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studied her part with sufficient application, and was, moreover, lady, it will be remembered, began her career some ten years
wanting in spirit and energy ; besides, her intonation was not since, in Mexico, when a girl only nineteen. She afterwards
always true, and once the public gave vent to a slight hissing, by passed through the United States, and made a powerful sensation
way of disapprobation. Mad. Richter was more successful; as a concert-singer. She arrived in London in 1846, and rapidly
although evidently indisposed, she performed her task with rose to the high position she at present enjoys in Europe,
great credit. Herr Marloff tried to do his best, and the more | 2. Signorina Aldini-a young, pretty and fresh contralto, twenty-
he studies the part of Skawrousky the better he will be able to | two years of age-une blonde piquante, with a sympathetic voice
sing it. Herr Brassin sang tolerably, and in the last act and good method. She will appear in the Trovatore as Azucena,
especially did ample justice to the music. The rest of the to Madame Lagrange's Leonora. 3. Signor Salviani-one of the
characters were assigned to those who were able to take them, most promising of tenors, thirty-two years of age. Voice
and in general sung but indifferently. The chorus was in powerful, and with true 'tenor' ring. Said to be a first-rate
miserable condition, and at different times in danger of musician-possessing remarkable flexibility for Rossinian music,
breaking down-in fact, the number was insufficient to give the although his forte is of the Meyerbeerian style. He sung in the
required impression to those weighty and powerful choruses. Prophète last season in Florence, and, after Roger and Tam-
The band reflected great credit on themselves and their able berlik (what of Mario?) is considered the best representative of
conductor Riccius. The scenery, decorations, &c., with the this role. 4. Signor Caspani-a young basso with an extraordi-
assistance of a little foreign help, were, if not magnificently, yet nary voice. Said to be in every respect superior to Susini."
tastefully got up. The audience did not appear greatly satisfied The American critics are not to be despised, although they
with the performance, for it maintained throughout a chilly might have formed unto themselves a higher standard than
coldness, and at the conclusion each tried to rush out of the Susini.
theatre, forgetting to recall any one, the opera having lasted

DRESDEN.-Herr J. A. van Eyken, organist of Elberfeld, gave
from half-past six to half-past ten o'clock, which was too long
a time for the Germans to hold out, whatever may be the attrac-

an organ concert, a short time since, in the Frauenkirche. tion. I have said nothing of the music, which you may judge

POSEN.—Die Lustigen Weiber von Windsor, by Nicolai, will had hardly a chance. That it will please and delight after being shortly be produced. heard a few times I have not a doubt. Not having room this | KÖNIGSBERG.-Malle. Anna Zerr is about to give a series of time, I will tell you about the second Gewandhaus concert in performance. my next contribution.

NEW YORK.-The transatlantic journals for some time past have proftered us but little in the way of information in musical HERR GOLLMICK AT FRANKFORT. matters. In fact, since Grisi and Mario left America there has been nothing like a sensation created ; and Mademoiselle

The following interesting critique on a concert lately given at Rachel came in the very nick of time to “stir up" the Yankee

the Yankee Frankfort, by Herr Adolph Gollmick, is quoted from the Muse, sympathies, which were growing dormant for want of exercise.

