Lectures on European Civilisation. are suffered to follow their natural

By M. Guizot, late Minister for laws, when force does not interfere, Public Instruction. 1837, pp. 469. power falls into the hands of the most

J. Macrone, St. James's-square. able, the most worthy ; those who are We refer to these lectures in order to most capable of carrying out the prinbring before our readers some of the ciples on which the society was founded. observations, on the arrangements of Is a warlike expedition in agitation ? the professing Church, of a keen- The bravest take the command. Is sighted observer of events. M. Guizot, the object of the association learned in these lectures, which appear to have research, or a scientific undertaking ? excited intense interest at Paris,

The best informed will be the leader. cessively brought under observation In all circumstances, when the world the principal elements of modern so- is left to its natural course, the natural ciety ; the feudal aristocracy, the inequality between men is openly dischurch, the communes, and royalty.” played, and every one assumes the Our attention will be solely occupied place he is capable of occupying. In by his remarks on the church ;" that religious affairs the same inequality of is to say, the Catholic Church, in its talents, of faculties, and of gifts, is relations to society. We read in the apparent. One man may be more Word of God, that “ the children of fitted than another to expound relithis world are, in their generation, gious doctrines, and to cause them to wiser than the children of light :” a be generally received. Another postruth to which ecclesiastical history sesses more authority in compelling bears ample testimony, and of which the observance of religious precepts; the following preliminary observations another may excel in exciting and are, perhaps, an additional illustra- cherishing religious emotions and ex

pectations in the soul. The inequality

of faculties and influence, which is the P. 149.-“ No society can endure a foundation of power in civil life, has week; nay, more, no society can endure the same effect in a religious society. a single hour without a government. Therefore, religion has no sooner The moment a society is formed, in- arisen in the human mind than a deed, by the very fact of its formation, religious society appears, and immeit calls forth a government-a go- diately a religious society is formed it vernment which shall proclaim the produces its government. common truth which is the bond of the Compulsion, the employment of force, society, and promulgate and maintain is not then the essential principle of the precepts that this truth ought to government; that principle chiefly produce. The necessity of a superior consists in a system of measures, and power, of a form of government, is powers, conceived for the purpose of involved in the fact of the existence ascertaining what ought to be done of a religious, as it is in that of any on every occasion ; of discovering the other, society; and not only is a go- truth which ought to govern

the vernment necessary, but it naturally society, in order to introduce it into forms itself. Time does not permit the popular mind, and cause it to be me to explain at length in what man- voluntarily, and freely accepted. It ner governments generally arise, and is not, therefore, difficult to imagine become established ; I shall content that a government may


necessary, myself by observing, that when events and may exist, although compulsion

tion :


is not admitted—although it should “ Two principles prevailed in the even be absolutely interdicted.

church. First, The election of the “ Such, gentlemen, is the govern- inferior by the superior-choice or ment of a religious society. Without nomination ; Secondly, The election doubt, it ought never to employ com- of the superior by the subordinate, pulsion ; without doubt, its province --or, what is properly called election, being the human conscience, the em- such as we now conceive it to be. ployment of force is illegitimate under “ The ordination of priests, for exwhatsoever pretext. But a govern- ample, the faculty of constituting any ment still exists. It ought to man a priest, was the privilege of the promulgate and maintain the precepts superior-the superior elected the inwhich correspond with its doctrines; ferior.

In other cases, the it ought to teach and inculcate them, principle of true election prevailed. in order that if the society deviates The bishops were for a long time, and, from them, they may be recalled to at the epoch we are considering they its remembrance. Here is no com- were still frequently, elected by the pulsion, but inquiry, instruction, and clergy: the faithful, or general body the promulgation of religious truths; of Christians, occasionally had a voice and, if necessary, admonition and cen- in their election. In the monasteries,

This is the office of a religious the abbot was elected by the monks ; government; this is its duty.

at Rome, the popes were elected by 66 The conditions of legitimacy are the college of cardinals; and, in the the same in the government of a re- earlier ages, all the Roman clergy ligious as in that of any other society. assisted. You therefore perceive, that They may be reduced to two. The these two principles, the choice of the first is, that power should be possessed inferior by the superior, and the elecand constantly held, at least as far as tion of the superior by the subordithe imperfection of human affairs per- nates, were recognised and employed mits, by the most excellent, the most by the church, especially at the period able individuals; that those who are we are studying: it was either by one most competent to direct society (les

or the other of these means that she supériorités légitimes), and who are nominated those destined to exercise dispersed amidst it, should be sought any part of the ecclesiastical power. for, brought forward, and invited to “ Not only were these two princidiscover the social law, and to exer- ples coexistent, but, being essentially cise authority. The second is, that

different, they were continually in oppower, when legitimately constituted, position. After many ages, after nu

ects the legitimate liberties of merous vicissitudes, the nomination of those whom it governs.”

