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MR. AND MADAME R. SIDNEY PRATTEN, Pro- NOTICE.-On Monday next, will be published, in a large
1 fessors of the Flute, Guitar, and Concertina, 1318, Oxford-street; where I volume (cloth), price 68., BOOSEY'S UNIVERSAL CORNOPEAN TUTOR, their Concertina Classes are held, and where all their compositions may be had for edited by Stanton Jones. The want of a useful cornet method having been very the above instruments.
generally expressed by the amateurs and professors of that instrument, the pub
lishers have been induced to employ one of the most experienced masters to pre. MISS BLANCHE CAPILL-(Voice, Contralto),
pare a work equally adapted for the private or professional student. The
“Universal Cornopean Tutor" is founded on the method of Forrestier, Caussinus, IT Professor of Music and Singing, 47, Alfred-street, River-terrace, Islington, and Carnaud, and unites in a condensed form all the theoretical and practical where letters respecting pupils or engagements may be addressed.
features of each of those celebrated works. It includes the system of music, technical information required for the production of a good tone and brilliant
execution, and a most useful and progressive series of exercises, studies, and mo ORGANISTS.-Twenty-four Sketches for the Church lessons, selected and original, followed by a collection of popular modem operatic
1 and Chamber Organ, composed by Edmund T. Chipp. Price 158. Persons melodies. It is, in short, a complete method, although published at a price to desirous of becoming subscribers to this work are requested to forward their
place it within the reach of the village musician. Price 6s, in cloth. Boosey and names to the Author, at the Royal Panopticon, Leicester-square, by the 16th of
Suns, 28, Holles-street. August, as on that day the subscription list will be closed.
SIGNOR GORDIGIANI.-In a few days will be pubDRIVATE INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF
lished, Four new Albums, by L. Gordigiavi, containing twenty Canti
Popolari Toscana Romanzas, duette, &c. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. 1 POETICAL ELOCUTION, as adapted to the several purposes of Speaking, Reading, and Singing. By the Rev. Hugh Hutton, M. A. Select Classes for the NHEAP COLLECTION OF THE SONGS IN LA study of the elder English Poets, and the practice of General Elocution. -Address --No. 2, Provost-road, Haverstock-bill.
U SONNAMBULA, with English words. Now ready, price 5s., in a very elegant book. Selections from La Sonnambula, with Euglish words, adapted by Sir Henry Bishop. Contents: All is lost-As I view these scenes-Do not mingle
-Dearest companions-Sounds so joyful-Take now this ring, duett. Boosey and MDME. ANNA THILLON, AUGUSTUS BRAHAM,
Sons, 28, Holles-street. M FARQUHARSON, RICHARDSON, GEORGE CASE. The above popular artistes will make a tour in the proviuces in September next. Applications respecting engagements should be addressed to Mr. George Caso, at Messrs. Boosey
THE MODEL PIANOFORTE TUTOR will be found and Sons, 28, Holles-street, London,
I to give a clear and comprehensive explanation of the elementary principles of pianoforte playing; notation and a demonstration of all the intervals in music
are seen in the Pianoforte Keyboard, and the various signs pointed out and illusLEREFORD MUSICAL FESTIVAL will be held in
trated. The Key Signature Dial explains the progression of keys and gives the 1. the Cathedral and Shire Hall, on August 21st and three following days, for tonic chord of each, which prepares the hand for the practice of the training the benefit of the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy of the Dioceses of Hereford, finger exercises. The especial value of these exercises consists in the alternate use Gloucester, and Worcester. Under the especial patronage of Her Most Gracious of the black and white keys, thereby rendering the fingers familiar to them, and Majesty the Queen. Principal Vocalists- Madame Grisi, Madame Clara Novello, strengthened by expansion and contraction according to the distances produced by Madame Weiss, Miss Dolby, Miss Moss, Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Mario, Mr the change of keys, and prevents the pupil from stumbling at the appearance of a Montem Smith, Mr. H. Barnby, and Mr. Weiss.-Programmes forwarded on appli sharp or flat. The instructions are divided in four parts, each headed by a praccation to Mr. G. Townshend Smith, Conductor.
tical illustration-the whole forming an epitome of the study of music. It has been the object of the author to condense as much valuable and necessary matter in as
cheap and small a compass as possible, leaving out nothing absolutely necessary to PIRMINGHAM MUSICAL FESTIVAL, in Aid of the be learned, and instead of introducing pages of trifling tunes, most valuable Finger. Funds of the General Hospital, on the 28th, 29th, 30th, and 31st days of
Exercises will be found calculated to form the hand aud touch, and conclude with August next. Principal vocalists:-Mad. Grisi, Malle. Angiolina Bosio, Mad.
a very useful prelude scalu in major and minor keys. Price 28. od. Boosey and Rudersdorff, and Mad. Castellan, Miss Dolby, and Mad. Viardot Garcia; Signor
Sons, 28, Holles-street. Mario, Signor Gardoni, Herr Reichardt, and Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Lablache, Mr. Weiss, and Herr Formes. Org ipist, Mr. Stimpson, Conductor, Mr. Costa. MOMPLETE OPERAS WITH ENGLISH WORDS, Outline of the Performances :
U is a perfect and cheap form. The Standard Lyric Drama, a library of operas, Tuesday Morning.-Elijah, Mendelssohn.
with English and Italian or German words, more complete, perfect, and correct Wednesday Morning -Eli, au Oratorio composed expressly for this Festival, the
than any European editions. 12 vols, are ready, splendidly bound:--Sonnambula, words written by. W. Barthomolew-Costa.
