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COLOGNE.—A veil of obscurity still hangs over theatrical matters | DOOKS OR MUSIC SENT FREE, per return of post, here. Three great and opulent cities, Cologne, Hamburgh, and Frank D to any part of the kingdom, Remittances by post-office order or stamps. fort-on-the-Maine, are, at the present moment, incapable of supporting W. Drewott, Bookseller, 265, High-street, Borough, near London Bridge. a respectable theatre. The theatre at Leipsic, also, is closed.--The German Sängerbund, at Cincinnati, U.S., has just written to con

" A THOUSAND A-YEAR.” Song. Price 2s. Sung gratulate the members of the Männergesangverein on the success they

A at all the principal Concerts. Composed by Mrs. P. Millard, authoress of lately achieved in England, and also to request a list of the pieces the popular “Alice Gray." Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. constituting their repertory. The Association has, in consequence, resolved to forward their Transatlantic brothers a selection of the best THE CORNET-A-PISTON.-Just Published, in a large compositions in their collection.

1 volume (cloth), price 5s., BOOSEY'S UNIVERSAL CORNOPEAN TUTOR, ERFURT.-The Erfurter Musikverein celebrated its anniversary, edited by Stanton Jones. The want of a useful cornet method having been very under the direction of Herr Taubert, in a brilliant manner, on the 19th

generally expressed by the amateurs and professors of that instrument, the pub

lishers have been induced to employ one of the most experienced masters to preult. Among the pieces performed were the first chorus from Gideon,

pare a work equally adapted for the private or professional student. The by Herr F. Schneider, the last symphony, in C minor, by Herr "Universal Cornopean Tutor" is founded on the method of Forrestier, Caussinus, Taubert the overture, and “Jägerlied,” from Blaubart, by the same

and Carnaud, and unites in a condensed form all the theoretical and practical

features of each of those celebrated works. It includes the system of music, composer, and Beethoven's concerto in C minor. Dr. Franz Liszt was

technical information required for the production of a good tone and brilliant present.

execution, and a most useful and progressive series of exercises, studies, and

lessons, selected and original, followed by a collection of popular modern operatic CREFELD.-The second Niederrheinisches Musikfest, will be cele

melodies. It is, in short, a complete method, although published at a price to brated here on the 12th and 13th inst. More than 700 singers have place it within the reach of the village musician. Price 58. in cloth. Boosey and already announced their intention of taking part in it.

Sons, 28, Holles-street. MUNICH.-Herr Marschner will himself direct the representation of his Hans Heiling. Herr Wagner's Tannhäuser is to be produced

SIGNOR GORDIGIANI.-In a few days will be pubimmediately.

N lished, Four new Albums, by L. Gordigiani, containing twenty Canti

Popolari Toscana Romanzas, duette, &c. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. DIEPPE.— A concert was given here on the 27th ult., at the Salle des Bains, for the superannuated bathing women, by Madame Catherina

NEW EXERCISES for CONCERTINA by GEORGE Mackenzie, the pianist, which attracted a very crowded audience.

ASE. Just published, price 28., a collection of Daily Exercises for ConMadame Mackenzie's co-operators were M. Bessems, the violinist, and

certina practice, by George Case; forming the first number of a supplementary Madlle. Falconi, the talented cantatrice. Among other pieces, a sonata work to the celebrated Instructions for the Concertina by the same Author. by Beethoven, for piano and violin, was executed by Madame Mac Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. kenzie and M. Bessems, and Madlle. Falconi sang an air from Ernani and another by Pergolesi with striking effect.

CORINNE NOCTURNE, for the Pianoforte, by Jules
U Brissac, published this day, price 28.-Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street.

REVIEWS.

