occurred as their lesson for the day. Some words were mispronounced, some were omitted, and some were inserted in the place of others so as to destroy the sense of the passage.

Before the 23rd verse was finished by the confused and stammering boy the master's patience was utterly exhausted, and as some proper names were still to be mastered by the faltering scholar, he exclaimed to him,“ Hold your tongue," and then added to the next boy, “Go on with the next verse.” After the chapter was finished I asked them what they had been reading about; all were for a while silent; at length one brighter than the rest said, “ The lot fell upon Matthias.” This opened the way for other questions, when we proceeded thus :

What was the lot about?- (General silence.)
Where was Galilee ?-1, Part of Judea; 2, Middle of Samaria.

Who were these men of Galilee ?—The men as was gazing up into heaven.

What country was Nazareth in ?-Bethlehem.
How long did Jesus Christ live at Nazareth ?-12 years.
What town in Galilee did he chiefly live in ?--Jerusalem.

All this while the master, leaving the rest of the school to helpless confusion, and directing his whole attention, like a good general, to the regiment which was in jeopardy, was close by exhorting them with tempestuous looks, and with a voice of thunder, to do their duty. “Come, make haste," “ Speak up you silly fellow," "Why don't you boys tell,” with similar stimulants, formed an undersong to the whole lesson, and made me simplify my questions and reduce their number, lest I should expose the unhappy stanımerers to a whirlwind of indignation upon my leaving

the room.

No. 12.- Present 101 girls; very clean and in good order. Twenty-five girls in the first class read to me the 17th chapter of the First Book of Kings; in the course of which examination Cherith was said to be a country through which the Jordan flowed ; Ahab was termed a prophet; and much other similar information was afforded. Eleven of these children had been in the school three years; seven of them were above 12 years old, and they had read no book in the school except the Bible.

No. 13,- The mistress accounted for the fact that none of the girls learned arithmetic, by stating that in her opinion it was unnecessary for them. The writing in the few copy-books exhibited was extremely bad, and yet it had already conferred distinction on the young writers, for, said the mistress, “As many as writes comes into the first class." The school being a national school, the only books in use were those of the National School Society.

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No. 14.-Present 167 boys, of whom 20 selected for their attainments read to me Acts xxviii., which was the chapter they had most recently read. The following questions and answers occurred :

What is an apostle ?–1. A disciple; 2. A scholar, or one taught; 3. A leader; 4. Silence.

What is an island ?—Plenty of water.

What is meant by barbarous in this place ?-1. Wrecked; 2. Cruel; 3. Silence.

What is Alexandria ?-Castor and Pollux.
Where was Putcoli?--Judæa.
For what was Paul made a prisoner?-(Silence.)

Of what religion was Paul before he became a Christian ?-A Roman Catholic.

There were many similar answers given in the course of the examination.

No. 15.- Present 87 girls, of whom about one-half were sitting on their forms without books and doing nothing. The first class read Mark v. to the mistress, who put to them the following questions, and admitted the answers here recorded :

What came to meet Jesus ?-An unclean spirit.
Where did it dwell ?- In the tombs.
Why did it run to meet him ?—That he might heal him.
What did the unclean spirit say?_" What have I to do," &c.
Where were they nigh unto?-Jerusalem.

Why could they not bind him ?-Because he had been bound before.

Read 4th verse. What is meant by taming him ?-(Silence.) On which the mistress explained it to mean that no mau could bind him down.

REPORT by Seymour TREMENHEERE, Esq., on the State of

EDUCATION in the Mining Districts of CORNWALL.


London, December 24, 1840. In prosecuting an inquiry into the state of elementary instruction among the mining classes of the county of Cornwall, it appeared to me that I should be able to present to my Lords the Committee of Council a more satisfactory view of the subject, by limiting the field of investigation to a portion only of each of the three chief mining districts of the county.

These three districts may be said to have their respective centres at St. Blazey, near St. Anstell

, at Redruth, and at St. Just, near the Land's End. They are in diameter, the first about six, the second fourteen, the third seven miles, and are separated from each other by intervening tracts of country chiefly agricultural. They are indicated on the geological map by the presence of the granite protruding through the slate formation in vast masses of unequal extent. Near the junction of these two series of rocks the metallic minerals are found.

The mining population is thickly scattered over these mineral districts, living in cottages of stone, strongly built, slated, and with whitewashed fronts ; single or standing two or three together, or in groups forming considerable villages. By far the greater number have small gardens attached to them; many have also from one to three acres of land. Some hundreds of these cottages may often be seen from one point of view; dispersed irregularly over the wide slopes' of the hills, or following the direction of the valleys, or of the main lines of road. At the same time the engine-houses of the mines will be conspicuous, the machinery for raising, stamping, and cleansing the ore, and the continuous mounds of refuse, extending along the course of the lodes. These lodes, or narrow laminæ, are often traceable for some miles, in a direction for the most part from east to west. They present their upper edges towards the surface, and descend with variable continuity, to the lowest depths that the skill of the miner has yet enabled him to reach.