one of the leading art-journals of Germany : The success of the great French actress has been unparalleled “An agreeable entertainment was presented to us a few days for its universality everywhere. In the cases of Jenny Lind, since by Herr Adolph Gollmick, in a performance of his own Alboni, Sontag, and Grisi, there were always found murmurers compositions, at a matinée which took place at the concertand antagonists, who would have their own opinions and did rooms of the “Mozart Haus." This young pianist-the son of not fear to censure openly. But Rachel literally has found no the well-known musical writer-has for many years been resiexceptive voice. All agree as to her transcendent genius, and dent in London, where he has earned an honourable reputation all America throws itself at the feet of the mighty tragedienne, as a composer and a pianist. His style of playing is not only and pronounces criticism dumb. Even those who had seen her distinguished by brilliancy and execution, but is remarkable for in Europe and were enraptured with her, are now, having seen a sentiment and expression which strike a chord in every heart. her in America, more enraptured than ever. The visit of His compositions partake of the same character as his playing, Rachel to the New Continent is likely to have an effect far beyond and are full of variety and feeling. that of affording delight and astonishment. “ Before I speak of “A quartette in G minor, for piano, violin, tenor, and violonmusic proper," writes the New York correspondent of Dwight's cello, well merited the praise it received by its elegant and unBoston Journal (date Sept 29), "let me say a word as to the great assuming style, as well as the pure form and perfect harmony artistic treat we New-Yorkers are enjoying in the presence of which charactérise it throughout. We trace no recollection of Rachel. Though I had heard her abroad, her performance former subjects in this composition, which may well be numhere has most agreeably disappointed my recollections. bered among the best of its kind. In the morceaux de salon And every time one sees her, the more her splendid acting is which Herr Gollmick introduced, we observed a lyric and enjoyed. I am in great hopes that her visit will exercise a good fanciful individuality not to be met with in the ordinary comeffect on the American stage, and I am glad to see so many of positions of this class. This is particularly the case with a our rising actors among the audience. Last night was the first capriccio, entitled 'Fairy Dell,' which attracted the attention of the low prices, and it fully answered expectation, the house of the numerous and brilliant company of ladies, as well as all being very well filled."-Signor (Mr. ?) Borrani has seceded from the principal artists of Frankfort, who testified their applause the Pyne-Harrison party, and Mr. Stretton, the English Tam | in an unequivocal manner. burini (!!!) has arrived to take his place. Miss Louisa Pyne “We again had the pleasure of listening to an original compohas received pressing and tempting offers to join the company sition by Herr Gollmick at the theatre after the rehearsal of about to be formed at the Lyceum Theatre, London, to open the Méhul's Josef in Egypt, when his Overture in E Minor was new English National Opera. Mr. Harrison, on the contrary, performed in excellent style. It is the production of a cheerful has received no offer. Mrs. Alexander Gibbs is giving her Irish mind and accomplished musician. The original subject glides entertainment, called “The Emerald Isle," at the Apollo Rooms, sylph-like through every movement: the rhythms are most Broadway.-The engagement for the new operatic establish I piquants, and the concluding theme charming. The only fault ment, about to be started at New York, under the title of “The we have to find with the overture is that it ends too abruptly, Academy of Music,” is thus alluded to in the Morning Times : which may also be observed respecting the Quartett. It was no “We have now definite information concerning the opening and | doubt Herr Gollmick's intention to be concise, wishing that his prospects of the Academy of Music, and of the artists secured | listeners should complain of the subjects being too short rather for the company. Lagrange, Hensler, Brignoli, Morelli, and than protracted. Nevertheless, we ourselves would desire Amodio have been re-engaged, and the following new artists a more grateful extension of the finales, and we have the more have been selected for Mr. Pyne by Signor Mario:-1. The cele pleasure in expressing this wish as we feel assured that in his brated soprano Castellan, from the London Covent Garden, for next essay the talented composer will condescend to gratify whom Meyerbeer wrote the part of Bertha, in the Prophète. This our taste,"

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For Two Violins, Tenor, and Bass. To be sold at the reduced prices annexed :-
£ 8. d.'' 8. d.

£ 8.
Boieldieu, Le Petit Chaperon Rouge
i 10 – 10 6 Rossini, Ov. to Armida

04 ; Overture to Ma Tante Aurore, by Martin 0 4 6

do, Donna del Lago ... Cherubini, Faniska, by M. C. Fischer

13 6

do. Elizabeth ... Cimarosa, Matrimonio Segretto, 2 bks.

... ... 1 2 6

do. La Cenerentola ... Haydn, 7 last Words of Christi, Op. 48

5 6 0

do. La Gazza Ladra ... , Seasons, arranged by Neukomm

17 6 »

do. L'Italiana in Algieri Himmel, Fanchon, 2 bks. ... Les Sylphes ... .. .. ...

do. Ricciardo e Zoraide Martin, L'Abore di Diana ... ...

do. Semiramide ... Méhul, Joseph in Egypt, by Sprengel

... 0 12 6

do. Torvaldo e Dorlisea Mozart, L'Enlèvement du Sérail ...

... 0 6

Op. Ricciardo e Zoraide, by Küffner „ Zauberflöte, 2 Parts ... ...

0 11 6

do. Semiramide

"

... ... · La Clemenza di Tito... .

0 13 6

., do, Zelmira, by Roessinger, 2 bks. .. . 6 favourite Overtures : viz., Don Juan, Fi.

Spontini, Ov. to Olympia ...

050 - 20 garo, Titus, Zauberflöte, Entführung,

Vigano, Othelle, Grand Tragic Ballet ...
Cosi fan tutte i ... 1.... ...
0 10 6 - 66 Weigl, La Famille Suisse

..011 6 Ov. to Op. L'Impressario in Augustie in. ... 0 30 - 16! Das Waiseulaus ... ...