VELLOW DWARF POLKA, on the melody danced by

1 Mr. Robson, in the celebrated Burlesque. Composed by Barnard. IllusPORTRAIT OF MICHAEL Costa, Esq., by Baugniet. Published by trated with a Portrait of Robson in character. Price 2s. 6d. Boosey and Sons,

28, Solles-street. Boosey and Sons, Holles-street. A NEARLY full-length likeness of the celebrated conductor, by THE WANDERING MINSTREL.-Laurent's CeleM. Baugniet, and one of the best executed and most faithful brated Vilikins Valse (fifth thousand), on the song sung by Mr. F. Robson, portraits we have seen from the studio of that admirable and with a Comic Illustration by Brandari. Price, for piano, 38. Full Band, 5s.;

Septet, 3s. 6d. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. spirited draughtsman. The engraving is dedicated to the Sacred Harmonic Society by Messrs. M. and M. Hanhart, the

NEW MUSIC FOR PIANOFORTE_Four Hands. lithographers.

N Arranged by Rudolf Nordmann, published this day. “Si la Stanchezza,” from Il Trovatore, price 38.; "Il Balen,” and “Di quella pira," Il Trovatore,

price 4s: “La mia letizia," I Lombardi, price 8s. Boosey and Sons, 28, HollesRACHEL AT DRURY LANE THEATRE.—On Thursday night a

street. miscellaneous performance took place at this theatre, under the patronage of the Queen, for the benefit of the French Charitable

TENNY L'HIRONDELLE POLKA, by Lachner, is the Association. The entertainments began with Molière's two-act

0 best and most original polka produced for some time. Arranged for

piano by Tinuey, price 23. od.; Full Baud, 58.; Septet, 38. 6. Boosey and Sons, (by the Royal Opera company), and a vocal and instrumental 28, Holles-street. concert in which several well-known artists took part were also comprised in the programme. But the great attraction was the

DANCE MUSIC for the CONCERTINA.-Boosey's second act of Racine's Athalie, with Rachel as the old and wicked |

T1 Concertina Miscellany, No. 7, edited by George Case, contains a selection of

| nine popular pieces of Dance Music, easily and brilliantly arranged for Concertina Queen. In this act occur the celebrated vision, and the equally Solo.“ Price 25. 6d. Subscription for 12 Nos., One Guinva Boosey and Sons, 28, famous examination of the child, Joas, by Athalie. Rachel with Hlles-street. white and silvery locks—Rachel old and haggard ! N'importe. She was Rachel still, and more than ever incomparable. Whether

NORDMANN.-DI QUELLA PIRA, Morceaux de it was the superior size of the theatre we cannot say. But

Trovatore. Price 3s. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. certainly we never remember to have seen the French tragedian so sublimely great. Madlle. Dinah's Joas could not well be sur

NORDMANN.-IL BALEN DEL SUO SORRISSO, passed. The scene of the vision and its sequel is one of the

Morceaux de Trovatore. Price 3s. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street, finest in all the tragedies of Racine's. At the end of the performance the house rang with cheers; Rachel was twice re

NORDMANN.-SI LA STANCHEZZA, Morceaux de called ; and the stage was strewed with bouquets. It was a

Trovatore. Price 38. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. leave-taking worthy of the artist and the public.

ROOSÉ'S MILITARY JOURNAL, adapted for a

D Reed Band, is published on the 15th of every month. Subscription, Thrco

Guineas per half year, pay tble in advauce. Full particulars, with a list of the ADVERTISEMENTS.

back numbers, (exceeding one hundred) sent free on application.

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MADAME OURY'S CASSIER. VAISEThis ColeBOOSE'S BRASS BAND JOURNAL is also published

brated Valse, sung by Madame Gassier, in Il Barbiere di Seviglia, arranged for Pianoforte by Madame Oury, price 2s, with a Portrait. Third Edition. By the same arranger, PARTANT POUR LA SYRIE, for the Piano, Fourth Edition, price 38.-Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street.

5th. Subscription Three Guineas per annum. payable in advance. Full particulars, with a list of the back numbers, sent free on application. This work can be performed by a Brass Band ranging from eight to fifty performers.

London; Boosey and Sons, Musical Instrument Manufacturers, 28, Holles-street.

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PIANOFORTE DUETS.

· BOOSEY'S OPERA JOURNAL,
A NEW COLLECTION OF OPERAS, IN LARGE BOOKS, CLOTH COVERS, GILT LETTERS,

COMPLETE.

