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mainly founded on the airs which succeed it in the opera. The Deloffre. The choruses are well drilled, the scenery pretty, piece opens with a chorus and bolero, after which Madame Marie | the mise-en-scène superb. There is also a good corps de ballet, Cabel sings "Dansez, dansez, filles de Castille," the same air who dance nicely. In short, nothing is wanting for the opera as the chorus. Then comes an air for the muleteer, very well save originality in the libretto, and melody in the music-two sung by Sujol, which is followed by a duet, “De la peur," very trifling omissions ! between him and Madame Cabel. A trio of drinkers follows,
. Jan. 2, 1855. which is immediately succeeded by a duet, “Vive le vin The musical event of the week, and, indeed, the only novelty, d'Espagne.” “Si j'étais la reine d'Espagne" falls to the share consists in the début of Madame Angles-Fortuni, at the Grandof the disguised queen, and a chorus concludes Act I. The Opéra, in Lucia di Lammermoor. Madame Angles-Fortuni is second act opens with a chorus, which is followed by an air of Spanish extraction, having been born at Badajoz, and edufor Don Pedro, “Quand on conspire," then another chorus and cated at the Conservatoire of Madrid. Before she had completed a march, after which comes an air, so charmingly rendered by her studies she was appointed professor of singing, and was in Madame Cabel, that the audience were enchanted with her great favour as a performer at concerts. Feeling, however, that execution ;
she had a vocation for the lyrical stage, she went to Italy, and, “ Au convent,
studied hard for three years, refusing all offers from masters and Bien souvent, **
managers, and preserving entire freedom to do what she chose. On soupire, &c.,"
Encouraged by Rubini, she first appeared on the stage at the These couplets, sung with extraordinary velocity, were unani
Opera in Milan, in the year 1852, since which she has sung at mously encored. Another bolero and an air, “Je ne suis pay
most of the large operas in Italy, including La Fenice at Venice, sanne;" a trio of the conspirators, “ Vous êtes en notre pouvoir,”
and La Scala, at Milan. She last sang at the Opera at Lisbon. and “ Écoutez, la cloche lointaine," bring the second act to a conclusion.
She is now engaged at the Grand-Opéra, in Paris, for a term of The third act is short. “Enfin, me voilà donc
two years, at a salary of 50,000 francs per annum, and will fill a maîtresse," sung by Mad. Cabel, and a duet for her and the
void which has been open all the season. Young, pretty, with muleteer, “O trouble extrême,” lead to the finale sung by
a dark olive complexion, large black eyes, magnificent hair, and Mad. Cabel on the motives of the duet in the first act, and
a beautifully small foot, Madame Angles-Fortuni adds the "Si j'étais la reine d'Espagne.” These are the principal airs in
beauty of expression to that of mere feature. As an artist this new work of M. Adolph Adam of the Institute :
she is accomplished and agreeable. Her voice is thin, clear, “ Better one good work of Auber
and flexible, with no extraordinary volume, but with very Than a thousand of Adam,”
considerable compass. She sings with good taste, and will be the exclamation of every one hearing it. It never
with a knowledge of her art, and is exactly suited to such appeals to any high and ennobling sentiment; it is utterly
parts as the Queen of Navarre, in the Huguenots; the Princess, wanting in that pearly roundness, that graceful trifling, that lin Robert le Diable: or Bertha, in L Prophète. In short, she is exquisite melody which pervade every lyric production of the
an accomplished chanteuse légère; and I trust the Opéra will be oldest living French composer, the immortal Auber. It is not enabled. by her aid, to dispense with the further services of original, it is not melodious, it is not scientific. Cui bono then ? | Malle. Deily, “pupil of Duprez," and Malle. Pouilly. «prima why should it have been written? why does it draw ? why is | donna of Strasbourgh.” Madame Angles-Fortuni was very well the house filled ? The answer is short : it was written for received, and much and deservedly applauded. But what shall Madame Cabel, it is sung by Madame Cabel, it is acted by | I say of the mode in which the opera was put on the stage? The that charming woman and finished comédienne; and, as she lady had entreated that Gardoni might be her Edgardo, but hardly leaves the stage from the rising of the curtain to its | M. Crosnier was ill and absent, and his locum tenens insisted on final fall, it is quite certain that all Paris will rush to see, hear, I giving her M. Poulthier. Poor lady! it was sad to see her and greet this Queen of the Boulevard. What more charming linked to such a lover, surrounded by such dismal choristers in than that expressive face, that graceful figure, that well-turned