... 090

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OPERAS AND OVERTURES ARRANGED AS DUETS,

FOR TWO VIOLINS. TO BE SOLD AT THE REDUCED PRICES ANNEXED. Auber, Gustave ...

-16 | Nicolo, 3 Duets from the Opera Leonice, by Gasse , Overture and select pieces from La Fiancée ...

2 6 3 Overture to do. ... , Overture to ditto

01 Duets from the Opera Les Confidences ... , Overture and eight pieces from La Muette

L „ 3 Duets from L’Jutrigue aux Fenetres Bochsa (C. N.), Air du Roi et la Ligue...

,Airs from Michael Angelo Boieldieu, Airs from La Dame Blanche...

Overture to Les Deux Contesses „ Jean de Paris, by L. Wolff

Paer, do. to Achilles Cherubini, Overture to Anacreon

„ do. to Agnese ... Overture to L'Hôtellerie Portugaise

Rossini, Armida ... ... Cimarosa, Overture to Il Matrimonio Segretto

Cenerentola .. , Select Airs from ditto

Overture to Elisabetta ... Collection of favourite Pieces from Operas and Ballets,

Airs from do., arranged by Küffner Nos. 1 to 13

...

Il Turco in Italia, 2 books Dalayrac, Overture to Nina .

Italiani in Algieri . ... ... Glück, Overture to Alceste

Another edition, 2 books . „ to Iphigénie en Aulide

1 0

do. Select Airs from, arranged by Küffner ,, to Orpheus and Armida

1 0 1 La Gazza Ladra, 2 books Gréty, Overture to La Caravanne

another edition ... ... ... : „ Overture to Panurge...

Othello ... ... Kauer, Airs from Nymph of the Danube, 2

do. arranged by Roessinger, 2 books Kreutzer, Overture to Lodoiska

Overture to Ricciardo e Zoraide Martini, Overture to Cosa Rara

Tancredi, arranged by do., 2 books Méhul, Overture to Jeune Henry Chasse

Torwaldo and Dorlisca ... „ Overture to L' Irato ,

Zelmira, favourite Airs from • „ Overture to Une Folie ...

0 Spontini, Overture to Olympia ... Mozart, Overture to Don Juan

Theatre Journal from various Operas.
Overture to Figaro ...

0 / Vogel, Overture to Demophon ... ...
Overture to La Clemenza di Tito

o Weber, Euryanthes · Zauberflöte ...

Freischütz, arranged by Küffner
Overture to ditto

» do., arranged by Henning (complete) Nicolo, Overture to La Ruse Inutile ..

0 9 Weigl, Die Schweizer Familie ... ... Overture to Le Médecin Turc ...

9:- 0 9 Winter, Opferfest, 12 Duets Concert .... Three Duets from ditto...

- 2 61

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ELEMENTARY WORKS BY AUGUSTE PANSERON,

USED IN THE CONSERVATOIRE, AT PARIS.
Orpheus, 6 Choruses for 4 Men's Voicəs, Nos. 1 and 3... ... 5 0 Solfége pour Basse-taille et Barytone, 2 pts. .... ..
Do., No. 4 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 0 25 Vocalises pour Basse-taille, Bar. et Cont. ... ... ...
Récréations Vocales, for 3 or 4 Voices, 2 Nos. ... ... 2s. and 3 0 12 Etudes spéciales pour Basse et Bar.
Messe en Solos, ded. to Lablache

25 0 A B C Musical, ou Petit Solfége, composé tout exprès pour sa Solfége du Pianiste ... ... ... ..

45 01 petite fille ... ... Do. du Violiniste ...

42 0 -do, sans acc., édition typographique ...' 24. Morceaux à 4 Mains extraits du Solfège du Pianiste

25 0 Suite de l'A B C Musical Solfége Concertant for 2, 3, and 4 Voices

60 0 Solfége d'Ensemble, containing Duets, Quarte Six Choruses, in 2 bks, together ... ...

15 0 Choruses, &c. 3 parts ea. , Solfèges for 2 Voices ... ...

25 0 Soltége d'Artiste, 2 parts ... Méthode de Vocalisation, en 2 Parties, pour Soprano et Ténor... 36 0 Panseron's Works, Syo. editions :- do. Pt. 2, containing Solfeggi for Soprano and Tenor, separately

21 01 Suite de l'ABC ... Twelve Etudes spéciales pour Soprano et Ténor... ... 25 0 Solfége Concertant, 2, 3, and 4 Voices ... 25 Vocalises pour Mezzo-soprano

25 01

Do. for 2 Voices ... ... Méthode de Vocalization, en 2 Parties, pour Basse-taille, Do. pour Basse-taille et Baryton .. Baryton et Contralto

36 0 Solfége d'Artiste .. -do. Part 2, containing Solféggi, for Bass, Baritone, and con

Solfége d'Ensemble, 3 parts tralto, separately

21 0
BOOSEY AND SONS, 28, HOLLES-STREET, LONDON.