S. d. 1. LA SONNAMBULA ..

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2. RIGOLETTO

.. 3. ERNANI. . .. 4. LINDA DI CHAMOUNI 5. LUCREZIA BORGIA 6. NORMA 7. ELISIRE D'AMORE 8. ANNA BOLENA .. 9. NABUCODONOSOR 10. LES HUGUENOTS

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'. .. .. 10 6 11. LUCIA DI LAMMERMOOR

0 12. LE PRE AUX CLERCS

13. L'ULTIMO GIORNO
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15. ZAMPA ..

16. FIDELIO
.. .. 5 0 17. MATILDE DI SHABRAN

7 0 18. CENERENTOLA
5 0 19. I PURITANI ..
6

20. 1. INOVATOD
20. IL TROVATORE

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CORNET-A-PISTONS,

CONCERTINAS.

INTRODUCED BY 1!.
C. BOOSE, BANDMASTER OF THE FUSILIER

GUARDS.
This celebrated instrument, made from an entirely new model, is in the
greatest favour with all the professors and amateurs of the Cornet in England.
It produces a beautifully clear and powerful tone, and grately facilitates the exe-
cution of the most brilliant music. Price Seven Guineas. Carriage free to any

part of Great Britain, CASE's Concertinas are made under the superintendance of Mr. George Case, the celebrated profes-or, and are guaranteed to remain in tune and in good condition. They are cheaper and superior instruments to any others made in London. No. 1,

Just Published, in mahogany case, price 4 guineas; Nos. 2, 3, and 4, in rosewood or amboyna, price 6. 8, and 10 guineas; No. 5, the finest Concertina that is made, in ebony, with plated metal studs, price 12 guineas. Carriage free to every part of England.

· BOOSEY'S UNIVERSAL CORNOPEAN TUTOR.

A complete theoretical and practical school for the Cornet. Price 5s. in 6 handLately Published, a New Edition of

some books. CASE'S CONCERTINA INSTRUCTIONS,

Also,
o Price 10s. 6d. Also,

BOOSEY'S CORNOPEAN JOURNAL.
THE CONCERTINA MISCELLANY,

275 popular melodies for the Cornet-a-Piston, selected from the modern operas,

dances, and songs. Price 158. in ornamental binding. Published and sold by A periodical of new music for Concertina and Piano, arranged by George Case. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street, London, Musical Instrument Manufacturers to Published every month, price 23. 6d., or 21s. per annum.

Her Majesty's Army, the Militia, etc.
BOOSEY AND SONS, 28, HOLLES STREET, LONDON.

Published by JOAN BOONEY, of 27, Notting Hill-square, in the parish of Kensington, at the office of BOOSEY & SONS, 28, Holles-street. Sold also by REED, 15,

John-street, Great Portland-street: ALLEN, Warwick-lane: VICKERS, Holywell-street: Keith, PROWSE, & Co., 48, Cheapside; G. SCHEURMANN, 86, Newgat

street; HARRY MAY, 11, Holborn-bars. Agents for Scotland, PATERSON & Sons, Edinburgh ; for Ireland, H. BUSSELL, Dublin ; and all Music-sellers. Printed by WILLIAM SPENCER JOUXSON, “Nassau Steam Press," 60, St. Martin's-lane, in the Parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, in the County of Middlcacs.

Saturday, August 11, 1855,

SUBSCRIPTION:-Stamped for Postage, 20s. per annum-Payable in advance, by Cash or Post Office Order,

to BOOSEY & SONS, 28, Holles Street, Cavendish Square.

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TO ADVERTISERS. MHE CIRCULATION OF THE “MUSICAL WORLD” is exclusively among the educated and upper classes of

1 society. It is one of the most extensively-read Art Journals in England, and forms a very advantageous medium for advertisements of a superior character. Select advertisements are inserted on the following terms :

£ $. d. Three Lines

... 0 2 6 Every Additional Line

0 0 6 Half Column

0 18 0 One Column

1 14 0 A Page

3 3 0 Advertisements are received until Twelve o'clock on FRIDAY MORNING ; and must te paid for when delivered.

