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either increased nourishment, or an excitement that will change the character of what he then experiences. By whatever he feels himself in this way ruled or supported, to that does he give a great power, precisely in the proportion that he is in a great mood. The especial connection which he himself experiences with Nature, he involuntarily feels expressed in a great connection of her phenomena—then present—with himself and with his mood of mind; his mood of mind nourished or transformed by means of them, he recognises again in Nature, whom he thus, in her mightiest expressions, refers to himself, as he feels himself decided by her. In this great reciprocal influence experienced by him, the phenomena of Nature press forward, before his feelings, into a definite shape, to which he attributes an individual sentiment, corresponding to the impression it produced upon him, and to his own frame of mind, and lastly, also, organs—intelligible to him—for uttering this sentiment. He then speaks with Nature, who answers him.
Does he not, in a conversation of this kind, understand Nature better than he who observes her through a microscope \ What does the latter understand of her except what he does not require to understand 1 Everyone, however, learns from her what is necessary in the highest state of excitement of his being, in which he understands her according to an endlessly great scope, and, in fact, in a manner in which the most comprehensive understanding is not able to picture her. It is here that man loves Nature; he ennobles and raises her to the rank of an interested sympathiser in the highest frame of mind of men, whose physical existence she unconsciously presupposed out of herself.*
If, now, we would accurately define the work produced by the poet, to the utmost imaginable limit of his capability, we must call it: the newly-invented mythos, justified by the clearest human consciousness; corresponding to tlie ever-present views of life; and offered to us, in the Drama, in the most intelligible representation.
We have still to ask ourselves by what means of expression this mythos is to be represented most intelligibly in the drama, and, for this purpose, must go back to that point of the whole work of art, which, in conformity with its essential attributes, it presupposes, and which is the necessary justification of the action by its motives, for which the poetising understanding turns to the involuntary feelings, on whose unconstrained sympathy the intelligence of it is to be founded. We have seen that the condensation, necessary for the practical understanding, of the manifold points of action, immeasurably wide-spreading in actual reality, was conditional upon the yearning of the poet to represent a great connected range of the phenomena of human life, from which alone the necessity of these phenomena can be comprehended. He could only effect this condensation, in order to satisfy his principal aim, by including in the motives of the points of the action intended for actual representation, all those motives on which the rejected points of action were based, and by justifying this inclusion, to the feelings, by causing it to appear as a strengthening of the principal motives, which, out of themselves, presupposed again a strengthening of the points of action corresponding to them. We have seen, lastly, that this strengthening of the point of action could only be attained by heightening it above the usual human standard, by the condensation of the miracle—which perfectly corresponded to human Nature, but enhanced its capability, by a force of excitement, unattainable in ordinary life—of the miracle, which shall not lie beyond the limits of life, but shall simply stand forth so prominently, as to make itself recognizable above the ordinary course of things—and we have now only to attain a clear idea as to what shall constitute the strengthening of the motives, which have to determine the strengthening of the points of action.
* What are thousands of the finest Arabian stallions to their purchasers, who test them at English horse-markets according to their proportions and their useful qualities, compared to what his steed Xanthus was to Achilles, when he warned the latter of his death? Verily, I would not change this prophesying horse of the god-like runner, for Alexander's accomplished Bucephalus, who, as is wellknown, paid the portrait of a horse that Apelles had painted, the delicate flattery of neighing at it!
What is the meaning, in the sense laid down, of "the strengthening of the motives?"
It is impossible that this—as we have already seen—can mean a heaping-up of the motives, because the latter, without the possibility of expression as action, must—even when explicable—without any justification, prove unintelligible to the feelings and even to the understanding. When the action is compressed, many motives can only appear small, capricious, and unworthy, and cannot possibly be employed in any other way than in the caricature to a great action. The strengthening of a motive cannot, therefore, consist in the mere addition to it of less important ones, but in the complete merging of a great many into the one motive in question. The interest peculiar to different persons, at different times, and under different circumstances, and, according to these differences, assuming an especial form, should—directly these persons, times, and circumstances are fundamentally of a typical similarity, and of themselves render clear to contemplative consciousness an essential form of Nature—become, at a definite time, and under definite circumstances, the interest of one person. Everything outwardly different should, in the interest of this person, be raised into something definite, in which, however, the interest must be displayed in its greatest and most exhaustive compass. This, however, is nothing more nor less than to take from the interest every particular and accidental element, and to exhibit it, in its full truth, as a necessary, purely human expression of feeling. But of such an expression of feeling that man is incapable, who has not yet a clear idea as to his necessary interest; whose sensation has not yet found the object that forces it to a definite, necessary expression, but which, from a number of powerless, accidental, unsympathetic outward phenomena, is shivered into small fragments even in itself. If, however, this powerful phenomenon from the outward world approaches him—this phenomenon which either affects him so hostilely and strangely, that he gathers up all his individuality to repel it, or attracts him with such irresistibility that he yearns with all his individuality to be merged in it—his interest, also, with the fullest definiteness, becomes so comprehensive, that it absorbs and completely consumes in itself all his other divided and powerless interests.