128. 6d.; Il Barbiere, 168.; Norma, 10s. 6d.; Don Juan, l8s.; Lucrezia Borgia, 168.: Thursday Morning.-Messiah, Händel.
Ernani, 15s.; Figaro, 16s.; Der Freischütz, 12s. 6d.; Zauberflöte, 12s. 6d. : Iphi. * Friday Morning. — The Mount of Olives, Beethoven ; the Requicm, Mozart; A genia in Tauris, 8s.; Faust, 12s. 6d.; Fidelio, 15s. Any opera post free from the Selection from Israel in Egypt, Händel.
publishers, Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles.street, London. Tuesday Evening.-Grand Concert, comprising Overture, Ruy Blas-Mendelssohn; Cantata, Leonora-Macfarren ; Overture, Der Freischutz-Weber; Selections from Operas, &c.; Overture, Masaniello-Auber; Finale, Preghiera, Mosè in COMPLETE OPERAS FOR PIANOFORTE in cloth.Egitto Rossini.
U Boosey and Sons' Standard Edition. Sounambula, 4s. Norma. 48. Lucia Wednesday Evening, Grand Concert, comprising Symphony in A Major
di Lammermoor, 58. Lucrezia Borgia, 4s. Fille du Régiment, 4s. Fra Diavolo, Mendelssohn: Overture, Leonora - Beethoven; Finale. Lerely - Mendelssohn: Selections from Les Huguenots, &c.-Meyerbeer Priests' March, Athalie
5s. Don Juan, 5s. Les Huguenots, 78. 6d. Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street,
Thursday Evening.--Grand Concert, comprising Pastoral Symphony-Beethoven: Finale. L'Invocazione all' Armonia-H. R. H. Prince Albert: Overture, TREDERICK ANDRÉ'S New Pianoforte Music for Guillaume Tell - Rossini ; Selections from Le Prophète, L'Etoile du Nord, &c.
1 Drawiug-room performance. Heloise, pensive fugitive, 28. 6d. La Fleur Meyerbeer; Overture, Ruler of the Spirits - Weber.
d'Angleterre, Polka de Salon, 2s. Le Rendezvous des Fées, Morceau Romanesque, s. Friday Evening.--A Full Dress Ball.
The above elegant morceaux are by the popular composer of “Les Sentimens." Parties requiring programmes of the performances may have them forwarded
Boosey aud Sous, 28, Holles-street. by post, or may obtain them with any other information desired) on application to Mr. Henry Howell, Secretary to the Committee, 34, Bennett's-hill, Birmingham.
J. F. LEDSAM, Chairman. NEW EXERCISES for CONCERTINA by GEORGE
IV CASE. Just published, price 2s, a collection of Daily Exercises for ConD S. PRATTEN'S PERFECTED FLUTE (on the
cortina practice, by George Case ; forming the first number of a supplementary
work to the celebrated Instructions for the Concertina by the same Author. old system of fingering. This instrument is universally acknowledged
Boosey and Sons, 28, Hollt s-street. to possess the most powerful tone, combined with perfect intonation, sweetness, and ease to the performer. Prospectus and testimonials ou application to John NREEN'S LITTLE SONGS for LITTLE SINGERS.Hudsou, Manufacturer, 3, Rachbone-place.
U Just published, in one handsome volume, with eleven illustrations, halfbound, gilt edges, price 10s, this celebrated Selection of Juvenile Songs, by most
esteemed authors and composers. Also, just published, price 128, hall-bound, gilt DIANOFORTES.- To all who desire a First-rate Piano
edges, Green's Nursery Songs and Duets, containing twenty-nine songs, and fifteen I at a moderate price. Messrs. Lambert & Co., lately removed from Percy- duets, adapted expressly for very young singers and performers. Bovsey and Sons, street to 314, Oxford-street, near Hanover-square, beg to call particular attention 28, Holles-street, London, to their new Patent Repeater Check Action Pianofortes, and method of constructing the bracing, which they warrant pot to give way in any climate. For purity
O PURE, SO BRIGHT, Song, composed by John of tone, easy and elastic touch, and durability, Messrs. L. and Co. have no hesitation in asserting that their l'ianofortes stand unrivalled. They have received N Cheshire, and sung at the author's concerts, price 2s. Boosey and Sons, 28, most numerous and flattering testimonies to this effect, from purchasers, both at Holles-street. home and abroad, and they feel confident, that their instruments have only to be tried to be appreciated. Mr. Lambert gained a prize for his Patent Cottage Piano
Published by Jonn BOOSEY, of 27, Notting Hill-square, in the parish of Kensingat the Great Exbibition, and is the sole inventor of the Check Action.-Pianos taken in exchange, tuned, repaired, regulated, and lent on bire. Lists may be
ton, at the office of BOONEY & SONS, 28. Holles-street, Sold also by RRED, 15. had on applicatiou.