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MR. AND MADAME R. SIDNEY PRATTEN, Pro- | DRIVATE INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF II fessors of the Flute, Guitar, and Concertina, 131B, Oxford-street; where 1 POETICAL ELOCUTION, as adapted to the several purposes of Speaking, their Concertina Classes are held, and where all their compositions may be had for Reading, and Singing. By the Rev. Hugh Hutton, M.A. Select Classes for the the above instruments.

study of the elder English Poets, and the practice of General Elocution.-Address

No. 2, Provost-road, Haverstock-bill. MISS BLANCHE CAPILL-(Voice, Contralto),

MV Professor of Music and Singing, 47, Alfred-street, River-terrace, Islington, HYDE PARK COLLEGE FOR YOUNG LADIES, where letters respecting pupils or engagements may be addressed.

I 31, Westbourne-terrace. Instituted 1853, by Gentlemen in the neighbour.

hood for the purpose of affording to Young Ladies, privately introduced, the adW ANTED A SITUATION, as Assistant in the Wholesale

vantages of a sound and extended Education, in Classes conducted by the first

Masters. Department of a Music Warehouse, by a Young Man who understands the

Visitor-The Right 11on, and Right Rev. the Bishop of Londoo. ! trade. First-rate reference on application to “Q.," care of Messrs. Boosey and

President The Right Hon. the Earl of Carlisle, K.G. Sons, 28, Holles-street.

Pupils must be introduced by the President, Vice-Presidents, Committeo, or

Ladies Visitors. TO MUSIC SELLERS. Wanted a situation, by a person

The Junior Department will re-assernblc (after the Summer Vacation) on Mon

day, August 20th instant. L who understan Is the counter business, pianoforte tuning and accompanying. | The next Term (Michaelmas), for the Senior Department, will commence The most respectable references can be given. Address A. L., Professor of Music,

October 31st. 74, Great Portland-street, Portland-place, London.

Prospectus, with every information, may be had on application at the College.

J. R. C. THOMSON, Secretary, M USIC TRADE.-As Shopman, a young man, age 21, is 11 desirous of a re-engagement, or any other responsible situation in the

MDME. ANNA THILLON, AUGUSTUS BRAHAM, above line, can have six years' good character from his late employer, AddressJ. L., care of Messrs. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street.

11 FARQUHARSON, RICHARDSON, GEORGE CASE. The above popular artistes will make a tour in the provinces in September next. Applications

respecting engagements should be addressed to Mr. George Case, at Messrs. Boosey A YOUNG LADY, in her Nineteenth Year, who is and Sons, 28, Holles-street, London, A competent to teach French, Music, and the Rudiments of Drawing, wishes for a SITUATION IN A SCHOOL as Junior Teacher, where, in return for her services, she can have Lessons in French, also in Music from a Master.--Address PIRMINGHAM MUSICAL FESTIVAL, in Aid of the A.Z., Mead and Powell's, Railway-arcade, London Bridge.

D Funds of the General Hospital, on the 28th, 29th, 30th, and 31st days of

al vocalists :--Mad. Grisi, Malle. Angiolina Bosio, Mad.

Rudersdorff, and Mad. Castellan, Miss Dolby, and Mad. Viardot Garcia: Signor SIGNOR GREGORIO begs to inform his friends and

nds and Mario, Signor Gardoni, Herr Reichardt, and Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Lablache,

a pupils that be bas left London for the purpose of fulfilling continental en Mr. Weiss, and Herr Formes. Organist, Mr. Stimpson, Conductor, Mr, Costa, gagements, and will return at the end of October. Applications for admission into tho Choir of the Royal Bavarian Chapel are to be addressed to Herr Jansa.

Outline of the Performances : 10, Mornington-crescent.

Tuesday Morning.-Elijah, Mendelssohn.

Wednesday Morning.-Eli, an Oratorio composed expressly for this Festival, the REMOVAL.-MR. W. H. ADAMS-Professor of the

words written by W. Barthomolew-Costa.