the inferior by the superior became

the practice of the Christian church. Happy, indeed, would it have been

But in general, from the fifth to the for Christian societies had these prin

twelfth century, the other principle, ciples been respected. Our author

that of the choice of the superior by proceeds with a sketch of the progress of the Church from the earliest ages,

the subordinate, still prevailed. Let

us not be surprised, that two such opand its effects on civilisation :

posite principles should have existed P. 159_“ How was it possible for together. If we consider society in the Church, which admitted all men general, if we observe the natural to power, to ascertain their right to course of the world, the mode in which it? How did she discover in the power is transmitted, we shall perbosom of society, how did she sepa- ceive that this transmission is effected, rate from it, the legitimate superiori- sometimes in accordance with one of ties (supériorités légitimes) who ought these modes, sometimes with the other. to take part in her government? The church did not invent them; she





found them in the laws of Provi. cause sprung the greatest proportion
dence for the regulation of human of those abuses which, even at that
affairs, and she adopted them from epoch, and afterward, to a much
that source. There is truth and utility greater extent, were fatal to the
in both: their combination would fre- church.”
quently be the best means of disco- P. 180_“ We have seen that very
vering those who should legitimately early, the idea arose and prevailed,
possess power. It is, in my opinion, that theology, the questions and affairs
most unfortunate that one of these of religion, were the peculiar and
principles—the nomination of the in- privileged domain of the clergy ; that
ferior by the superior-should have the clergy possessed not only the right
obtained the ascendancy in the church: to decide, but even to occupy them-
the other, nevertheless, was not com- selves concerning those questions, and
pletely annihilated, and, under various that the laity ought, in no manner, to
names, and more or less successfully interfere. ***
became frequently reproduced, with, at “ This effect is, nevertheless, more
least, sufficient force to protest against, pernicious in a religious, than in any
and frequently interrupt the prescrip- other society. What is the question,

concerns the governed ? Their

reason, their conscience, their future We regret that our limits will not destiny ; in fact, every thing that is allow more than a transient glance at most secret, most personal, and most the remainder of M. Guizot's able free. We can, in some measure, concomments on the different states of ceive, that a man may abandon the the church, from the eighth to the direction of his material interests, his twelfth century,

an imperial temporal affairs, to an outward authochurch, as a barbarian church, as a rity, although most injurious consefeudal church, and as a theocratic quences may thereby be produced. We church.” But we must find room for can understand the philosopher who, an extract on the point which he when he was informed that his house deems 66 the radical vice" in the was on fire, replied, “Go and tell my church, “the separation of the Chris- wife, I do not meddle with household tian clergy from the people.”

affairs.' But when conscience, mind,

and intellectual existence are P. 1784" This evil was intro- cerned, to abdicate self-government, duced at a very early period into the to abandon oneself to an extrinsic Christian Church. The separation of power, is a moral suicide, a servitude the clergy from the Christian people, infinitely more galling than personal had not been entirely consummated at slavery, than , the condition of the the epoch we were considering ; the serf.' people had still, on certain occasionssometimes, for example, in the elec- We must now take our leave of M. tion of bishops—a direct interference Guizot, trusting that these lectures, in the ecclesiastical government. But which have produced some considerthis interference became continually

able effect on the public mind in less frequent, less powerful, and even, France, may be productive of good, in the second century of our era, it though we rely very little on any exhad rapidly and visibly begun to de- tension of knowledge in reference to cline. Even from its cradle, a ten- what ought to be the arrangements of dency to isolation, and the indepen- Christian societies, unless accompadency of the clergy, forms, to a great nied by a clear exhibition of that extent, the history of the church. “ truth” which alone can“ make free”

“We cannot deny, that from this the bond-slaves of sin and Satan.







Puseyism :“1. The Church of
Christ is planted in Scotland. 2.
There are not two branches of the

Protestant Church. 3. It is implied In the year 1836, the General Assem- that there are two branches of the bly of the Scotch Church passed a Church in Scotland, these being the resolution of friendly sentiments in Papal and the Protestant Episcofavour of the Established Church of palian.

palian. 4. The other professedly England; it was a declaration of sym- Christian body, popularly known as pathy in the alarming visitation of the the Church of Scotland, is no part of voluntary system, which was at that the Church of Christ”!!! Here is time threatening both the Presby- the voice of the Vatican in all its terian and the Episcopalian Establish- thunders; here is an excision of all ments. The expediency of making a the Christians of Scotland, except the common cause was felt and acknow- few Papists and the few Episcopalians ledged by the reasonable men north of the Anglican Church north of the and south of the Tweed; and Dr. Tweed, and that by a decision of a Chalmers has, by his lectures in Lon- committee of a society “established don, endeavoured to cement the union for the promotion of Christian knowbetween the two ancient antagonists. ledge.They acknowledge the Papists No such union, however, can possibly as brothers in Christ, because they take place; the English bishops and believe in diocesan bishops; which, priests, and other partisans, animated indeed, is a disinterested show of affecwith the Popish spirit—intoxicated tion on their part, as the Papists, with with secular power, and holding to one