John-street, Great Portland-street; ALLEN, Warwick-lane ; VICKERS, Holywellstreet; KEITH. PROWSE, & Co., 48, Cheapside; G. SCHEURMANN, 86, Newgate.
street; HARRY MAY, 11, Holborn-bars. Agents for Scotland, PATERSON & TERDINAND PRAEGER'S “ Elfenmährchen" (Fairy Sons, Edinburgh; for Ireland, H. BUSSELL, Dubliu; and all Music-sellers.
Tale), as performed by the composer at all his concerts on the Continent, Printed by WILLIAM SPENCER JOHNSON, “Nassau Steam Press," 60, St. Martin's the celebrated Gewandhaus Concerts at Leipzig, &c. -Published at Cramer, Beale, lane, in the Parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, in the County of Middlcsos.and Co.'s, Regent-street.
Saturday, August 4, 1855.
· SUBSCRIPTION:-Stamped for Postage, 20s. per annum-Payable in advance, by Cash or Post Office Order,
to BOOSEY & SONS, 28, Holles Street, Cavendish Square,
VOL. 33.—No. 32.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 11, 1855.
1 PRICE 4d. STAMPED 50,
MR. AND MADAME R. SIDNEY PRATTEN, Pro- iR S. PRATTEN'S PERFECTED FLUTE (on the IT fessors of the Flute, Guitar, and Concertina. 131B, Oxford-street; where
old system of fingering.) This instrument is universally acknowledged their Concertina Classes aro held, and where all their compositions may be had for to possess the most powerful tone, combined with perfect intonation, sweetness, the above instruments.
and ease to the perforiner. Prospectus and testimonials ou application to John
Hudsou, Manufacturer, 3, Rathbone-place. MISS BLANCHE CAPILL (Voice, Contralto), 1 Professor of Music and Singing, 47, Alfred-street, River-terrace, Islington,
PIANOFORTES.—To all who desire a First-rate Piano where letters respecting, pupils or engagements may be addressed.
1 at a moderato price. Messrs. Lambert & Co., lately removed from Percy
street to 314, Oxford-street, near Hanover-square, beg to call particular attention MISS MANNING begs to inform her friends and pupils to their new Patent Repeater Check Action Pianofortes, and method of constructI that she has removed to 54, George-street, Portman-square.
ing the bracing, which they warrant not to give way in any climate. For purity of tone, ensy and elastic touch, and durability, Messrs. L. and Co. have no
hesitation in asserting that their Pianofortes stand unrivalled. They have received A YOUNG LADY, accustomed to Tuition, wishes an most numerous and flattering testimonies to this effect, from purchasers, both at A Engagement in a Gentleman's Family. Sbc can teach English in its several
home and abroad, and they feel confident. that their instruments have only to be brancines, the piano, French, drawing, and flower-painting, the Latin grimmar,
tried to be appreciated. Mr. Lambert gained a prize for his Patent Cottage Piano and the rudiments of German. Pupils under thirteen years of age would be pre
at the Great Exhibition, and is the solo inventor of the Check Action.-Pianos ierred. Satisfactory references given. Address L. M., Buckingham.
taken in exchange, tuned, repaired, regulated, and lent on bire. Lists may be had on application.
W ANTED a SITUATION, as Assistant in the Wholesale TERDINAND PRAEGER'S “Elfenmährchen" (Fairy V Department of a Music Warehouse, ky a Young Man who understands tbe
T Tale), as performed by the composer at all his concerts on the. Continent, trade. First-rate reference on application to “Q.," care of Messrs. Boosey and the celebrated Gewandhaus Concerts at Leipzig, &c.-Published at Cramer, Beale, Sons, 28, Holles-street.
and Co.'s, Rogent-street. DRIVATE INSTRUCTION IN THE ART OF I POETICAL ELOTION, as adapted to the several purposes of Speaking,
VALUABLE MUSIC FOR SALE.A large quantity Reading and Singing. Br the Rov. Hugh Hutton, MA. Select Classes for the Y of accompauiments to Operas, and Oratorios, arranged from the full scoro study of the elder English Pocts, and the practice of General Elocution. Address for an Orchestre cìo Salon, or first and second violin, viola, tite, violoncello, and No. 2, Provost-road, Haverstock-hill.
contra-basso; well worthy the attention of amateurs for their private musical parties, and of directors of classical chamber concerts. The collection consists of
3000 pages of beautiful and correct manuscript, in 20 vols., half-bound; and comMDME. ANNA THILLON, AUGUSTUS BRAHAM,
prises Iändel's Alexander's Feast and Dettingen Te Deum, Haydn's Seasons. 11 FARQUHARSON, RICHARDSON, GEORGE CASE. The above popular Hae-er's Triumph of Faith, Rossini's Stabat Mater, Mendelssohn's Elijah and artistes will make a tour in the provinces in September next. Applications | St. Paul, Mozart's Zauberflöte, Beethoven's Fidelio, Mendelssohn's Midsummer respecting engagoments should be addressed to Mr. George Case, at Messrs. Boosey Night's Dream, Weber's Euryanthe, and selections from the works of Auber, Balfe. and Sons, 28, Holles-street, London.