such faded dresses, and placed among such frosty decorations. ankle, shewn to such advantage in the peasant dress ? And Pah! the very air was sickly with the stale odours produced by then as queen! the dignity of the monarch striving with the
such rags from an old clothes-shop. love of the woman, until Cupid conquers, as he always must. Madame Stoltz has not found it convenient to pay the sum in Again, the final struggle, when she thinks her heart has played
which she would have been mulcted for giving up her engageher false, and that instead of wedding her equal she has given
ment; and the management, conceiving that her Fides in the her hand to a simple peasant. All this is performed with such Prophète would prove a hit, it is more than probable that an aran absence of affectation, such a charm of manner, such a freedom rangement, which is now in progress, will speedily be comfrom mannerism, such exquisite touches of nature, as to prove pleted. that Marie Cabel is entitled to take rank among the very first At the Opéra-Comique, L'Etoile du Nord, Le Pré aux Clercs, of those eminent artists who have adorned the French lyric and Galathée, with Madame Ugalde, still hold their ground. The stage. As to her singing, I shall not attempt to describe it. success of L'Etoile du Nord is really unprecedented, and the Such tours de force, such prodigies of agility, such good taste, following figures, as given by M. Fiorentino in the feuilleton of such clearness and neatness of execution, must be heard, but the Constitutionnel, are curious:--L'Etoile du Nord has now been defy description. Madame Cabel sings eight or ten times during performed eighty-six times, and these eighty-six representations the opera, is always encored more than twice, and her voice is as have produced a sum of 445,429 francs 25 centimes, or an fresh at the conclusion as at the commencement. “Le Muletier de average of 5,179 francs 42 cents for each performance. Of this Tolède, c'est Madame Cabel” (excuse the Irishism), although sum 40,473 francs go to the poor, and the authors' per centage she is well backed by M. Sujol as the muleteer, M. Cabel as amounts to 64,493 francs. This latter sum is divided between Don Pedro, and MM. Ribes, Legrand, Mad, Vadé, and Malle. | Mons. Scribe and Meyerbeer in equal proportions, and, adding Garnier. The orchestra is good, and well conducted by M. that to the sum originally received from the management of the Opéra, and for the right of publication, and also that produced by not often to be met with. Les Parisiens (originally called representations in this country, it will be seen that it is no bad Les Parisiens de la Décadence, but the last three words thing to write and compose a successful opera in Paris. The struck out by order), written by M. Barrière, author of management gave 20,640 francs for the new instruments they Les Filles de Marbre, has obtained a great success at the bought from Sax.
vaudeville. It is written in the spirit and with much of the Talking of that celebrated and unrivalled manufacturer of biting wit of Beaumarchais, and lashes the follies and vices of everything pertaining to musical sound, I must recount the short the age with a most unsparing hand. Felix and Delannoy, and glorious campaign he has fought, and the memorable coup among the men; Clarisse Miroy (known in London as Clarisse, d'état he made on the morning of Friday last. He had long been especially engaged), Luther, and St. Marc among the ladies, best aware that his patents were infringed by most of his fellow-perform their parts. The Gaîté is having an enormous run with manufacturers in Paris, but the culprits were so numerous that Les Cing Cents Diables,, from the pens of MM. Dennery and it was difficult to attack them all at once, and fighting them in Amther. Alphonsine is really charming, and there are about detail would have been expensive and tardy. He, therefore, five hundred changes of scene, and tricks of every description after much consideration, determined to remain quiescent until