Morena

by JOHN BOOSEY, of 27, Notting Hill-square, in the parish of Kensington. at the office of BoosEY & SONS. 28. Holles-street. Sold also by 15, John-street, Great Portland-street; ALLEN, Warwick-lane: VICKERS. Holywoll-street: KEITHI. ProwsE, & Co., 48, Cheapside; G. SCHEURMANN, 80, Newgato

stroet; HARRY MAY, 11, Holborn-bars. Agouts for Scotland. PATERSON & Sons. Edinburgh: for Ireland, H. BUSSELL, Dubliu; and all Music-sellers. Printed by WILLIAM SPENCER JOHNSON, “Nassau Steam Press," 60, St. Martin's-lane, in the Parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, in the County of Middlesos.

Saturday, October 20, 1855,

SUBSCRIPTION:-Stamped for Postage, 20s. per annum-Payable in advance, by Cash or Post Office Order,

to BOOSEY & SONS, 28, Holles Street, Cavendish Square.

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MR. WINN begs to inform his Friends and the Musical | THE ANEMONIC UNION.—Messrs. Baumann, Nichol.

1 Profession generally, that his residenco is 22, Hunter-street, Brunswick. 1 son, Harper, Lazarus, H. Nicholson, C. Harper, with Miss Julia Blendon, square.

have returned to town from their provincial tour. Applications respecting futuro
engagements may be made to Mr. Alfred Nicholson, 1i, Princes-street, Leicester-

square.
M R. BENEDICT begs to announce to his Friends and
11 Pupils, that he will return to London for the season on the 27th instant.
Letters to be sent to No. 2, Manchester-square; or Mr. Mitchell's, Royal Library,

PIANOFORTES, Manufactured by ROBERT COCKS 33, Old Boud-street. -2, Manchester-square, 16th October, 1855.

I and CO., London, for Sale or Hire, price from 22 guincas upwards, warranted

to stand all climates. “These piayofortes are remarkable for the beauty and N EXPERIENCED ORGANIST, who will be disen

equality of their tone, and the facility of their touch, and their extremely elegant

exterior."- Musical World. List of prices and drawings, gratis, postage free. 1 gaged at Advent, desires a re-engagement. Remuneration no object. Ad London : Robert Cocks and Co., New Purlington-street, Piauoforte Manufacturers dress, Fuga," care of Messrs. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street.

and Publishers to the Queen. M R. and MRS. PAGET (R.A.M., and Pupil of Signor NEW SONG.—“THE MOUNTAIN STREAM,” com11.3 Garcia), Vocalists, Bags and Contralto.-Communications relative to Con.

posed by J. Dürrner; the words by H. L. R. London: Chappel, 50, New certs and Oratorios to be addressed, Atherstone, Warwickshire. Mrs. Paget is open to an engagement with a London concert party on a tour, on

Bond-street. Edinburgh : J. Purdie, 83, Privces-street. moderate terms.

* The lady possesses a magnificent voice, deep and sonorous, yet withal capable M R. COSTA'S “ELI."-Addison and Co. having purchased of much sweetness and flexibility, moro like that of Miss Hawse than any other

N1 from the composer the copyright of the above oratorio, beg to announce English singer we know."-Birmingham Journal.

its publication early in January, 1856. Price to subscribers, £1 58.; non-sub. "Mrs. Paget possesses a delicious contralto, pure and rich."-Liverpool Courier, September 5.

scribers, £1 lls. Bd. -210, Regent-street. M R. F. B. JEWSON, begs to acquaint his friends and

TENOR AND PIANOFORTE. 111 pupils, that he has returned to Town for the season, 21, Manchesterstreet, Manchester-square. 22nd October, 1855. MISS BLANCHE CAPILL-(Voice, Contralto),

ER AND CO., 390, Oxford-street, have published the 14 Professor of Music and Singing, 47, Alfred-street, River-terrace, Islington,

following pieces for tenor and pianoforte: where letters respecting pupils or engagements may be addressed.