Bellini, Bishop. Calcot:, &c. Also a number of Full Orchestral Scores to be
disposed of. Apply to Mr. W. L. Robinson, Westgate, Wakefield. TJEREFORD MUSICAL FESTIVAL will be held in LL the Cathedral auri Shire Hall, on August 21st and three following dars, for ROOKS FREE.—Books, Magazines, &c., forwarded free of the benefit of the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy of the Dinccses of Hereford, D espepse, at published prices, to all parts of the United Kingdom, by wwiam Gloucester, and Worcester. Under tho especial patronage of Her Most Gracionis Walker, 196, Strand, London. N.B.-Postage-stamps received in payment. Majesty the Queen, Principal Vocalists-Madame Grisi, Madame Clara Novello, Madame Weiss, Miss Dolby, Miss Moss. Mr. Sims Rocves, Signor Mario, Mr. Montem Smith, Mr. H. Barnby, and Mr. Weiss.-Programmes forwaricd on appli
DORTRAIT OF MR. COSTA.-Just published, a fulleation to Mr. G. Towusbeud Smith, Conductor.
1 length portrait of Mr. Costa, drawn from life, and beautifully executed on stone by C. Baugniet. Price to subscribers (proof impressions with autograph).
6s. Orders should be given immediately, to secure early impressions. Boosey and PIRMINGHAM MUSICAL FESTIVAL, in Aid of the
Sons, 28, Holles-street. > Funds of the General Hospitni, on the 28th, 29th, 30th, and 31st days of August next. Principal vocalists:-Mad. Grisi, Malle. Angiolina Bosio, Mad. Rudersdorff, and Mad. Castellan, Miss Dolby, and Mad. Viardot Garcia: Signor THE FIFE MAJOR.—Complete Instructions for the Mario. Signor Gardoni, Herr Rcichardt, and Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Lablache, 1 Military Fife or Flute, used in the Gards and other regiments, with tho Mr. Weiss, and Herr Formes. Organist, Mr. Stimpson. Conductor, Mr. Costa. Garrison, Street, Camp, and Field Duties, foliowed by a selection of 123 Aire, Outline of the Performances :
Marches, etc. By James Davie. 3s. Also, Porteous's Band Atlas, 108. 6d., and
Niemitz's School for Military Instruments, 21s. London: Robert Cocks and Co., Tuesday Morning.--Elijah, Mendelssohn.
MHE ORGAN.-On Monday next, 13th of August, will Frday Morning. The Mount of Olives, Beethoven; the Requiem, Mozart; 1 be issued Hopkins and Rimbault's long expected and elaborate work, TIE Selectiou from Israel in Egypt, Hindel,
ORGAN; its History and Construction. Price to subscribers, 218.; to nonTuesday Evening, Grand Concert, comprising Overture, Ruy Blas-Mendele
subscribers, 318. 6d. Subscribers are requested (where necessary) to forward to sohn: Cantata, Leonora Macfarren: Overture, Der Freischutz--Weber; Selectious
the publishers their present address. N.B. Post Office Orders should bo mado from Operas, de; Overturo. Masaniello-Auber; Finalo, Pregliori, Mosè in
payable at the Post Office, Piccadilly.--London : Robert Cocks and Co., New Bur. Egitto Rossini.
sington-strcot, Music Publishers to their Majestics Queen Victoria and the Em. Wednesday Evening, ---Grand Concert, comprising Symphony in A Major
peror Napoleon III.
TO LEADERS OF BANDS, &c. The Band Parts of Thursday Evening.--Grand Concert, comprising Pastoral Symphony-Boothoven; Finale, L'Invocazione all'Armonia-H. R. H. Prince Albert; Overture,
1 Tinncy's New Valse, “ THE FENELLA," are published this day. Price $8. Guillaume Tell-Rossini: Selections from Le Prophète, L'Etoile du Nord. &c. - Septet, 3s. 6d. Bosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street. Meyerbecr; Overture, Ruler of the Spirits-Weber. Friday Evening.--A Full Dress Ball.
IT A VARSOVIANA, the only authentic edition of this Parties requiring programmes of the performances may hare them forwarded by post, or may obtain them (with any other information desired) on application
Popular Dance is the one composcd by H. Laurent, an to Mr. Henry Howell, Secretary to the Committee, 34, Bennett's-hill, Birmingham. | evening at the Argyll Rooms. The Band Parts are now just ready. Price 68.