voice, deny that the Episcopalians the apostolical succession as the very of England are part of the Church of life of their system, cannot endure Christ, or are indeed any thing but any approach of the Presbyterians, heretics. In the mean time, the except in the attitude of suppliant he- Scotch Presbyterians, feeling the inretics, humbly seeking salvation within sults continually offered to them by the pale of the prelacy, within which the Episcopalians, and remembering alone do they acknowledge that there well the old controversy which was is any hope of salvation. If the Pres- not settled without bloodshed, are not byterian Church of Scotland be ac- backward on their part to speak out knowledged to be a church at all, it their sentiments of contempt, aversion, follows inevitably that the Episco- and defiance, against the advocates of palian Church is not a sine qua non ; that church which their ancestors con: that in fact it is a matter of indif- quered, and drove out of Scotland. ference whether the Presbyterian or The “ centenary commemoration" of Episcopalian system be upheld, and the celebrated Assembly of the Church that the divine right of diocesan pre- of Scotland, which assembled in 1638, lacy is a delusion. Animated with and overturned the Episcopacy of these feelings, the Committee of the James and Charles, has lately furChristian Knowledge Society, January nished an occasion for a display of 15, 1838, passed the following reso- the true sentiments of the Presbylutions, which were proposed by Mr. terians. This commemoration took Dodsworth, a well-known leader of place on the 20th of December last.




The Rev. Mr. Lorimer thus uttered ful province of Ireland ? and what is his feelings against Episcopacy, in a by far the most eminent and influenspeech at the public dinner :-"I tial Church of the United States of cannot shut my eyes to the fact,” said America--a Church which has rehe, “that as a matter of history, the centy vindicated her discipline, by Church of Scotland was reformed, not cutting off fifteen unsound congregaas some ignorant advocates of Epis- tional Presbyteries at a strike? They copacy imagine, from the Church of are both Presbyterian. Nay, more, England, but came forth directly from Sir, who were the men to whom the Church of Rome; and that there- England, and her religion and liberfore the thrusting of Episcopacy upon ties, were in the seventeenth century her, by James and his unhappy son, so deeply indebted? They were the was an act of the grossest usurpation, Presbyterian Nonconformists the and which was moreover carried into Church Establishment

the effect by the most base, jesuitical, and despised Puritans of England. The violent means. I cannot forget that truth is, the Church of England the bishops were deposed by our stands almost alone in her Episcopacy. noble-minded ancestors of 1638, be- I say it without any disrespect; she is cause their office had no authority in an anomaly among the daughters of Scripture; because they had been the the Reformation ; and high as some greatest instruments in the hands of of her modern advocates may talk of the king in oppressing the people, and their peculiar and exclusive privileges, because many of them were also no- the Reformers of the Church—the torious for unsound doctrine, Popish moral heroes of the age of Edward learning, and immoral life. Yes, my VI., with whom the Newmans, and Lord Provost, they and their Church the Kebles, and the Puseys of the were not indigenous, the nature, the

present times are not to be namedcherished growth of the Scottish soil. would have been ashamed of their No; they were like a miserable party modern descendants, and would have of foreigners, without any hold on, or disowned them as apostates. Never sympathy in the country; put forth did they dream of unchurching the as mere puppets, convenient tools, to Protestant Church of Scotland. No ; serve the purposes of a domineering they were glad to learn from her; crown." - It would be well for such they envied her high reformation ; persons to remember that Episcopacy they embraced her with the affection embraces but a small number of the of a sister; they would almost have churches of the Protestant Reforma- died for her principles.”—Dr. Patertion. Who were the Waldenses, those son, D.D. said, “The people knew noble men who throughout the dark the natural history of the Beast, and reign of Popery kept alive the flames they could recognise him crouching of pure religion, and thus fulfilled the

on his muffled paw as well as in his Master's promise, of perpetual pre- rampant mode, vexing, tearing, and sence in his Church?

They were tormenting. They were not to be Presbyterians. What was the Pro- taken by his gentle look; and the only testant Church of France ?

safety was to see him out of the land; strictly Presbyterian. What were the and to see out also a corrupted EpisProtestant Churches of Holland, Swit

copacy, which had sheltered and diszerland, Germany-so remarkable for guised him."— The Rev. J. C. Bown the eminent learning of many of their said, “ It was monstrous to contend ministers-a learning which Episcopal that the civil rulers should be the England is not ashamed to borrow ? head of the Church. Why, the suThey were, they are, Presbyterian, preme civil powers might be in the What is the Church of the only peace

hands of a female, and were they to

She was

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