Thursday Morning.-Messiah, Händel. Il Pianoforte (pupil of Wm. Sterndale Bennett), and Organist of St. James's, Friday Morning. --The Mount of Olives, Beethoven; tho Requiom, Mozart; A Bermondsey, begs to announce his removal to Clapham Rise, Clapbam, where all Selection from Israel in Egypt, Händel. communicatinns are respectfully requested to be addresscd.–Tuition on the Piano Tuesday Evening.-Grand Concert, comprising Overture, Ruy Blas-Mondela. forte, Harmony, and Organ.

sohn; Cantata, Leonora-Macfarre; Overture, Der Freischutz Weber; Selections from 'Operas, &c.; Overture, Masaniello-Auber; Finale, Preghieri, Mosè in

Egitto Rossini.
A GENTLE TANLY YOUTH, not under Sixteen Years,

Wednesday Evening.-Grand Concert, comprising Symphony in A Major
A wanted in large music warehouse. Apply by letter to Z., care of Mendelssohn; Overture, Leonora - Beethoven; Finale, Lorely-Mendelssohn;
Trubner and Co., I noster-row. No salary in the first six nionths.

Selections from Les Huguenots, &c.-Meyerbeer; Priests' March, Athalie
Mendelssohn.

Thursday Evening.---Grand Concert, comprising Pastoral Symphony-Beet-
LTEREFOR) MUSICAL FESTIVAL for the Benefit

hoven: Finale. L'Invocazione all' Armonia-H. R. H. Prince Albert: Overture.
Il of the Wido' and Orphans of the Clergy of the Dioceses of Hereford, Guillaume Tell - Rossivi; Selections from Le Prophète, L'Etoile du Nord, &e.
Gloucester. and W rcester will be held in the Cathedral and Shire Hall, on 1 Meyerbeer: Overture, Ruler of the Spirits - Weber.
August 318t. 22nd, 23rd, and 24th. Under the patronage of Her Majesty tho Friday Evening.-A Full Dress Bal).
Queen. Principal Vocalists Madame Grisi, Madame Clara Novello, Madame Parties requiring programmes of the performancos may have them forwarded
Weiss, Miss Moss, Miss Dolby, Mr. Sims Reeves, Siguor Mario, Mr. Montcm Smith, by post, or may obtain them (with any other information desired y'on application
Mr. Weiss, and Mr. H. Barnby. Programmes forwarded on application to Mr, to Nr. Henry Howell, Secretary to the Committee, 34, Bennett's-hill, Bimmin ham
G. Townshend Smith, Conductor.

'J. F. LEDSAM, Chairman
33

may have their

TISAW

EVAP

OPERA AND DRAMA.

| present is the matter-of-fact confirmation of the following cir

cumstance: that the subject for a drama may be borrowed from BY RICHARD WAGNER.

a historical story in the case of Shakspere, on whose stage an (Continued from page 512.)

appeal to the imagination supplied the place of scenery, but not in our own, because we desire the scenery, as well as everything

else, to be represented to the senses. But even Schiller found it PART II.

was not possible to compress into the dramatic unity he had in

view the historical subject he had so carefully arranged for his LIKE Göthe, Schiller began with the dramatised romance, under