The point of this consumption is the act which the poet has to prepare, in order to strengthen a motive in such a way that a stronger motive of action may be able to spring from it, and this preparation is the last work of his increased activity. Up to this point, his organ—that of the poetizing understanding—the language of words is sufficient for, up to this point, he had to exhibit interests, in whose interpretation and fashioning a necessary feeling as yet took no part, which were variously influenced by given circumstances from without, while nothing was effected towards within in such a way that the inward feeling was forced to a necessary activity, not depending upon choice, and again determining to without. There, the understanding still ordered matters—the understanding, which still combined, separated into details, or joined this or that detail to each other, in this or that way; but here it had not to represent immediately, but to depict, to make comparisons, and render things intelligible by means of others of a similar kind—and, for this purpose, his organ, the language of words, was not alone sufficient, but was the only one by which he could make himself understood. But where that which has been prepared by him shall really spring into being; and where he wants no longer to separate and compare, but to allow to manifest itself the principle which negatives all choice, and, on the other hand, that which exhibits itself as self-defined and unconditional, as well as the decisive motive, raised to decisive strength, in the expression of a necessary and imperious feeling—he can no longer effect anything with the language of words, which merely describes and implies, unless he heightens it, as he has heightened the motive, and this he can do only by casting it in the language of tune. (To be con/inued.J
Aix-la-chapeixe.—Herr Ernst gave two concerts, which were excellently attended, last month.
Gkkoorio Allegri, who appears to have been a dignitary of the church, being styled the Reverend, was a native of Rome. The precise date of his birth is unknown, but must have taken place either the latter end of the sixteenth century, or the beginning of the seventeenth, as he was admitted into the Pope's Chapel in 1629, as a counter-tenor. He was of the family of Correggio, the celebrated painter—who also bore the name of Allegri—and received his musical education from the famous Nanini, who was contemporary with Palestrina. His vocal abilities were not of a first-rate order, but he was accounted an admirable master of harmony. Joined to this, he bore an excellent character for benevolence. It is said, his door was daily crowded by the poor and needy, who never went away unrelieved; besides which he made a practice of visiting the prisons, in order to bestow his alms on distressed and deserving objects.
Among the compositions of Allegri, which were chiefly confined to the Church, is the celebrated Miserere, performed in the Sistine Chapel at Rome, on the Wednesday and Friday in Passion "Week, being, on account of its excellence, reserved for the most solemn occasions. The Miserere is composed in five parts, viz. 1st and 2nd sopranos, alto, tenor, and bass, and is written in the key of G minor. In construction it is of great simplicity, and its appearance does not convey any great intelligence of the wonderful impression made by it, when performed in the Pope's Chapel.
The author of a "Tour in Germany," thus relates the manner in which it is performed at Rome, during the solemnities of Lent:—
Allegri's lamed Miserere, as sung at the Sistine Chapel at Rome, during Easter, justifies the belief that, for purposes of devotion, the unaided human voice is the most impressive of all instruments. If such a choir as that of His Holiness could always be commanded, the organ itself might be dispensed with. This, however, is no fair sample of the powers of vocal sacred music, and those who are most alive to the "concord of sweet sounds" forget that, in the mixture of feeling produced by a scene so imposing as the Sistine Chapel presents on such an occasion, it is difficult to attribute to the music only its own share in the overwhelming effect. The Christian world is in mourning; the throne of the pontiff stript of all its honours and uncovered of its royal canopy, is degraded to the simple elbow chair of an aged priest. The pontiff himself, and the congregated dignitaries of the church, divested of all earthly pomp, kneel before the cross in the unostentatious garb of their religious orders. As evening sinks, and the tapers are extinguished one after another at different stages of the service, the fading light ialls dimmer and dimmer on the reverend figures. The prophets and saints of Michael Angelo look down from the ceiling on the pious worshippers beneath, while the living figures of his Last Judgment, in every variety of infernal suffering and celestial enjoyment, gradually vanish in the gathering shade, as if the scene of horror had closed for ever on the one, and the other had quitted the darkness of earth for a higher world. Is it wonderful that, in such circumstances, such music as that famed Miserere, sung by such a choir, should shake the soul even of a Calvinist?