J. F. LEDSAM, Chairman. | Septet, 3s. Cd. Piano, 2s. Booscy and Sons, 28, Holles-street.
OPERA AND DRAMA.
principle, be excluded from representation upon this stage,
because it was simply impossible to produce its many membered BY RICHARD WAGNER.
subjects without frequent change of scene. It was, therefore, (Continued from page 498.)
necessary to borrow from the models which had decided the
French dramatic poet in his choice of the form, not only the outPART II.
ward form, but the whole arrangement of the action, and, finally,
even the very subject of it. He was obliged to select subjects For the so-called Romansh nations of Europe, among whom which did not require to be condensed by him to a narrower the unlimited Quixotism of the romance-mixing up all the standard, suitable for dramatic representation, but such as were Germanic and Romansh elements confusedly with each other already contained in such a compass and ready to his hand. had raged the most fiercely, this self-same romance had become The Greek poets culled, from their native traditions, subjects most incapable of being dramatised. The impulse, out of the of this kind which were the very essence of those traditions; the concentrated inwardness of human existence, to fashion the modern dramatist, starting from the outward rules borrowed motley impressions of its former fantastic humour into decided, from these poems, could not compress the poetical vital element and clear shapes, was manifested almost solely among the Ger of his time, only to be mastered by the exactly opposite course manic nations, who transformed the inward war against adopted by Shakspere, to a sufficient degree of compactness, for torturing external laws into a Protestant fact. The Romansh it to satisfy the outward standard applied to it, and, therefore, nations, which remained externally under the yoke of Catho nothing was left him except the--naturally distorting—imitation licism, continued to maintain themselves in that direction, in and repetition of the above dramas, that were already written. which they sought refuge, without, from internal division, in Thus, in Racine's “Tragédie" we have, upon the stage language, order-as I expresed myself—to divert themselves from with- and behind the scenes action; motives with movement separated out, in an inward direction. The plastic art, and an order of from them and laid beyond their sphere; the will without the poetry, which-descriptively—was equal to it, in essence, if not power. All art was, therefore, expended in the outwardness of in utterance, are the arts, diverting, entrancing, and amusing the language, which, quite consistently, in Italy (whence the new from without, peculiar to these nations.
style of art proceeded) was immediately lost in that musical The educated Italian and Frenchman turned from the people's mode of delivery, with which, as the substance, properly so play at home; in its rude simplicity and want of form it re-speaking, of the operatic system, we have already become more minded them of the complete chaos of the Middle Ages, which nearly acquainted. French tragedy, also, passed, of necessity, they were then striving to shake off as if it were some heavy, | into opera; Gluck expressed the true substance of this system of harassing dream. Going back, on the other hand, to the his-tragedy. Opera was thus the precocious blossom of an unripe torical roots of their respective languages, they selected from fruit, that had grown upon unnatural and artificial soil. The the Roman poets, the literary imitators of the Greeks, models element with which the Italian and French drama began, namely, also for the drama, which they offered for the amusement of the external form, is that which the drama of more modern times elegant and aristocratic world, in the place of the popular play, has yet to achieve, through an organic development from within which now amused only the people. Painting and architecture, itself, in the track of the Shaksperean drama, and it is not the principal arts of the Romansh Renaissance, had developed until it has done so that the natural fruit of the musical drama the eye of the aforesaid aristocratic' world to such a degree of will ever ripen. taste and pretention, that the rude scaffolding of planks, hung round with tapestry, of the British stage, could not content it. Between these two extreme opposites, the Shaksperean and The players obtained in the palaces of Princes the magnificent the Racinian drama, the modern drama now arose, and grew up hall, as their stage, on which, with slight modifications, they to its mongrel, unnatural shape, Germany being the soil which had to represent their scene. The stability of the scene was nourished it. fixed on as the restrictive and principal requirement of the whole Romansh Catholicism here continued, equal in strength, side drama, and in this the tendency adopted by the taste of the by side with German Protestantism, but both were involved in aristocratic world met the modern origin of the Drama presented so violent a conflict with each other, that, remaining undecided to them-namely, the rules of Aristotle. The princely spectator, as it did, despite its violence, no natural blossom of art resulted whose eye had been made, by plastic art, his principal organ from it. The inward impulse, which, with the Briton, was for positive enjoyment, did not like to have this very sense, of directed to the dramatic representation of the historic narrative all others, blindfolded, in order to render it subservient to the and the romance, was stopped, in the case of the German Proimagination, which was eyeless, and he was the more averse totestant, by the obstinate endeavour to settle the inward dissensuch a course because, on principle, he avoided the excitement sion inwardly. We have Luther, who, it is true, raised himself of the imagination, that was undecided, and delighted in the in art to the height of the religious lyric, but we possess no forms of the Middle Ages. He must have been offered the possi- Shakspere. The Roman Catholic South could, however, never bility of seeing the scene, on every occasion that the drama re- soar to the genial, light-minded forgetfulness of the inward quired a change in it, represented, strictly according to the sub- strife, in which the Romansh nations gave promise of plastic art, ject, with pictorial and plastic exactitude, in order to be induced | but kept guard over its religion with gloomy seriousness. While to allow such a change. It was not, however, necessary to re-all Europe threw itself into the arms of art, Germany remained quire, in this case, what was subsequently rendered possible by a meditating barbarian. That only which had outlived itself the mixing-up of the dramatic tendencies, because the Aris- ( abroad sought refuge in Germany, and blossomed again to a totelean rules, according to which this fictitious drama was con second summer on its soil. English actors, deprived of their structed, insisted upon the unity of the scene as a most impor | bread by the representatives of Shakspere's dramas at home, tant condition of the drama. It was, therefore, precisely that came over to Germany, for the purpose of playing off their growhich the Briton, in his organic creation of the drama from 1 tesque pantomimic tricks before the people there; it was not within, yet disregarded as being of outward moment, which until long subsequently, when it had faded in England, that the became the law, fashioning from without, of the French drama, Shaksperean drama itself followed ; German actors, fleeing from which thus endeavoured to construct itself out of mechanism the discipline of their dreary dramatic schoolmasters, possessed into life.