purpose; all that first gives history its real life, the farthe influence of the Shaksperean drama. The domestic and political spreading adjuncts, conditionally working up to the centre, he romance found employment for his impulse towards dramatic was obliged, as he felt the pourtrayal of them indispensable, to creation, until he reached its modern source, namely, naked place in a perfectly independent and separate piece, complete in history itself, and endeavoured to construct the drama im-! itself, and resolve the drama into two dramas—à course far mediately from it. The ungrateful nature of the historical sub otherwise significant in those dramas of Shakspere which are ject, and its incapability of representation in a dramatic form, composed of several constituent parts, because, in them, the were now manifest. Shakspere translated the dry but honest entire careers of persons subordinate to an historical centre are historical chronicle into the living language of the drama. This classified according to their most important periods, while in chronicle recorded, with faithful exactitude, and step for step, Wallenstein only one such period, comparatively by no means the course of historical events and the acts of the persons taking over-rich in matter, is divided into more than one part, simply on part in them; it was written without criticism or individual account of the long process requisite for explaining the motives views, and was thus a daguerreotype of the historical facts to of an historical moment rendered so dim as to become obscure. which we have alluded. All that Shakspere had to do was to Shakspere would have given us, upon his stage, the entire animate this daguerreotype into an oil painting; to borrow from Thirty Years' War in three pieces. the events the motives necessarily apparent from the connection Still this “dramatic poem”—as Schiller himself calls it-was between the former, and impress them on the flesh and blood of a most honest endeavour to obtain from history, as such, matter the personages of the story. In other respects, he left the frame- for the drama. work of history completely untouched; his stage, as we have seen, 1 In the further development of the drama, we perceive, from allowing him to do so. With the modern theatre, however, the this moment, that Schiller abandons more and more his conpoet soon perceived the impossibility of arranging history for it sideration for the historical story, in order, on the one hand, to with Shakspere's chronicle-like truthfulness; he saw that the employ this very historical story only as a covering for an esperomance alone-perfectly indifferent as to length or shortness- cial, thoughtful motive, peculiar to the general course of culture could endow the chronicle with a living pourtrayal of the charac- pursued by the poet, and, on the other hand, to give this motive ters, and that, moreover, only Shakspere's stage could allow this in a more and more decided form of the drama, and one, which, romance to be compressed into the proportions of the drama. If he from the nature of the subject, more especially since Göthe's now sought matter for a drama in history itself, he dich so with the varied attempts, had become an object of artistic speculation. In wish and endeavour so to master, from the very first, the histo- this purposed subordination and arbitrary destination of the rical subject by immediate poetical treatment, that it might be subject-matter, Schiller fell more and more deeply into the produced in the form of the drama, which renders itself intelli necessary error of a merely reflecting and rhetorically-conducted gible only in the greatest possible unity. . But it is in this very

representation of the subject, which he at last decided simply wish and endeavour that the reason of the nullity of our histo- according to the form, that he took, as the most suitable, in a rical drama lies. History is only history from the fact that, in purely artistic light, from Greek tragedy. In his Braut von it, the naked actions of men are displayed with uncondi- Messina he proceeded in his imitation of the Greek form even tional truthfulness. History does not furnish us with men's more decidedly than Göthe in Iphigenia. Göthe only reconinward sentiments, but merely enables us to deduce them from structed the form so far as to enable the plastic unity of the their actions. If, now, we believe we have rightly guessed these action to be displayed in it, but Schiller sought to fashion even sentiments, and wish to represent history as justified by them, the subject of the drama out of the forin. In this he approached we can only do so in purely historical description, or-with the course followed by the French tragic poets, from whom, howthe greatest artistic warmth attainable-in the historical ro-ever, he differed materially, inasmuch as he restored the Greek mance, that is to say: in a form of art in which we are not form to a far higher state of completeness than that in which it necessitated, through any outward constraint, to distort the plain was known to them, and endeavoured to animate the spirit of it, facts of naked history by arbitrary sifting or compression. We of which they knew nothing, and impress it upon the subject cannot convey an intelligible notion of the sentiments which we itself. For this purpose, he borrowed from Greek tragedy the have gathered from the actions of historical personages, except “Fatum”-although certainly only according to the comprehension by a faithful pourtrayal of the actions from which we have of it possible for himself--and constructed, out of it, an action, deduced the sentiments. But if, in order to illustrate the inward which, from its mediæval costume, was to constitute a connecting motives giving rise to them, we would, to further the end of the link between the Antique and the comprehension of modern representation, change or distort into something or other the times. Never was anything so purposely created in a purely actions proceeding from the said motives, this can, again, only be artistico-historic point of view as his Braut von Messina; what effected by the distortion of the sentiments, and thus by the Göthe intimated, in the union of Faust and Helen, was, in this complete denial of history itself. The poet who endeavours to instance, to be realised by artistic speculation. This realisation adapt historical subjects for the dramatic stage, and neglects was, however, most decidedly not successful ; both the matter and the accuracy of the chronicles, treating, in pursuance of his the form were equally dulled, so that neither did the forciblyobject, the actual facts of history according to his own caprice indicated, mediæval romance, produce any result, nor was the and artistically formal judgment, cannot produce either a antique form clearly seen. Who cannot gain real experience history or a drama.