Although the harmony of the celebrated composition is pure, and—for the time it was written—bearing a considerable share of ingenuity and a peculiar kind of beauty, yet it owes its reputation more to the theatrical manner of the performance than to the composition itself. The same music is many times repeated to different words, and the singers have by tradition certain oustoms and expressions which produce wonderful effects; such as swelling or diminishing the sounds at some particular words, and singing entire verses quicker than others. Some of the greatest effects produced by this piece may perhaps be attributed to the time, place, and solemnity of the ceremonies. The Pope and Conclave are all prostrated to the ground, the candles of the chapel and the torches of the balustrades are extinguished one by one, and the last verse of the psalm is terminated by two choirs, the chapel-master beating time slower and slower, and
the singers diminishing the harmony by little and little to a perfect point, followed by a profound silence.
The Miserere is the 51st Psalm, whence Allegri has selected part of the 1st, and the whole of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 15th, and 18th verses, and concludes with part of the 19th. So sacred was this composition at one time held by the Church, that the penalty of a copy was almost tantamount to excommunication; the thunders of the Vatican being hurled against the wretch who dared to disregard its dictates. Padre Martini states, that there were never more than three copies made by authority, one for the Emperor Leopold, another for the Bang of Portugal, and the third for himself. Respecting the former the following anecdote is narrated !—
"The Emperor Leopold the First, not only a lover and patron of music but a good composer himself, ordered his ambassador at Rome to entreat the Pope to permit him to have a copy of the celebrated Miserere of Allegri, for the use of the Imperial Chapel at Vienna, which being granted, a copy was made by the Signor Maestro of the Pope's Chapel and sent to the Emperor, who had then in his service some of the best singers of the age; but, notwithstanding the abilities of the performers, the composition was so far from answering the expectations of the Emperor and his Court, in the execution, that he concluded the Pope's Maestro di Capella, in order to keep it a mystery, had put a trick upon him and sent him another composition.
"Upon which, in great wrath, he sent an express to his Holiness with a complaint against the Maestro di Capella, which occasioned his immediate disgrace and dimissal from the service of the Papal Chapel; and in so great a degree was the Pope offended at the supposed imposition ot his composer, that, for a long time, he would neither see him, nor hear his defence; however, at length the poor man got one of the Cardinals to plead his cause, and to acquaint his Holiness that the style of singing in his Chapel, particularly in performing the Miserire, was such as could not be expressed by notes, nor taught or transmitted to any other place but by example; for which reason the piece in question, though faithfully transcribed, must fail in its effect when performed elsewhere.
"His Holiness did not understand music, and could hardly comprehend how the same notes should sound so differently in different places. However, he ordered his Maestro di Capella to write down his defence, in order to send it to Vienna, which was done, and the Emperor, seeing no other way of gratifying his wishes with respect to this composition, begged of the Pope, that some of the musicians in the service of his Holiness might be sent to Vienna to instruct those in the service of his chapel how to perform the Miserere of Allegri."
It is well known that the powers of Mozart's memory were truly astonishing, and the manner in which he obtained a copy of the Miserere is highly characteristic and amusing.
When in his fourteenth year, Mozart travelled with his father to Rome, and was invited by the Pope to the Quirinal Palace. This happened just before Easter. While in conference with his Holiness, he solicited a copy of the Miserire, but was refused in consequence of the prohibition. He then asked permission to attend the only rehearsal, which was granted to him. On quitting the chapel, Mozart spoke not a word, but hastened home and wrote down the notes. At the public performance, he brought his manuscript carefully concealed in his hat, and having filled up some omissions and corrected some errors in the inner parts, had the satisfaction to know that he possessed a complete copy of the treasure thus jealously guarded. When afterwards this manuscript was compared with the one sent by Pope Pius the Sixth to the Emperor of Germany, there was not found the difference of a single note.