themselves of it, and adapted it for their own use. It is here important that we should carefully note how this It was from the south, on the other hand, that opera, that external unity of the scene determined the whole bearing of the outlet of the Romansh drama, had forced its way in. Its aristoFrench drama, so that the representation of the action was cratic origin in the palaces of princes, was its recommendation almost entirely excluded from the stage, while, in its stead, the in the eyes of German princes, so that it was they who introdelivery of the words was alone admitted. Thus, the romance, duced opera in Germany, while—we must particularly observepuffed out with action, which was the poetical basis of the life the Shaksperean drama was brought over by the people. In of the Middle Ages as well as of more recent times, must, on opera, the most luxurious and elaborately elegant scenic decorations formed a most perfect contrast to the scenic deficiencies of present the most important one for the object of my investigathe Shaksperean stage. The musical drama really and truly be- tion. The players in question, who first transplanted Shakspere came a “show-play," while the latter remained a“play for the ears." | upon the German stage, proceeded so honestly in the spirit of It is not necessary for us to investigate here again the reason of their art, that it never struck them to render his pieces prothis scenic extravagance in the operatic system: this loose kind of ducible either by accompanying the frequent change of place in drama was constructed from without, and only from without, by them with a varied change of their own theatrical scene luxury and magnificence, could it be kept alive. But it is im itself, or, out of respect for the poet, by renouncing the actual portant to remark how this scenic pomp, with the most unheard representation of the scene altogether, and returning to the of motley and elaborately varied change of scenic effects pre- sceneless stage of the Middle Ages, but they retained the position sented to the eye, arose out of that dramatic tendency for which their art had already assumed, and rendered Shakspere's diverunity had originally been laid down as a law. It was not the sity of scene in so far subordinate to it, as altogether to omit poet-who, while compressing the romance into the drama, still scenes that did not strike them as important, while they amalleft the varied nature of his subject in so far unlimited, to be able gamated others of more consequence. It was from a literary to change, for its benefit, the scene quickly and often, by an point of view that people became aware how much of the work appeal to the imagination-it was not the poet, who, abandon-of Shaksperean art was lost in this process, and insisted upon ing this appeal to the imagination for the confirmation, restoring in representation the original proportions of the pieces, of the senses, invented the refined system of mechanism for the two opposite propositions being made on the subject. The one, change of scenes actually represented, but it was the desire for not carried out, was Tieck's. Tieck, fully appreciating the prinoutward amusement that was ever changing, mere eye-curiosity, ciple of the Shaksperean drama, demanded the restoration of which produced it. Had the poet invented this apparatus, we the Shaksperean stage, with the appeal to the imagination as should be obliged to presume that he had experienced the neces the scene. This demand was perfectly logical, and founded upon sity of a frequent change of scene, as inherent to the varied the spirit of the Shaksperean drama. If a half measure of renature of the matter of the drama itself; since the poet, as we storation has always been unfruitful in history, a radical one, on have seen, constructed organically from within to without, it the contrary, has proved impossible. Tieck was à radical would be proved, by such a presumption, that historical and restorer, and, as such, to be respected, but he possessed no inromantic variety in the subject was a necessary condition of the fluence. The second proposition was to arrange the immense drama, for only the inflexible necessity of this condition could machinery of the operatic stage for the representation of the have induced him to satisfy the exigencies of the varied nature Shaksperean drama by the faithful realisation of the frequently of the matter by the invention of a scenic system, by which changing scene, originally only intimated by the poet. On the this variety of the matter would of necessity be displayed as a more modern English stage, the Shaksperean scene was transmotley, diverting variety of scene as well. But the exact con- lated into the most actual reality ; mechanism had invented trary was the case. Shakspere felt impelled by the necessity of miracles for the rapid change of the most elaborately constructed representing the historical story and the romance; in his fresh scenes, while the march of armies and battles were rendered with zeal to respond to this impulse, the feeling of the necessity for astounding exactitude. This course was imitated upon the large a representation, true to nature, of the scene, did not yet enter German theatres. his mind-had he experienced this necessity for the completely | The modern poet stood inquiringly, and confused, before this convincing representation of dramatic action, he would have style of play. The Shaksperean drama had produced upon sought to satisfy it by a far stricter sifting and greater com him, in a literary point of view, the elevating impression of the pression of the varied nature of the subject of the romance, and most perfect poetical unity; as long as it had merely appealed that, too, precisely in the same manner that he had already com- to his imagination, the latter had been capable of culling from it pressed the scene of action and its duration, as well as, on their an harmonious and well-defined picture, which the poet now account, the varied nature of the subject. The impossibility of beheld fade completely from before his eyes, in the fulfilment compressing the romance still more, an impossibility over which of the wish, necessarily once again aroused, of seeing this piche would infallibly have stumbled, must then have enlightened ture realised to the senses, by a complete representation. The him so far as to the nature of the romance as to prove to him realised picture of the imagination had only shown him an endthat it did not, in truth, agree with that of the drama, a disco- less mass of realities and actions, out of which his confused eye very which we were first enabled to make, when the undramatic was totally unable to reconstruct the picture drawn by his qualities of the extensiveness of the historical subject struck us imagination. The experiment produced upon him two principal from the realisation of the scene, which, from the fact that it re results, both of which were manifested in his being undeceived quired to be intimated only, alone enabled Shakspere to realise with regard to the Shaksperean drama. The poet either rethe dramatic romance.