and of immense ingenuity. Mad. Giradin's charming “vaudenearly the end of the year, and when they had a large ville sans couplets," Le Chapeau d'un Horloger, and the neat
rhyming play of L'Ecole des Agneaux, well performed by Berton, and decisive, at one and all. He was resolved to carry Nero's | Dupuis, Laurentine, etc., fill the Gymnase night after night. wish into execution, and at one stroke to decapitate all the
The Variétés has nothing new, and is dull and stupid. musical instrument makers of Paris. Meanwhile he kept per- In the year 1854. 18 new operas. 17 comedies, 2 ballets. 24 fectly silent; none but himself would be his counsellor ; and on dramas, a tragedy in one act, and vaudevilles without number. Thursday last he applied to the Chief Commissary of Police, and
were produced in Paris. Of these the Opéra gave 2, the Théâtrerequested that he would, next morning, at six o'clock, conduct
Français 11, the Opéra-Comique 5, Italian-Opéra 2, Odéon 10, to his bureau in the Place St. Georges, sixteen commissaries,
Théâtre-Lyrique 11, Vaudeville 19, Gymnase 13, Variétés 50, sixteen huissiers, and thirty-two adjoints. The Commissary
Palais-Royal 28, Porte St.-Martin 6, Gaîté 7, Ambigu-Comique 13, promised silence, and gave his orders to commissaries, huissiers,
Cirque 3, Folies Dramatiques 17, Délassemens-Comiques 25, and adjoints, to rendezvous at the Bureau de Police at five next
Beaumarchais 10, Luxembourg 20, Choiseuil 3.—Total 255. morning, but for what purpose he did not inform them. He conveyed them in cabs to Sax's house, the plan of campaign was prepared, and by seven o'clock a commissary of police, a
ROSINA STOLTZ. huissier, and two adjoints, were in each of sixteen of the largest manufacturers' work-shops and counting-houses. They seized
The following sketch, taken from the France Musicale, is from the instruments, made in infraction of Sax's patents, to the
| the pen of M. Giacomelli :extent of 450,000 francs ; one man having 65,000 francs' worth
All we know concerning the early years of Mad. Stoltz is, that she
was placed by the kindness of the Duchess de Berry in a convent of in his shops. The whole of these will be forfeited to Saxe, as
Benedictine Nuns, in the Rue du Regard. The kindness of the Duchess soon as he procures the judgment of the tribunal to which he is said to have arisen from the fact that the date of the child's birth has appealed. Meanwhile, they are moving heaven and earth to corresponded with that of the Duke de Berry's death. We cannot say make terms with him, and have already proffered a large sum
how much truth there is in this tradition, which is current in the
artistic world. One thing, however, is certain : the patroness and her to redeem their instruments and purchase peace. I heartily
protégée have met with a very different destiny. Success, happiness, rejoice at the success of a most ingenious and worthy man, and and glory have been the companions of the one ; while great reverses, one who has effected more improvements in musical instruments captivity and banishment, have tested the courage and resignation of than all these rascally manufacturers put together. .
the other. A throne seemed to be waiting for the Duchess de Berry,
but it was Rosina Stoltz who really obtained one, and raised herself to Il Trovatore holds its ground firmly at the Italian Opéra. Its
it by the royalty of talent. success is undeniable. I am glad to say that it draws money As the child evinced an inclination for music, she was taken, every for Colonel Ragani, who sadly needed it. On Sunday week the day, by order of her royal patroness, to Choron's school, which has trilogy of Berlioz, L'Enfance du Christ, and a new composition
on endowed the musical art with many eminent vocalists. This school
produced Monpou, Adam, Dietsch, Jansenne, and, especially, Duprez, of which both words and music are by Berlioz, called Le Dix who was destined to share the triumphs of Mad. Stoltz. All Choron's Décembre, are to be performed at the Italian Opéra. Con pupils may not have become great artists, but they have, at least, all sidering the well-deserved success of the first work-considering proved excellent musicians.