Joachim (op. 9). Hebrew melodies. (Impressions of Byron's poems)

(op. 1

). Variations on an original air PRIVATE INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF

Kalliwoda (op. 186). Six Nocturnes, in two books each
I POETICAL ELOCUTION, as adapted to the several purposes of Speaking, Mendelssohn. Six Lieder ohne Worte, arranged by L. Hetsah..
Reading, and Singing, by the Rev. Hugh Hutton, M.A. Select Classes for the Vieuxtemps (op 30). Elegy ..
glish Poets, and the practice of General Elocution.-Address

The same arranged for violoncello and Piano
No. 2, Provost-road, Haverstock-bill.

Third Edition, just published. Price Three Shillings. TRAVIS'S AMATEUR ORGANIST.-The high patro

CANTICA ECCLESIASTICA. "By Dr. Ions. ' A com1 nage and unprecedented success of this truly elegant work has caused soveral imitations. The musical public, are, therefore, most respectfully solicited

y plete collection of Psalm Tunes, Chants, Sanctuses, and Kyries, in Vocal to order TRAVIS'S AMATEUR ORGANIST, in three volumes, neatly bound, 188.

Score, with a Table of Services on a new plan, from which the whole of the Tunes, oach; or in 18 books, prices, each. In the press, and will be shortly published,

Chanis, &c., for every Service throughout the year, as used in St. Nicholas's Travis's Anthems for Amateur Organists. Leoni Lee, 48, Albemarle-street.

Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne, may be found. Also, folio edition, 218,

London: J. A. Novello; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. MYDDELTON HALL, Upper Street, Islington.--The IT spacious and elegant concert room, now building, and capable of holding nearly 1,000 persons, will be opened early in December with a Grand Concert, under the direction of Mr. Wesley. After the opening it may be hired for Concerts, Lectures, &c. For terms of that and the various other ooms of the Hall, apply to Mr. Newbon, 8, Church-row, Upper Street, Islington.

yang juga DIANOFORTES.-OETZMANN and PLUMB beg to in1 form Music-sellers and Professors that in consequence of their having made

AT GOODRICH'S CIGAR, TOBACCO, and SNULE great improvements in the manufacture of their instruments, substituting 01 STORES (established 1780), 407, Oxford-street, London, near Soho-square.* machinery for manual labour, and taking advantage of the new Patent Steam | Box, containing 14 fine Sisal Cigars, for is, 9d., post free, 27 stampe. None aro Drying processes, are enabled to offer to the Trade superior Pianofortes in Grands. genuine unless signed “H. N. Goodrich."-A large stock of the most approved Bominades and Cottages, in all variety of woods and designs, at considerable Brands. reduced prices. Illustrated Lists sent on application, or a visit to their Manufactory will prove the great advantage secured. 56, Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury. Manufactory, Chenies-street, Tottenham-court-road. Alexander and Co.'s Har.

THE MORNING AND EVENING SERVICES OF moniums at trade prices.

1 CHURCH OF ENGLAND in Vocal Scors, with an organ accompaniment,

dedicated to the Rev. J. H. Henderson, M.A., late Precentor of Ely Cathedral, TIPWARDS OF 500 VOLS. OF MUSIC, elegantly

composed by Geo. J. Skelton, organist and director of the choir at the parish

Church, Hull. Price to subscribers, 6s. 6d. 18 copies charged as 9. The profits bound in Calf, from the Library of the late W. W. HOPE, Esq., including devoted to the fund for the completion of the organ. Subscribers' names received by the Works of Kreutzer, Dalayrac, Glück, Winter, Haydn, Mozart, Händel, Nicolo, the principal music-sellers in London: the book and music-sellers, and the comBoieldieu, Spontini, Auber, Grétry, etc., etc. MS. and printed Operas of the poser, 9, Story-street, Hull. The Te Deum, etc., may be had separately. 17th and 18th centuries from the Library of Louis XIV.. by Lully, Desmarais, Destouches, Campra, Bertin, Bourgeois, etc., etc. For a Catalogue, apply to Joseph Toller, Bookseller, Kettering.

THE NINETY-FIRST EDITION.-HAMILTON'S

I MODERN INSTRUCTIONS for the Pianoforte, 4s.; Harnilton's Modena
Instructions for Singing, 9th edition, 28.; Hamilton's Dictionary of 3,509 XULAR

Terms, 45th edition, ls.: Clarke's Catechism of the Rudiments of Marsic!
state, “The Grecian Daughter,” size 3 ft. by 2 ft. 10 in., in an elegant gilt | edition, 3s. London, Robert Cocks and Co., 46, New Burlington-treet and Of 473
frame, from Mr. Hope's collection.

music-sellers and book-sellers. 43

SISALCICARS

U.