nounced, henceforth, the wish to see his dramas represented on the The necessity for a representation of the scene corresponding stage, in order once again to imitate undisturbedly, and according to the place in which the action took place, could not, at last, to his mental views, the picture his imagination had drawn from fail to be experienced; the stage of the Middle Ages had to dis- the Shaksperean drama, that is to say: he wrote literary appear and make way for that of modern times. In Germany, it dramas for silent perusal-or, in order to realise practically upon was fixed by the character of the histrionic art of the people, the stage the picture of his imagination, turned, more or less which, also, after the dying-out of the old Passion-Plays and involuntarily, to the reflected form of the drama whose modern Mysteries, borrowed its foundation from the historical tale and origin we have had to acknowledge in the antiquising drama, romance. At the time when German histrionic art soared-up- constructed according to the rules of Aristotle. about the middle of the last century-this foundation was com- Both these results and tendencies are the fashioning motives posed of the romances of domestic life,* which then suited the in the works of the two most considerable dramatic poets of popular feeling. It was unmeasurably more flexible, and, more | modern days—Göthe and Schiller, whom I must here consider over, far less rich in matter than the historical or legendarymore nearly, as far as it is requisite for me to do, for the purpose romance at Shakspere's disposal; a satisfactory representation of of my investigation. the local scene could, therefore, be realised at a far less expense Göthe commenced his career as a dramatic poet by dramathan that necessary for the Shaksperean dramatising of the tising a full-blood romance of German knight-errantry-Götz romance. Those pieces of Shakspere, consequently, adopted von Berlichingen. The Shaksperean mode of proceeding was by the actors before-mentioned, were, in order to be representable most faithfully followed in it, the romance, with all its points by them, of necessity subjected to the most restrictive system of being translated for the stage with as much detail as the narremodelling. I shall here pass over all the reasons in accordance rowed limits of the latter and the compressed period of dramatic with which this remodelling was conducted, excepting one representation would permit. Göthe hit, however, even in this only; that of the purely scenic requirements, because it is at instance, on the stage where the locale of the action was, in
accordance with its requirements, represented, although roughly * Bürgerlicher Roman.
and scantily, at least with a decided purpose. This circumstance
induced the poet to remodel his poem, composed more from a ment, in the form of the Greek drama, and justify, or summarily literary than a scenico-dramatic point of view, prejudicially for beget this from out of itself. The poet, who had here to deal its actual representation upon the stage ; through the last form, with absolute artistic configuration, could only now return-at given it out of consideration for the requirements of the scene, least outwardly-to the course adopted by the French: he was the poem lost the freshness of the romance without gaining the | obliged, in order to justify the form of the Greek drama in his strength of the drama instead.,
work of art, to employ in it the subject of the Greek Mythos, · Göthe now selected for his dramas subjects from the romance ready to his hand. In selecting the subject of Iphigenia in of domestic life. The characteristic element of the romance of | Aulis, which was so, Göthe acted similarly, to Beethoven in domestic life consists in the fact that the action on which it is his most important symphonic compositions: as Beethoven founded is perfectly separated from the more comprehensive possessed himself of the absolute melody ready to his hand, connection of historical events and relations, retains only the and, dissolving it to a certain extent, broke it up, and then social precipitate of these historical events as conditional ad- I joined its various members together again by new organic juncts, and, within the limits of these adjuncts, which in reality animation, in order to render the organisation of music itself are only the reaction of the said historical occurrences deadened capable of bringing forth melody-Göthe seized on the already so as to become colourless, developes itself more according to existing subject of Iphigenia, and resolved it into its component moods imperatively enjoined by these adjuncts, than according to parts, which he joined together again by an organic, vivifying inward motives capable of perfect plastic utterance. This action poetic conformation, in order thus, similarly, to render the is just as limited and poor as the moods of mind by which it is organisation of the drama itself capable of begetting the perfect called forth are devoid of freedom and independent inwardness. form of dramatic art. But Göthe could succeed in this course The dramatisation of them, however, suited the mental point of only with the subjects already existing; he could not achieve view of the public, as, also, the outward possibility of the scenic such a success with any subject taken from modern life or from representation, because, in no instance did necessities for the the romance : even in Tasso, the subiect crew visibly cooler practical mise-en-scène arise out of the scanty action, which the under his hands that fashioned it to unity; and in Eugenie it mise-en-scène was not fundamentally able to satisfy. Whatever froze to ice. We will presently return to the reason of this fact; & mind like Göthe's produced under such limitations, we must