* Although Allegri set many parts of the Church service with divine simplicity and purity of harmony, yet there does not appear to be a single composition of his, save the Miserere, which has withstood the ravages of time.* As while he lived he was much beloved, so when he died he was deeply lamented. His death
* Kireher has inserted in his Musurgia, published in 1652, the year in which Allegri diel, a quartetto of his composition for two violins, tenor and bass.
Manchester.—The concert at the Pomona Gardens, on Saturday, the 15th inst., had for its especial feature the performancs of the Royal Artillery Band, and the singing of Miss Cicely Nott, the fair and talented protegee of M. Jullien. Miss Cicely Nott introduced Julliqn's characteristic and very charming song, "The Echo of Lucerne," and Edward Loder's popular ballad, "There's a path by the river," with great effect. She also sang "Over the sea," which found few admirers.—The concert at Belle Vue Gardens, the same evening, had, as a counter-attraction, the Band of the Coldstream Guards. There were also the Accrington Brass Band, the Mopley Saxe-Horn Band, and the Belle vue Brass Band. The vocal department was sustained by the Spanish Minstrels, including the bronze-cheeked and darkeyed Senora Marrietta, who so enchanted the audience by emphasising "God save your Queen," as to elicit a rapturous encore. The Senora possesses a powerful voice, well adapted to out-of-doors singing. She was encored in two songs. During the intervals of the concert, a dwarf-boy, called Admiral Tom Thumb, was exhibited. He is stated to be eleven years of age. His height is thirty-three inches, and weight only twenty-one and-a-half pounds; wonderfully little indeed for a boy of his age, when it is considered that, at the Baby-show this week at Witternsea, the child who won the first prize, four months old, weighed only twenty-four pounds. The dwarf was not received with unbounded applause. There was an enormous crowd, nearly twenty thousand people, present. Both concerts had Malakhoff towers, and both towers were taken to the evident satisfaction of the audience. Sebastopol has proved an immense card for all out-of-door plans of amusement.
Berlin.—At the Royal Operahouae, Madame Nimbs has appeared as the Countess in Le Notze di Figaro, with only moderate success. Quillaume Tell was to have been performed, on the following evening, for the purpose of introducing to the public a new member of the company, Herr Radwaner, in the character of Tell, but La FiMe du Regiment was substituted, on account of a sudden indisposition of Herr Theodor Formes. We have, also, had Tancredi, with Mdlle. Johanna Wagner in the principal part—Herr A. Conradi, formerly Capellmewter at Kroll's Theatre, has been appointed to the same post at the Konigstadtisches Theater, just opened by Herr Wallner.— During the visit of the King to Count Flemming's chateau at Buckow, Herr von Bulow played before his Majesty, and was afterwards commanded to join the royal party at dinner.
Cologne.—Two new compositions, by a young composer, Herr F. W. Vogt, for full orchestra, namely: a grand Triumphal March, ana an overture to Shakspeare's Othello, were favourably received at the last meeting of the Philharmonische Gesellschaft. The management of the Theatre Royal, Berlin, has decided that the overture shall be played at all future representations of Othello at that establishment.—A grand dinner was given, in the Hotel Disch, on the 30th ult., to Herr Roderick Benedix, who, after a residence of thirteen years in this city, is about to leave for Frankfort-on-the-Maine, where he has been appointed
manager of the Stadttheater. In the course of the evening, Capellmeister Hiller presented him with a valuable goblet, in the name of the professors and members of the Rheinische Musikschule. Ostend.—Herr Julius Schulhoff is at present stopping here.
M. VJTVIER AT BADEN.
After the fireworks and the illumination, the concert commenced.
On this occasion, M. Vivier arrived with his horn; not a false Vivier, not a second-hand Vivier, but the true Vivier, the only Vivier, in a word, Vivier. The public saluted him with thunders of applause before seeing or hearing him; but that was nothing to what they did afterwards.
There are some incredulous persons who assert that M. Vivier slightly resembles Schamyl; they are not sure that he really exists.