USICAL

NEWSPAP

REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC

own. Even for chamber music they would be too difficult and

too serious. BEFORE MOZART.

Instrumental music must have had another mission than to (Continued from page 671).

be studied and admired only with closed doors ; already had it

known how to acquire for itself some popularity, and endeavoured THERE can be no doubt that the virtuosos generally, and those to keep even pace with the opera. This ambition seemed, too, of the violin especially, the Corellis, Geminianis, Tartinis, Pug- | in the beginning, under the auspices of Corelli, to succeed ; but nanis, and others, have contributed much to the progress of it went utterly to wreck through the unskilfulness of the composition. But, with the exception of Corelli, they have followers of this happy master. Corelli's sonatas are, in their contributed only in an indirect way, less through their works kind, what the vocal music of Scarlatti was in its kind ; they than through the fact that they perfected and enlarged the were almost classical works, and they stood far above the mechanism of the instruments destined at a later time to be used orchestra and chamber music which followed and prevailed until in the orchestra. By limiting themselves to the speciality of the time of Boccherini and Haydn. This epoch was a true each instrument, removing a multitude of material obstacles, | interregnum of good instrumental music; its miserable and and increasing the sum of the technical possibilities of execution, quite forgotten productions prove both the impotence of the comthey paved the way to grand instrumental music; they rendered posers, and the erroneousness of the principles on which they arable the immeasurable field which was first and so successfully | depend. cultivated by Emanuel Bach, Boccherini, and Haydn.

The Italians had laid it down as a principle that instrumental We must give a precise explanation of what we understand music, in its very nature, must be subordinate to vocal music, by grand instrumental music. The two interests which we have a view which at that time was not and could not be disputed. found in the opera also divide instrumental music into two Where both co-operate, the first must necessarily be subject to essentially distinct branches. There is the concert kind, in the second ; the instrumentists, skilful as they may have been, which the attention of the hearer is directed to one principal had not yet reached so independent a position that they could part, that, namely, of the solo-player; and there is a music in rival the singers. On the other hand the contrapuntal music, which the composer claims the chief attention for himself, that even in the land where it had been most successfully cultivated, is, for the organic whole of a serious work, wrought out in all had even less to show in the department of instrumental music, its parts. This is the grand instrumental music, considered as | A fugued chorus of Händel, a motet of Bach, were far superior a kind, which we shall have occasion to define better in the to the finest things which these masters had written for the sequel.

organ, the clavichord, and the orchestra. In short, in the conFor some time, composition and execution were seen to sup- | cert music, the human voice remained ever the most beautiful port each other and to advance abreast. It could not always and most expressive of all instruments. From these facts it has remain so; for though the roads ran parallel, the goals were been, not without some show of reason, concluded that instruplaced at very unequal distances. As soon as the science of mental music, without vocal accompaniment and relying on its composition had reached its highest point, it forsook the line of own resources, is only a surrogate of vocal music ; and that for ascent, which with the last century reached its termination, and this reason the instrumentists, like servants without masters, turned back upon itself, thenceforth imperceptibly descending. | like the lackeys in comedy, had to assume the manners of this Execution, having still an immeasurable career before it, went absent master and to model their style of composition and of on, wpon its side progressing. Hence the unavoidable sequel in execution after the arias, duets, and choruses in the opera ; in our day, that musical art in a certain respect has had to re-travel a word, that they had to imitate the singers, so far as their the whole route which it had in another respect accomplished. feebler means permitted. Such were the maxims prevailing

Chronology, still corresponding with the general course of in Italy and consequently in all Europe, as one may see from all progress in the eighteenth century, brings us finally to the most that is said upon this subject in the books of the eighteenth illustrious prince of music, the master and forerunner of the century, and especially in Rousseau's dictionary, the most man who was to unite so many dynasties in one universal respectable organ of the ultramontane views. The first conmonarchy. Every one of my readers will have guessed that I sequence of this theory was, that every composer who felt any mean Haydn. We speak not here of the sublime old man, the talent had his attention turned from this unhonoured and subcomposer of the Creation, for this Haydn was a disciple of ordinate department, and that the instrumental music fell into Mozart, who at an earlier time had been his pupil. We speak the hands of people who were personally convinced of their own of Haydn in his younger years, to whom, young as he was, mediocrity. The second consequence was, that this mediocrity belonged the glory of being called the father of instrumental in a department, to which discouragement or timidity drove music. This title, so well deserved in many ways, demands an | them, still sank below itself. In this way the theory seemed historical explanation, without which the justice done to Haydn only too well justified by practice. by his contemporaries and by posterity must to my readers seem Even to this day imitation of the vocal style is recommended, extravagant.