At the early age of sixteen, Rosina Stoltz, impelled by irresistible the title and object of the second and considering that the
inclination, first appeared on the stage in a petite comedy in verse, Emperor, Empress, and Court are expected, there will probably
and a vaudeville. Her acting was not merely an effect of memory! it be an enormous house. Mad. Bosio has been in the provinces was even then, as those who were present acknowledged, an acquired for a week or two, and has sung with considerable success at art, the result of active reasoning. We have also been informed that Amiens and other places. Signor Bettini is at Turin, where he
the charming manner in which the young actress phrased and sang the
couplets in the various vaudevilles in which she played, was particularly has had a great reception as Raoul in the Huguenots. Je
noticed. The Théâtre-Lyrique fills with Le Muletier, so charmingly A short time subsequently, Rosina Stoltz made her debut at the created by Madame Cabel: and Der Freischütz is in fuit | Theatre-Royal, Brussels, as Alice, in Robert le Diable, appearivg suc
cessively as Gertrude, in Le Maitre de Chapelle, Marguerite, in Les rehearsal, to be performed on her off-nights. Mesdames Deligne
Deux Reines, Paquita, in La Marquise, and Petit-Jacques, in La Pie Lauters, and Meillet, fill the principal female parts, and it will Voleuse. The year following, she boldly took the part of Rachel, in probably be well done. The Revue at the Palais Royal, called the Jewess. Les Binettes Contemporaines, is clever and successful. Messrs.
It is not undesignedly that we have named some of the first works in Levassor, Grassot, Hyacinthe, Gil-Perez, Mesdames Cico,
which Mad. Stoltz appeared as a singer and actress. The commenco
ico, ment of the artist's career was, to speak plainly, a painful one-her Duverger, Almie Duval, Bramine, Dupuis, etc., form a combina- theatrical life a struggle, and her talent but laboriously developed, tion of fun, drollery, beauty, legs, and diamonds, such as is while contending against adverse influences of various kinds. The progress of her extraordinary talent followed a course parallel to the gentlemen applaud the pretended lyric tragédiennes of our own times ? progress of the time. It began by a sort of eclecticism, by doubt and For instance, is the Huguenots to be compared with the lyrical analysis. Raising herself afterwards, by degrees, to the highest regions tragedies of the past age ? Do the stoical circumlocutions, the systemof art, she has eventually ended by combining and blending in the atically achromatic pictures of the ancient style, at all resemble the same happy union the most opposite expressions and shades, which, to precise, warm, and vigorous lines of the modern style? Has the all appearance, are most contradictory. This furnishes us with the Favorite, for instance, any points of similitude with Gluck's Armida, answer to the riddle, and the real explanation of Mad, Stoltz's talent. or Sacchini's Edipus in Colonnus ? In sober truth, we suspect the We have no hesitation in pronouncing this talent, this distinctive classicist of a want of candour; it would tend much more to simplify characteristic, to be-drama.
the question, if they would express themselves categorically; they What, in fact, is drama, unless a creation founded upon the living ought, supposing they wished to be consistent, not to applaud Mad. reproduction of a real action; which, too, paints the world under all Stoltz, but, on the contrary, to criticise her severely. its various aspects, and represents it as it appears to us? It is beyond a No; the talent of Mad. Stoltz is not classical, and she herself, in doubt that the integrity of this kind of representation requires from the spite of her progress, and in spite of the advice she received from the artist who takes a part in it marvellous suppleness, and comic as well as | master of masters, is not a classical vocalist --& fact on which we, for tragic genius. Drama must mix up all tones, without confusing any, our part, congratulate her sincerely. Her singing touches, moves, and and transform the changing and ever-varying actions of history and transports you by forms quite new; her acting is quick, lively, and real life into one harmonious and luminous whole. Meditation, exciting, and plunges into the most secret recesses of the passion she is passion, reverie, illusion, devotion, heroism, error, repentance, remorse expressing; it goes home to the truth, it is the most complete dra-in a word, everything that agitates the life of man, occupies in it its matic transfiguration of our manners, customs, and sentiments, and is natural position, and assumes the highest degree of significance. most intimately connected with them. To be brief, Mad. Stoltz excels