from this fruitless attempt of Schiller? It is true that Schiller If, in illustration of what we have said, we place Shakspere's turned again in despair from this form, and endeavoured in his historical dramas by the side of Schiller's Wallenstein, we cannot last dramatic poem, Wilhelm Tell, by resuming the dramatic help perceiving, at the first glance, that, in the latter, the eva- | form of the romance, to save at least his poetic freshness, which sion of the outward historical truth is accompanied also by the had visibly declined during his æsthetical experimentalising. distortion of the purport of history, while, in the former, with Thus we see also Schiller's dramatico-artistic productivity chronicle-like accuracy, the characteristic purport of history is hesitating between history and romance, the real poetical element indeed brought out most convincingly. But, without doubt, of our age, on the one hand, and the perfect form of the Greek Schiller was a greater historian than Shakspere, and, in his drama on the other. Schiller clung with all the fibres of his purely historical works, fully exculpates himself for his treat- poetic life to the former, while his higher artistico-plastic bent ment of history as a dramatic poet. But our especial object at I drove him to the latter.

What especially characterises Schiller is, that his impulse for tragedy, for which a celebrated composer had to prepare the the antique, pure form of art was, as a general rule, displayed as necessary music. This drama of Sophocles proved, with regard an impulse towards the Ideal. He was so painfully grieved at to our life, a coarse artistic lie, à lie produced by artistic necesbeing unable artistically to fill this form with the substance of sity for the purpose of cloaking the untruth of our entire system the element of our life, that he was at last disgusted even with of art; a lie which the real necessity of our age endeavoured to the advantage taken of it by artistic representation. Göthe's deny by all kinds of literary excuses. This tragedy, however, practical sense was reconciled with this element by the abandon- could not but disclose to us a well-defined truth-namely, that ment of the perfect form of art and the further cultivation of we possess no dramu, and can possess no drama; that our literary the only one in which our life could be intelligibly expressed. drama is as far removed from the real drama as the piano is Schiller never returned to the romance properly so-called; he from the symphonic song of human voices; that, in the modern made the Ideal of his higher views of art, as it struck him in drama, we can only succeed in producing poetry by the most antique form, the essence of true art itself; he only looked at nicely calculated contrivances of literary mechanism, as on the this Ideal from the point of view of the poetical incapability of piano we can only succeed in producing music by the comour life, and, confounding the conditions of the latter with human plicated contrivances of technical mechanism--that is to say, in life generally, could, at last, only imagine art as something sepa- producing soulless poetry and tuneless music. rate from life, and its highest fulness as something imagined, With this drama, true music, the loving woman, has certainly but only approximatively to be attained.

nothing to do. The coquet may approach the cold being in Thus did Schiller remain oscillating betwixt heaven and earth, order to ensnare him in the net of her mania to please : the prude and in this state of suspense is our entire dramatic poetry hang. may attach herself to the impotent personage in order to walk ing after him. The heaven in question is really nothing but the with him in godliness; the strumpet allows him to pay her, and antique form of art, and the earth, the practical romance of our | then laughs at him ; but the woman really yearning for love oun times. The most modern school of dramatic poetry, exist- | turns away from him unmoved. ing, as an art, solely upon the attempts of Göthe and Schiller, If we would investigate more nearly what rendered this which have become literary monuments, has continued the oscil-drama impotent, we must examine accurately the matter on lation between the opposite tendencies already mentioned until which it was nourished. This matter was, as we have seen, the it has become perfectly giddy. Whenever, rising out of the romance, and we must, therefore, enter more decidedly upon the mere literary drama, it gave promise of a representation of discussion of the constitution of romance. life, it has always, in order to be scenically intelligible and effective, fallen back into the insipidity of the dramatised do

CHAPTER III. mestic drama, or, if it desired to express a higher tenor of life, Man is a poet in a twofold manner: in his mode of looking at was obliged, gradually plucking off again its false garb of dra- | things and of communicating them. matic feathers, to present itself for silent perusal in the shape of The natural gift of poetry is the capability of condensing into a naked romance of six or nine volumes.

an inward picture the phenomena presented to one's senses outIn order to bring the whole course of our artistic literary wardly, and the artistic gift, that of outwardly communicating creation within the scope of a rapid survey, we will arrange the the picture. circumstances arising from it in the following order.