both to those who compose and to those who execute concert In speaking of the organ and the clavichord, we have already solos. Why not, since here the instrumentist takes the place of alluded to what Bach and Händel had done for these instru- the singer ? Under the fingers of a virtuoso, the violin, the ments. But there are also several overtures of Händel which are violoncello, the viola, the flute, the clarinet, the fagotto, and the commendable as orchestral compositions. Good instrumental oboe produce a cavatina with about as much soul, taste, and

sic, then, existed even before Haydn. Certainly ; but either method as the most perfect singer. Nothing but words is wantthis music was nothing but an appendage to public worship, or, ing, but this deficiency the virtuoso will know how to offset if it was secular, it kept for the most part within the limits through the means afforded him by the compass of his three or of the fugued style. The finest overtures of Händel are almost four octaves, through a lavish use of fioriture and of tours de force, only in so far valuable as they remain fugues; and this is saying a richness, a variety of satisfactory and finished passages, before enough, since they lack every sort of dramatic character, such as which all the bravura of vocalization becomes pale. Paganini, is required by the opera or oratorio, which they precede. In it is well kaown, proposed a wager to Malibran, and like a the clavichord pieces of Bach, one feels still more the want of | gallant knight he offered to bring only the fourth part of his graceful and expressive melodies, if he excepts the melodies of power into play, namely, the C string alone, against a singer, the contra-dances, Allemandes, Correnti, Gigues, Sarabands and who with an extraordinary compass of voice combined the most Minuets, which the great contrapuntist incorporated into his brilliant bravura in our epoch. “But it is known, too, that the learning when he was just in his indulgent humour towards challenge was not taken up. Thus we see that even in concert human foibles. For the rest, these pieces appear destined for all music the instrumentist, though he imitates the singer, must do time to form the breviary of composers and the manual of more than the singer. An adagio of the violoncello must be pianists ; and for this very reason they will penetrate into the something more than a cantabile of the tenor, in order to equal sphere of musical enjoyment in which a trim world seeks its this cantabile; and an allegro of the violin something more than

a bravura air of the soprano, to be as brilliant as this bravura in the nature of the case an unlimited field, and more degrees of air. If it were otherwise, if the instrumentist limited himself ascent than any one musician alone could traverse. Haydn was to playing pieces practicable for the voice, he would naturally neither the starting-point nor goal of the style of instrumental remain always inferior to the voice; and for this reason the in- composition which he brought to so high a pitch of perfection. strumentist of the eighteenth century, whose mechanical means Emanuel Bach was his immediate predecessor and his pattern; hardly exceeded those of the singers of their time, were not Boccherini was his competitor, and Gluck, who was some twenty their rivals, but their doubles. Then, at least, the vocal style years older than he, composed the overture to Iphigenia in Aulis which they employed in their capacity as soloists was no more at a time when he could owe Haydn nothing. out of place than it is to-day. But of what avail would it be to Gluck was, so far as I know, the first who wrote classical apply this style, these forms and phraseology of the opera, to pieces for the orchestra in a style not fugued. By the term the classical orchestra and chamber music, where the interest classical we understand here, as everywhere, works which are turns from the individuals to the whole, from the performers to not perishable, to whatever species they may belong and whatthe composer ? I will cite here the acute remarks whichever character they may bear. Even the Piccinists, in their Gerber makes upon this point in his Lexicon of Musicians, in arrogant contempt for instrumental music, confessed, without the article on J. S. Bach, one of the best in the work, and one difficulty, that Italy possessed no instrumental master who could of the few the material of which has warmed up the compiling be compared with Gluck. They put a sort of pride in this convein of the indefatigable lexicographer even to the reasoning fession. Every nation has its own peculiar genius, said Laharpe.' point. Says he :

To the French, dramatic art; to the Italians, song; to the * « The style of composition in which melody reigned unlimited

Germans, instrumental music : Suum cuique! Gluck's portion, had in the eighteenth century the upper hand, and finally ex- | though by far the humblest in the opinion of this Aristarchus, tended to all kinds of music, including, of course, instrumental was, on the other hand, the clearest of the three, since the two music. Since the composers at that time sought their ideal of others still disputed one another's claim. That of the French melodic beauty, and even the materials of their labour, only in had already been disputed by the English and the Germans in the songs of the theatre ; and since, on the other hand, these behalf of Shakspere; that of the Italians by Gluck himself, songs had to conform themselves to the situations of the poem, who maintained that his tragic song was worth considerably where the feelings to be expressed frequently change with every more than theirs. line ; it followed that the instrumental pieces of this pattern In the overture to Iphigenia in Aulis, one of the true and placed us in the situation of those who hear an unknown opera oldest patterns of great instrumental music, we perceive but arranged as quartet. You perceived nothing, but these hetero- | the first step in the imitation of the mode of treatment characgenous, fragmentary, and oddly contrasted ideas, resembling a teristic of the spirit of the fugue ; it limits itself to introducing rosary composed at hap-hazard of beads of all conceivable sizes unity and a clear meaning into the melodic work. Years have and colours.”