This universality of the dramatic art, by which the young artist was in that power of expression which springs entirely from her own soul, able to profit at the very outset-thanks to the great flexibility and and proceeds in a direct line to the soul of the spectator. When this compass of her voice, which enabled her to sing with equal facility both is the case, what difference do a few irregularities or even excesses contralto and soprano parts-is, in our opinion, one of the principal make? Does not genius sometimes deviate from the right road? Can causes of the development of her grand and original talent. Even its path and step be measured out for it? Such an idea is simply ridi. towards the close of the first two years she spent at Brussels, Rosina culous. We might as well tell' the stream that spreads its broad Stoltz began to be distinguished by the enlightened approbation of the waves over the level country around, that it does wrong to pass its critics, simultaneously with the applause of the public. The creation of usual limits and indulge in such an excess. the part of Rachel did her great honour. It was about this time that We are here compelled to touch upon a question which has always Nourrit went to play a few parts at Brussels. The great artist divined, struck us as puerile; we allude to the question of “schools.” The without difficulty, in the young singer the germs of the most vigorous classification either of works or artists appears to us a superfluous dramatic power, which, although still obscure, contained a splendid task, when works or artists are of superior merit. However, in the future, and from which that future was destined ere long to spring case of Madame Stoltz this task becomes almost a duty. Madame into life. Madame Stoltz's position in Paris was decided from that Stoltz is nothing less than the founder of a school; she has created moment, and Nourrit undertook to obtain it for her. At last she a particular form, and given her name to certain dramatic characappeared upon the stage where Madlle. Falcon still reigned supreme, teristics. Her work is there to prove, by its monumental solidity, and, in spite of this formidable propinquity, at once displayed her the rare vigour of the artist who created it, and her various creations talent in its true colours. She made her debut in La Juive.
form a complete whole, a type, a genius, and, to use the theatrical term, It is very far from our intention to write a biographical study, an emploi. "We say at present the Stoltz, to designate the kind of parts instead of a critical article, and we shall, therefore, content ourselves she has created, as we still say, at the Opéra-Comique, the Dugazons, with this epitome, and, in what we have further to say, keep to the Trials, and the Martins. those principal facts which stand out in the career of Madame Stoltz- We have already given a partial sketch of the distinctive attributes of authentic, positive, and leading facts, explaining the character of the this school, the existence of which we suppose we must acknowledge. Wo artist as well as that of her creations.
will merely add, that it possesses no fixed and pre-determined rules, It is no easy task to classify talent like that of Madame Stoltz. It simply because it possesses all the rules ever known, and because it is is not sufficient to assign to any artist a certain style and school : it is connected by the closest bonds to the two great schools of Italy and also necessary to point out the bonds which connect him or her with the France. Madame Stoltz, seconded, it is true, by the musical movement style and school to which he or she belongs. According to certain of the age, has found means to assimilate and blend the two. critics, more enamoured of the manifestations of dramatic beauty than One of the works in which Madame Stoltz appeared to the greatest desirous of studying its elements, Madame Stoltz's talent belongs to advantage from this unitarian point of view is undoubtedly La Favorite. tragedy. This is, also, the opinion of a great many with whom In the lyric art it is seldom that an artist can completely realise the tradition is a religion ; art, a snail in its shell; and progress, a word doctrines she has created, and, above all, succeed in uniting them with devoid of sense. We must follow the latter closely on their own one another, and summing them all up in a single work, without ground, and ask how it is that every artist of superior talent very soon | lessening or changing them, or without departing from the principles leaps over the puerile barriers of Aristotle, and gives his talent new from which she originally set out. life and liberty? As for the persons of the first class, we shall easily Over-fastidious critics will still find fault with the creation, at the be enabled to rescue them from the error in which they appear to be same time so tender and so vigorous, of Léonore, so mild, so weak, so plunged. The want of precise ideas as to the nature and object of pathetic; who allows herself to be drifted towards the flowery banks modern lyrical conceptions has, of course, greatly helped to warp their of love with such indolent abandon ; who, like a true Castilian as she jadgment.