for the present it is sufficient for us to demonstrate from our look upon as having proceeded almost solely out of the survey of the form of art adopted by Göthe, that the poet turned necessity he felt for subordination, under certain restrictive away, also, from this trial of the drama, as soon as he had to maxims, to the realisation of the drama generally, and deal not with absolute artistic creation alone, but with the certainly less from a voluntary subjection under the limited representation of life itself. It was only in the romance that spirit of the action of the domestic drama, and the feelings of even Göthe was able to overcome and represent intelligibly this the public who patronised him. From this restriction, how-life in its wide-spreading ramifications and outward form, invoever, Göthe freed himself and revelled in the most unbridled luntarily influenced from far and near. The poet could only liberty, by completely renouncing the real stage-drama. In his communicate the real essence of his views of the world in plan of Faust he only retained the advantages of a dramatig description-in the appeal to our imagination—so that Göthe's representation for the literary poem, leaving, on purpose, the influential artistic creations were necessarily again lost in the possibility of the scenic production completely out of the ques-romance, out of which, at the commencement of his poetical tion. In this poem, Göthe struck, for the first time, with full career, he had turned with Shaksperean impulse to the drama. consciousness, the key-note of the peculiar poetical element of
(To be continued.) the present day : the pressing-forward of thought into reality, which he could solve artistically, though not yet in the reality
RACHEL. of the drama. This is the boundary between the romance of
(From the Examiner). the Middle Ages reduced to the shallowness of that of domestic
MOLLE. RACHEL, on her way to America, gives sudden life to life, and the really dramatic matter of the Future. We must
uture. We must play-goers in London by appearing at this theatre in four of reserve for ourselves the task of dilating more fully upon the
| her greatest characters. At one time this journal stood almost characteristics of this boundary and at present be content
alone in the endeavour to describe in detail these remarkable to regard as of importance the knowledge that Göthe, when
performances. Over and over again have we expressed our arrived at it, was not able to produce either a real romance, or
wonder and admiration at the sublimity and beauty infused a real drama, but simply a mere poem, enjoying, according to into the old French drama by the genius of this great actress. an abstract artistic standard, the advantages of both styles.
Before she taught us how they might be filled with every Let us turn from this poem, which, like the ever-living vein of
passion, how a life of woc might find expression in a sentence, a gurgling spring, pervades, with fashioning incitation, the whole
we were apt to weary over the cold heroics of those famous artistic life of the poet, and once again follows his artistic
French tragedies. But, presented by her, they amaze us with creations to where, with renewed endeavours, he devoted him
graud conceptions. Awe, pity, terror, are awakened as we look self to the scenic drama.
and listen, and nothing remains for our self-respect as critics From the dramatised domestic drama which he attempted in but to attribute half the poetry and passion, as well as all the Egmont, by the expansion of the surrounding adjuncts to a con
expression they receive, to the actress herself. . . nection with far-spreading historical moments, to raise, from
| This week we have seen her once more in the Camille of within to without, to its highest pitch, Göthe departed decidedly | Corneille's Horaces, and in the heroine of Racine's Phèdre-and in his plan of Faust; if the drama still charmed him as the
in neither was a spark of the old fire wanting. It is thus in the most perfect kind of poetry, it was principally from contem
full perfection of her powers that Mdlle. Rachel wisely resolves plating it in its most complete artistic form. This form, in
to seek also in America the appreciation she has met with in
to seek also in Am telligible to the Italians and French, in accordance with their
England. She takes no worn-out reputation to the other side knowledge of the Antique, only as an outward, constraining rule, of the Atlantic. Well assured of that by this week's experience, struck the more penetrating glance of German investigators as an
we shall be curious to observe the character of the reception essential moment of the expression of Greek life; its warmth was
given to the greatest actress of the Old World, by our brethren able to inspire them, as they had experienced the warmth of its life in the New. out of its monuments themselves. The German poet saw that To us in the meantime there will remain, not only the vivid the form of unity distiuguishing Greek tragedy was not imposed recollection of her wonderful creations, but a new and very lifeupon the drama from without, but necessarily imbued with
like portrait to remind us of them. Copies have been multiplied new life, from within to without, by the unity of its of a full-length photograph of Mdlle. Rachel in the character of purport. The purport of modern life, which, as yet, could | Phèdre, which is curious for its exact resemblance. only render itself intelligible in the romance, could not enables the distinctive features to be seen more accurately than
Indeed it possibly be compressed into such plastic unity, as ever to be when we look at the real Phèdre or Camille from before the able to express itself, under intelligible dramatic treat- | footlights. It is published by Mr. Mitchell.