but added to the beauty of this masterpiece, which still sounds Yes, this motley mosaic, this succession of incoherent melodies, new to our ears! What a mournful sublimity in the introas the programme of an action which does not exist, and which

duction! what majestic grandeur in the Allegro ! how happily it does not enable any one to understand, this libretto with

motived in a musical point of view, and how admirably adapted blank pages, this adapted music, which is adapted to nothing, all

to the outline of the poem, is this mixture of warlike and this must have been very wretched! What persons of taste pathetic thoughts, which uninterruptedly succeed and alternate would not have preferred an opera music, which they under with one another, as rapidly and closely as the waves of a stood, to a music without any sort of meaning ?

rushing stream! Agamemnon's pride, Achilles' rage, Iphigenia's There lay the immense advantage which, at that time, the

tears, all are expressed in it. And what makes the merit of dramatic composers had over the instrumentists. The former the picture? The fact, that the emotions, to which the overfound the infallible level of the detailed plan for their labour

ture alludes, without individualizing them, express themselves, marked out for them in the poem ; the latter were utterly with

and could express themselves under the same forms on the out aim or compass. Since they had shaken off the yoke of the

stage. There is not a sentence in it, which resembles the vocal canonical counterpoint, they were wholly at a loss what to set

song ; not one, which seems to call the text to aid and make about with their freedom. They did not dream that they, to

the programme necessary. Separate the overture from the enter the lists with the dramatic composers, had got to do

opera, and let the hearer know nothing of the relations which entirely differently and infinitely more than these did ; that, to connect them, and still the piece will preserve all the integrity counterbalance the charm of speaking music, the expression of | ot its musical signification. In intention it is applied music, the passions in tones, the combined pleasures of the eyes and of

in execution it is pure music. Nevertheless, what sort of the soul, they had got to lift themselves to heights upattainable

critical remarks would the masterpiece of Gluck excite at this by the opera ; that to the relative value of music applied to the day? It would be objected to it, that it is too long, that is to drama they had got to oppose an absolute or purely musical

say, rather monotonous. The overture to Don Juan is value, namely that whose character we have defined in treating

much longer, and no one ever finds it too long. The reason of the fugue. Till then, however, the contrapuntists alone had

is, that Gluck, who dealt sparingly with his thought, reproduced been in a condition to afford an instrumental music intelligible

it continually throughout the whole course of the work, after without a programe, which was clear and significant through its the manner of the fugists, and consequently made use in it of own logic, which prudently economised its own stores, was con- hardly any other principle than modulation. Such a means tinually shifting, and always consistent with itself. It was not

does not suffice in a work of this extent. Whether a phrase possible, therefore, by following the steps of the theatrical com

in the tonic comes up again literally in the dominant, or vice posers, but only by adhering to the method of the fuguists, for

versá, it still remains always the same phrase. The ear, which the grand instrumental music to enter upon that astonishing

becomes accustomed to it in the new key, perceives no differcareer, at whose goal is found the overture to the Zauberflöte,

ence. and in which the science of composition seems even to

(To be continued.) have reached its end. But how was the melodic style to attain to the rationality and the strict unity of the fugue, and yet preserve its independence, its charm, and the power and variety of THE PERFUMED LETTER-BOX.-"As lately," says the Leipsic its positive expression ? Just there lies Haydn's secret.

Algemeine Theater-Chronik of 21st September,“ Sir William Nothing in art, any more than in nature, forms itself by Don was performing at Dresden, he underwent a little advenleaps and without some transition. Great classical masterpieces ture, the sequel of which brought him to the lock-up house, are always announced by some more or less brilliant beginnings, where he remained until one hour before the commencement of which have served to prepare the way for them. The application a performance in which he had to take part. The patrol on of the fugue method to expressive melody, or, in other words, the Neumarkt, it is said, caught him pouring some kind of liquid the approximation of the two opposite extremes in music, offered substance into one of the letter-boxes." -Our Leipsic Correspt.

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