The workings of a mine may extend according to different circumstances of age, prosperity, or permission from the lords of the soil, from a hundred yards in length to above a mile. Hence the aspect of the surface of the country where the mines are situated is various. In some localities they have covered the entire surface with the débris of ancient and actual workings, and obliterated every trace of vegetation within a space of a mile or two in circumference. More frequently they are seen spreading over the cultivated fields, and in the midst of an agricultural population. In some few spots, especially in the Land's End district, their machinery stands on bold prominences of the cliffs above the sea; while their workings are pushed to a great depth and extent beneath it. But in no part of the mining districts is the population collected into dense masses, nor are their cottages placed in other than healthy and airy situations, often commanding wide. views of the surrounding country and of the sea.

The first and obvious impression received from the appearance of the cottages, is that of the general prevalence of a state of comfort and well-being. This is confirmed by subsequent observation of their interior neatness, the quality of the food, the mode of preparing it, the state of the furniture, the dress of the people on ordinary occasions, and on Sundays and holidays.

No inconsiderable number of miners inhabit cottages built by themselves. Out of 685, of whom the question was asked, 161, or nearly one-fourth, were possessed of cottages of their own.

The cost of building a cottage is from 351. to 501. The land, generally a piece of uninclosed common, is granted for three lives, on payment of a small high-rent to the lord. The rest of the dwellings for the mining class have been erected for the most part by persons in trade, belonging to the large mining villages or to the neighbouring towns. The accumulations by all classes, due chiefly to mining prosperity, are further indicated by the deposits in the savings' banks of the county, amounting in the aggregate to 281,5417., at least two-thirds of which are said to belong to individuals now working, or who have worked, in the mines. Although these circumstances may afford an inference that the characteristic pecuniary condition of the mining class is one of ease, nevertheless there are not wanting numerous instances of severe privation, and occasional periods of distress.

A feature not less favourable than their physical condition is that of the general intelligence of the mining population. Those who have the best opportunities of observing, remark the apprehensiveness they display on all occasions requiring the exercise of that quality. Clergymen, strangers to the county, find that their addresses from the pulpit are readily understood and commented upon by the labouring classes, Men of science bear willing testimony to the skill and talent exhibited by the working miners in relation to their various occupations. Every stranger who comes in contact with them is disposed to the conclusion that the intellectual capacity of the class of miners in this county reaches a standard above the average of a labouring population. This result seems to How principally from their mode of life, from the distribution of their hours of labour, and from the constant and insensible education of circumstances, derived from the nature of their daily employments.

Of learning acquired from books they have very little. A large proportion of the adult male population is unable to read; a still larger is unable to write ; and very few of the females, young or old, can do either. Nor can it be said that an appreciation of the value of more instruction for their children, than they themselves received, is very great or general; or that in those cases where they admit its value, they are prepared to make much sacrifice to obtain it. Nevertheless an improvement to a certain extent is said to have taken place in the prevalent feeling.

The portions of the three districts which I selected as the particular field of inquiry into the number of schools and the general state of elementary education, consisted of the parishes of Tywardreath, St. Blazey, Gwennap, Redruth, Illogan, St. Agnes, and St. Just, containing most of the chief mines in the county, and an entire population supposed to amount to about 52,000.

From various sources of information, but chietly from inspection of, and extracts from, the rate-books of these parishes, I am led to estimate those engaged in mines, and their families, at two

thirds of the whole, the rest of the inhabitants being chiefly engaged in agriculture, professions, and trade. Some few schools and mines in the neighbouring parishes also demanded attention.

The parishes above specified contain 37 common day-schools. Of these I visited 32; the rest being remote, and too small to require a special visit. Regular books of admission not being kept in many of these schools, I received in most cases from the respective masters and mistresses the following account of the total numbers and the


attendance: COMMON Day Schools.

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It cannot fail to be a subject of

regret to all

persons interested in these respective parishes, that out of so large a population only 1086 boys and 528 girls should at the present time be receiving the benefit of instruction in the common elementary day-schools of the working classes.

It may be worth while to endeavour to approximate to the numbers who, in the midst of this population, are growing up without such advantage as may be received from these schools. The number of children between the ages of 5 and 15 may be taken at one-fourth of the population. The following, therefore, will be the result:One-fourth of 51,500 .

13,000 Deduct, children of the higher and middle

classes, also children of the labouring classes sick, or prevented by casualties from attending, say one-third

4,333 Carried forward

4,333 13,000


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