"He is a myth," say some; "He is a symbol," remark others. "In ancient times, Theseus was the personification of strength, and Pirithoiis of friendship. In the same manner, Vivier is the personification of the horn."
Now that Paganini is dead, how many people affirm that he never lived!
It is very certain that this theory has its inviting side, which is capable of shaking the most deeply-rooted conviction.
"Look for your M. Vivier," persons have said tome, "and' find him if you can."
All of a sudden we hoard that he was at Constantinople.
"A horn-player among the Turks! Is it likely? It is true that Schamyl is reported to be in Circassia. but who ever saw him?"
Another day, there was a rumour that he had just given a concert at Moscow,
Now, every one knows that Moscow was burnt down.
Later, he was said to be at Smyrna or Liverpool. Why not at Quebec or Ispahan?
After all, however, Vivier—Vivier, body and bones, the real Vivier, alive and kicking, performed on the horn, last Saturday, at half-past nine o'clock in the evening, at Baden. Fifty people saw him.
He played very little, but he did play. The only piece he played, in the midst of the most profound silence, is entitled "La Chasse;" he composed it for himself, and I doubt if any living man but himself could execute it.
Formerly, Lucullus dined with Lucullus; at present, Vivier works for Vivier.
Any person who has not heard him can form no idea of his playing. Tradition stops at it. His horn is not a horn; it is an instrument without a name, which sighs like a flute or thunders like the trumpets of Jericho. In the hands of Vivier, the horn is doubled — trebled. It ia heard by his side, it is heard in the distance, it is heard here, it is heard there—it approaches, retreats, it bursts out, it calls upon itself, and it replies—it is the sound and the echo in itself alone.
Old chroniclers speak of fairy-horses, which were always running and could never die. M. Vivier makes me believe in fairy-horns: his is the soul of the Black Huntsman speaking.— Amemblee National}.
Nos Poma Natamtts.—The Times' critic states, that at tho dance with which the cider aristocracy of Hereford finished their musical festival, great, and in fact, impertinent precautions were taken to exclude a reporter from the floor. This showed prudence if not manners; for the conversation of tho class in question can scarcely be up to reporting mark, if it be true that one of the ladies patronesses thought it was "very low " to give Mario "a song about cider." Her hearers were puzzled, but at last, an unsually acute short-haired Hereford discovered that the 'accomplished lady had been puzzling over the programme, on which was (a little carelessly printed), thus—"La cidar em lamano."—Punch.
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O Poetry by L. M. Thornton, composed by Charles OberthQr. "This is tho prettiest little song that wo have seen for some time."—Critic. Price Is. Postage free.—Ewer ft Co. 300, Oxford-street.
NEW MUSIC FOR CATHEDRALS, CHURCH CHOIRS, and CHORAL SOCIETIES. Dr Rlvey's Anth»m, 'O be J-yi>U in God," dedicated by special permission V) Her Most Gracious Msdesty Uie Queen; composed for the Choral Festival in Aid of tie Choir Benevolent Fund. Price os , or six copies fbr 80s. A Morning and Evening Service, by Thome', price 10s. 6d.. or six copies 42s. A Sanctus and K\ rie Eleiscn, by Verrinder, price Is. 6d , or six copies for 0s. ; also by tho same composer, *>n Anthem, "Out of tbo deep/* prico 2s., or six copies for 9s-, printed "n the best paper frooa large music plat », twenty ono lines on a page. London: Published by T. Burman, 9, Exeter-hall, Strand.
UPWARDS OF 500 VOLS. OF MUSIC, elegantly bound in Calf, from the Library of tho late W. W. Hope, Esq., including the Works of Kreutacr, Daluyrac, Glllck, Winter, IXaydn, Moiart, IJ&ndcl, Nieolo, BoiMieu, Spontini, Auber, Gretry. etc, etc. MS. and printed Operas of (f17th and 18th centuries from tho Library of Louis XIV., by Lully, IXsma Destonclies, Canipra, Bertin. Bourgeois, etc., etc For a Catalogue, appi Joseph Toller, Bookseller, Kettering. JJ
GUIDO.—A splendid Picture by this master, i ttato, "The Grecian Daughter," size 3 ft. by 2 ft. 10 in., in an frame, from Mr. Hope's collection.