is, at first asks from the affections only their secret joys and passing We admit one branch of the dramatic art, severe, imposing and bliss, but who can, at the last hour, assert her right to its sublime grand, both in idea and development; but why wish still to apply to heroism. Léonore was not, perhaps, a type in the minds of the authors, this branch the worn-out title of tragedy ? Why call the actors and hence arises the great difficulty in tracing out the part, the action who devote themselves to it, tragedians ? this branch of art, by the of which is not developed until the last act. Besides this, the part of way, is no longer found isolated. The Real, which our hands touch Léonore was not written originally for Mad. Stoltz, and it was necesand our hearts appreciate, and the Picturesque which our eyes behold, sary to remodel the melodies, revise the concerted pieces, and, in fact, hare also their privileges in modern dramatic works. The drama, at provide a new musical ground on which the artist's talent might present, excludes nothing; the system of the lyric drama admits antique maneuvre with freedom. The artist, however, triumphed over all these subjects quite as well as modern subjects; the real does not exclude the obstacles. It is in this part that Mad. Stoltz has infused the greatest ideal; and the former, after descending from the heights where it has amount of that sorrowful passion, which is smothered by the icy hand so long been balancing itself, feels the necessity of repairing its strength l of the world; it is upon this confused and undecided groundwork that by terrestrial means. Our fathers accomplished great works, but they Mad. Stoltz has sketched so clear, vigorous, and beautiful an outline. did not close the circle of perfection after them. Will the old men who The sketch is the result of a highly intelligent organization, energetic drape themselves in their expression of “classic,” explain what they judgment, and simple and profound sentiment; we recognise in it the mean by it? Do they mean to say that they will accept only the ancients artist who knows her own strength, who sees with her own eyes, and can and their models as guides ? If that is their meaning, we are sorry for it, render clearly the tones she perceives, as well as the artist who can because, when their theories are applied they become strangely confused. I model, dispose. light up a thought, and endow it with life. La Favorite To confine ourselves to the musical art and its interpreters of the present thus conceived assumes a definite signification; it is the fall of a day, what can be less classical than those works in which, however, these woman, and ber redemption-a veil whose two extremes are white and pure, one of them being raised by the hand of Innocence, and the other | Arriving here last November, after fourteen years' absence, Henry by that of Forgiveness.
Litolff performed at the Conservatoire, on the 26th, his fourth symMoreover, the artist has done wonders with the music of the score. phony-concerto, which, with the immense orchestra of that institution, To look at the notes themselves, it is surprising what spirit she throws made a great impression on an audience of two thousand persons. into them. From this mixed composition, in which the tones of Since then, he gave a concert himself, where he played his third symItalian melody, and the tints of French dramatic music are confounded | phony-concerto, as well as his fourth. The concert terminated with and huddled up together, she has extracted the richest effects, and the overture to the Girondins. All these works were received with placed them in the strongest light. Such is the miracle performed by
unanimous and enthusiastic applause. A second concert has been ånthe genius of Mad. Stoltz in La Favorite; such the power she owes to nounced, and the new programme contains some new compositions, the varied character of her resources. We could cité many other in among which is the overture composed by Litolff to Griepenkerl's stances, were it not time for us to stop and sum up. All the creations tragedy of Robespierre. Already the announcement of the concert has of Mad. Stoltz are sisters ; about them all there exists a perfect like caused a sensation in the musical world of Brussels, where Litolff has ness, at least a family air, which causes us to acknowledge them the found himself thoroughly appreciated. heroines of the piece. But it does not follow that, because the gene It is not for Belgium alone that I write these liner, it is for France rating power is the same, its productions are identical. We repeat, and Germany ; for the latter above all, because Germany is at this however, that agreement, ensemble, and unity, are the characteristics of moment at a dangerous crisis in a musical point of view. While her the artist. If the school of Mad. Stoltz possesses in our eyes a parti painters, her sculptors, and her architects are elevating themselves by cular value, it is from putting forward in a strong light the unity of the greatest conceptions, and are not less remarkable for beauty of form spirit characterising the modern lyrical element.
than for greatness of thought, her musicians of genius have disap. Now, this school is certainly the only one which suits the temper of peared by degrees, and the uncertain taste of the nation is exposed to our own times: it is directly connected with the progress we have vacillations from different motives equally hurtful. Among the Germans made, and the progress we have yet to make. Out of the most of our time it is with music as with philosophy-it seems that there opposite elements, out of scattered systems and floating theories, its is for music, as for absolute truth. a great
is for music, as for absolute truth, a great problem to be solved by the tendency is to raise itself to the idea of one single motive, everywhere despairing crowd; while the fanatics of opposite systems declare them. present in the world of art.