Just as the eye can only receive objects according to The romance alone is capable of artistically representing the a scale reduced in conformity to their increasing distance, the element of our life in the most intelligible manner. In the brain of man, which is the starting-point of the eye in an inward endeavour to obtain a more effectual and more immediate repre-direction, and to whose agency, dependent on the entire inward sentation of its subject, the romance becomes dramatised. From vital organisation, the eye communicates the outward phenomena the acknowledged impossibility, experienced afresh by every received, can in the first place only conceive them according poet, of doing this, the matter, which, from its multiplicity of to the reduced scale of human individuality. In this proportion action, exercises a disturbing influence, is degraded first to the the activity of the brain, however, is capable of fashioning the untruthful and then the completely unsubstantial foundation of phenomena presented to it, and separated from their natural the modern stage piece, that is to say: of the “show play," reality, into the most comprehensive new pictures, as they arise which, in its turn, serves only the modern theatrical virtuoso as from the double endeavour to sift them, or produce them in a foundation. From this kind of play, the poet, as soon as he connection with each other, and this activity of the brain is perceives he is sinking into the routine of the coulisses, turns called imagination. back again to the undisturbed rendering of the subject in the The unconscious effort of the brain now tends to become aware romance; the perfect dramatic form, however, which he has in of the true proportions of the phenomena, and this effort impels vain endeavoured to attain, he causes to be represented to him, it to re-communicate the picture outwardly, inasmuch as it enas something altogether foreign, by the actual production of the deavours to adapt it in a certain degree, to the reality, in order to real Greek drama. In the literary lyric, however, he combats, compare it with the latter. The communication to without can, ridicules, bewails, and finally weeps over the discrepancy of the however, only be effected in a manner artificially brought about; circumstances of our life, a discrepancy which strikes him, with the senses, which involuntarily received the outward phenomena, regard to art, as one between matter and form, and, with regard require, for the re-communication to themselves of the picture to life, as one between man and Nature.

formed by the imagination, the training and employment of the It is a remarkable fact, that the most recent times should have organic external capabilities of man, which would communicate demonstrated, in an artistico-historical manner, this profound and intelligibly with them-the senses. The picture formed by the irreconcilable discrepancy so strikingly, that a continuation of imagination becomes intelligible in its outward expression only the error respecting it must appear to every one, who can see when it is re-communicated to the senses in the same proportions only half clearly, impossible. While the romance, after its last | as those in which the phenomena weré originally displayed to illumination of history, devoted itself everywhere, especially them, and by the effect of his communication, finally answering among the French, to the most naked representation of the life his wishes, man first becomes so far aware of the right proporof the present day, seized on this life in its most vicious social tions of the phenomena, as to recognise them as the true ones in foundation, and, with its total want of beauty as a work of art, which the latter are, as a rule, communicated to him. No one made the literary work of art of the romance itself a revolué can communicate phenomena intelligibly but to those who see tionary weapon against this social foundation-while the romance, them in the same proportions as himself: these proportions are, I say, became a summons to the revolutionary strength of the however, as regards communication, the condensed picture of the people that was to overthrow this vital foundation-a clever phenomena thenselves, in which the latter manifest themselves poet, who, as a creative artist, had never possessed the capability in a distinguishable manner to man. These proportions must, of mastering any subject for the real drama, succeeded in in- therefore, be founded upon a common view of things, for only ducing an absolute prince to command that the intendant of his what is distinguishable by this common view, can be re-comtheatre should produce, with antiquarian truth, a real Greek | municated artistically to it; a man whose way of viewing mat

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