in which such duties are now, at whatever just cost, discharged. They are indeed few.
lish for intellectual enjoyment-these form but a part of the business of education; and yet the execution even of this part requires an acquaintance with the general principles of our nature which seldom falls to the share of those to whom the inatruction of youth is commonly intrusted."-(Philosophy of the Human lind, vol. 1, p. 24.)
They are indeed few. But even on lower grounds—it is expedient that those who, from the redundancy of labour, or from an altered state of social relations, or from whatever other cause, find their condition uneasy, should not be left to take their first impressions of society and the world around them from chance, or from the mischievous teaching of those more discontented and as ignorant as themselves. It is desirable, as far as a sounder and better degree of information would give the cottager more power of self-regulation, more skill, and more foresight, to place in his own hands such means of improving his position. If the time is gone by in which it is possible to retain or safe to trust to that degree of virtue, contentment, and self-restraint which may co-exist with a deep ignorance of all those causes that have built up
and that sustain the social fabric around us; if vice, improvidence, and suffering are in frequent, almost invariable, association with perverted knowledge and entire ignorance,-it is surely expedient to endeavour to break up such fellowship, and to substitute some more trustworthy guidance. But in addition to the branch of teaching, the most important of all, which alone can hope to reclaim man's nature; and in addition to that subsidiary instruction which may have utility for its primary object, why should not resources be opened from which the labouring man could derive a rational enjoyment? If the peasant of Scotland, after his day's toil, can “read the sacred page,” (Burns's Coller's Saturday Night,) he can also “tune his hea ot" to the songs, and recreate his mind with the history and literature, of his country. To the imperfectly instructed, more often totally ignorant, peasant of England, the Bible itself is but partially unsealed; the written language of his country conveys to him no clear and certain sense; the national events of the past speak very feebly to him, if at all, in the form either of history or tradition ; the memorials of antiquity which meet his eye awaken but few associations; the beauty of ecclesiastical architecture, presented to him perhaps weekly, if not daily, produces no impression of elevating and refining pleasure ; imagination and fancy have no stores for him ; nature and art equally veil from him their wonders and their beauties; the higher motives of action and higher sources of enjoyment are unrevealed and unintelligible to his apprehension; and, being accustomed for the most part to be dealt with in the spirit of mere monetary speculation, he feels it difficult to understand that men's actions towards him can be ruled by any other law. If, in those parts of the country to which this description may more particularly apply, there may be any serious wish to raise the standard of religion, morality, intelligence, and well-being among the labouring population—to take one step towards filling up the vast intervals by which the various orders of society are now separated-tų make the honest tenant of a cottage in deed and in truth a partaker of those blessings and advantages which he may justly require at the hands of his country-many, and some the most valuable, of those “ seeds of time” must be planted in the village-school, and receive their culture under a system which must contain in it something more of education than the mere name.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Council Office, Whitehall.
CONVE Y ANCE.
[See generally, as to the Form, the 4th and 5th Vict. c. 38, § 10, which
was perused by the late Lord Advocate of Scotland, and stated by him to be perfectly applicable to conveyances of schools in Scotland.)
FORM No. 1.
Conveyance of a Site or Buildings to Trustees for a National School. I, A. B. of
under the authority of an Act passed in the 5th year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled "An Act to afford further Facilities for the Conveyance and En dowment of Sites for Schools," do hereby (freely and voluntarily, and with: out valuable consideration), or in consideration of pounds to me paid, grant and convey unto C. D., E. F., and G. H., and their heirs, (or unto the rector, churchwardens, and overseers of the poor of the parish of
and their successors,) all*
(which said premises are delineated in the map drawn in the margin hereof);t together with all easements, appurtenances and hereditaments, corporeal and incorporeal, belonging thereto or connected therewith ; and all my estate, right, title, and interest in or to the same premises; to hold the same unto and to the use of the said C. D., E. F., and G. H., their heirs and assigns; or (of the said rector, churchwardens, and overseers of the poor, and their successors,) for the purposes of the said Act; and upon trust, to permit the said premises, and all buildings thereon erected or to be erected, to be for ever hereafter appropriated and used as and for a school for the education of children and adults, or children only, of the labouring, manufacturing, and other poorer classes in the parish of
aforesaid (and as a residence for the schoolmaster], and for no other purpose; which said school shall always be conducted upon the principles off the Incorporated National Society for promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church (and shall be under the general management and control of the committee for the time being of the subscribers to the said school],|| and shall be at all times open to the inspection of the Inspector or Inspectors for the time being, appointed or to be appointed in conformity with the Order in Council bearing date the 10th day of August, 1840.
And it is hereby further declared, that as often as any of the present or future trustees shall die, or go to reside beyond the seas, or desire to be discharged from, or decline or become incapable to act in the trusts hereby in them reposed, it shall be lawsul for the [then surviving or continuing trustees or trustee, or the executors or administrators of the last surviving or continuing trustee, or if there shall be no such surriving or continuing trustee, for the person so going to reside beyond the seas, or desiring to be discharged, or declining as aforesaid, his erecutors or administrators]* to appoint any other person or persons to be a trustee or trustees in the place of the trustee or trustees so dying, or going to reside beyond the seas, or desiring to be discharged, or declining or becoming incapable to act as aforesaid; and upon every such appointment, all the hereditaments subject to the tru:ts aforesaid shall be forth with effectually vested by such assurances or other acts, as the circumstances of the case may render proper, in such new trustee or trustees, either solely or jointly with the surviving or continuing trustee or trustees, as occasion shall require, upon the trusts and with the provisions by and in these presents declared and contained concerning the said trust premises.
* Here insert a short, clear, verbal description of the property to be conveyed.
Or township or union or other district, as the case may require.
Where the trustees themselves have the sole superintendence and control of the school, this clause will be omitted.
And I do hereby, for myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators, covenant with the said C. D., E. F., and G. H., their heirs and assigns, or the said rector, churchwardens, and overseers, and their successors, that notwithstanding any act or default of me, or of any of my ancestors, I have good right to assure the said premises to the use of the said C. D., E. F., and G. H., their heirs and assigns, or the said rector, churchwardens, and overseers, and their successors, in manner aforesaid ; and that the said premises shall at all times hereafter be held and enjoyed upon the trusts and in manner aforesaid, without interruption from, and free from all incumbrances by me, or my heirs, or any person lawfully claiming under or in trust for me or them, or any of my ancestors; and that I and my heirs, and all persons claiming under or in trust for me or them, or any of my ancestors, shall
, upon every request, and at the expense of the said C. D)., E. F., and G. H., their heirs or assigns, or the said rector, church wardens, and overseers, and their successors, make and perfect all such further assurances of the said premises as may be required by them for conveying the same to the use of the said C.D., E. F., and G. II., their heirs and assigns, or the said rector, churchwardens, and overseers, and their successors, in manner aforesaid.
In witness, &c.
FORM No. 2.
Coreyance of a Site or Buildings to Trustees for a School on the
Plan of the British and Foreign School Society. I, A. B.
under the authority of an Act passed in the 5th year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled “An Act to afford further Facilities for the Conveyance and Endowment of Sites for Schools,” do hereby (freely and voluntarily, and without valuable consideration) or in consideration of pounds to me paid, grant and convey unto C. D., E. F., and G. H., and their heirs, (or unto the rector, churchwardens, and overseers of the poor of the said parish of
and their successors,) * Or, minister for the time being of the parish (as may be thought best].
+ This clause will be omitted where the land is conveyed to the rector, churchwardens, and overseers.