selves to be alone the possessors of the required solution. For one *. Mad. Stoltz will have done her share by laying one of the first stones party of these sectarians, the past is but the preparation for the futuro, of the new edifice. The present age knows this, and posterity will not the beautiful of former times has value but in its own period. In their forget it.
works is the perfection sought only to be found. It is true that the public does not agree with them ; but this is nothing, for they simpiy
say to the public, “The mass is by nature unintelligent; you are so, HENRY LITOLFF.
and therefore you are not capable of understanding. It is not there
fore for you that we write our works, but for the future !" Poor (From the Revue et Gazette Musicale.)
future! 'You will be exceedingly amusing if you hug yourself with the
idea of all that is destined for you. But you will not be more stupid FIFTEEN or sixteen years ago a young man, about nineteen years of
than the prosent generation, and you will not recall to your remem. age, arrived at Brussels, and expressed to me his desire to play at the
brance the great etl'orts that were made for you. concerts of the Conservatoire. I granted his request. He offered
Art is not science : it is not destined to be understood but to be felt, himself then only as a pianist. Though a pupil of Moscheles, he had because it is not the true, but the beautiful. The art which cannot be but few of the characteristics of his school, and was not remarkable for
understood is absurd, because its destiny is to be popular. * I know the correctness of his mechanism ; but he had fire, energy, and inspira
well those of whom I speak do not fail to say to every one, that tion, which gave his playing a decided character of originality.
Beethoven was not understood till after his death; and they liáve so He produced a very fair impression on his audience. This young man's
often repeated this fable that they have ended by believing it. But it name was Henry Litolff.
is an untruth, for the illustrious artist, little conciliating in character, Well received at Brussels, he remained there, I think, about two was occupied all his life in avoiding the numerous testimonies of admisears. During this time his intelligence became developed, and his ration which poured upon him from all sides. He was an object of musical ideas enlarged. He conceived the idea of a Symphony. veneration to the whole of the city of Vienna, and even the porters, Concerto, in which the orchestra was not merely to play the part of sinking beneath the weight of their burdens, stood aside with respect accompanyist, but was equally divided with the pianoforte. Litolff to let him pass when they met him in the streets. Want of faith alone then knew barmony only by instinct, and had no experience in is the reproach to the Parisians for not having understood the syminstrumentation ; nevertheless, what he did not know theoretically he phonies of Beethoven till he slept in his tomb. The first time that the knew instinctively. His work was full of original ideas and new effects. symphony in C minor, the Eroica, the one in A, and the Pastorale were He begged me to let him hear it himself first : perhaps he did not played at the Société des Concerts, nothing was heard but expressions exactly know what he had written for the public; but he had boldness of admiration; they made a perfect furore. Never before had these -a qualification indispensable to talent. He found me—what I have works been heard in Paris. always been, what I will ever be to young artists-encouraging, and I have said it a hundred times, and I say it again, that music is not quite disposed to satisfy his wish. At the first rehearsal, I saw there the product of the faculty of conception, but that of the imagination in was something for the future; the success of the performance proved the synthesis of idea and sentiment. If, then, the members of this party that I was not deceived.
who aspire to become a school have produced nothing that is popular, A short time after, Litolff left Brussels to travel. Where he went, it is that their imagination has been wanting. and what he did, during the first years, I am ignorant of, for I lost It is that which dietinguishes Litolff from them; of him, it may be sight of him. I saw, however, by the musical journals that he was said that he is a poet-that he feels; that he has ideas, inspiration, and twice in Holland. In 1843 he was at Frankfort, the following year at charm. By these he appears to me to have all the German talent for Leipzig, in 1845 at Dresden and Berlin, where he gave seven or eight | instrumental music. I know well that he has great faults : he does concerts, and in 1848 at Vienna. The same journals had mentioned not know how to end. He repeats too often not only the same ideas, his bringing out at Brunswick two operas, named La Fiancée de but the samo forms of ideas. Tho tendency to colouring is foremost in Kynast and Catherine Howard; but they mentioned nothing of the bis thoughts. Lastly, his genius--for we can use this word in speak. talent which I had noted, and spoke only of the artist. Several years ing of him-like every other genius, shows the influence of his own had elapsed, when I received, in the midst of the political agitations times, which tends to exaggeration; but all this is set aside by his that were passing round me, an overture composed by Litolff for the originality-by the abundance of his resources--by the charm of decuGerman drama of the Girondins. The author had dedicated it to me liar phrases--and by the excellence of his effects in instrumentation, as a souvenir, and at the same time wrote me a few lines, in which which are less the result of experience than of intuition.
me old acquaintance was mentioned in grateful terms. I examined the 1 I say then with confidence, there is a great musician in Germany. score with interest, and found great originality, immense progress in and his name is Henry Litolff. (Who is an Euglishman.-ED.) the art of writing, and an instrumentation rich in effects. Nevertheless,
FÉTIS. I dared not have this work performed, owing to the revolutionary airs that were inserted and developed in it. The time did not appear to me
favourable. , Latterly, I acknowledge, I forgot all about it, so that the | * With deference to M. Fétis, this seems to be a contradiction. loverture to the Girondins was uuknown in Brussels until very lately. En. M. W.
INDIVIDUALITY IN MUSIC.
are spiritually reflected and illuminated in the mirror of art,
| and, availing ourselves of this fact, we endeavour to accommoIt is only by means of individuality that Truth and Beauty date the spirit of the times to the riches of eternal thought ever succeed in attaining that material embodiment which we and feeling in our breasts. look upon as the uninterrupted revelation of the Divine in art. Here, then, does individuality again appear in full force, for Even in science, the higher class of truths, the agnition of which it is by individuality alone that a work of art obtains life and is not effected by sensual perception, but is based upon ideas, I credit, and if the individuality impressed on it is not a pleasing gain the convincing power they exercise over us, only by one, the work must be all the more interesting, and, of itself, their reappearance in the mental individualities that receive more capable of exciting us mentally, if it can fix our attention ; and reproduce them. There are certain great and general and all the more full of soul and inspiration, if it can move us. truths, which are, and always have been, the property of Any dry work of the understanding, although based on the every civilized people on the face of the globe, and most profound study of art, and treating of the most interesting whose germs exist even among nations in a primitive state. It moments and problems of intellectual life, if art is merely was, probably, the seeming simplicity of such truths that gave employed as the handmaiden of the mental intention, without rise to the assertion, which it justifies in a certain sense, that no being inspired by enthusiastic individuality, can never succeed new discovery is to be made in the realm of ideas or the domain in attracting and permanently engrossing the attention of a large of elevated spiritual perception. Yet how new do these ideas audience, and, just in the same manner, the warmest sentiment, appear in every great mind in which they are reflected, and
gushing into the noblest and most correct artistic forms, will be which impresses its own peculiar stamp upon them; how often do incapable of extorting from us lasting life, and pleasurable we see them, in this mental reflection and transformation, devotion, if it be not lighted up by a spark of soul. throwing out a new principle of life, which breaks through the For ny own part, I am less contented with the dry surrounding shadow of the Earthly, and forming new relations works of thought, with the laboured samples of theories, with respect to the primitive Spirit from which all light pro and with the pretensions and inflated productions of ceeds, and who rules every thing that has being !
modern purpose-art, and their glaring outward effects, even In art, however, it is not mental conception alone, but more when they are not poor in spiritual excitement, and especially the gift of form, which obtains a high position only by expessive combinations of tone, than with the works of those the impress of individuality (peculiarity and style).
noble spirits who, like Spohr, aware of the limits of their talent, We thus have spiritual life presented to us as a well-defined | do not attempt to scale the heavens, but, forming themselves picture, in which deathlike generality, objective stubbornness, after some sublime model, endeavour, above all things, to render and coldness of ideas appear overpowered, and the sense of being themselves completely masters of the secret of the beautiful in is displayed in a new view of the world. Originality, peculiarity, art, and introduge us to a world of warm feelings with grateful personal seclusiveness, and individual life, are, therefore, the harmony and soft melodious tones. Even in material music, the primary conditions of this spiritual activity, especially in art. individuality of the artist is the deciding cause of the It is only in this manner that the mind becomes endowed with effect produced by him. If he executes works of his own life; that the entirety of thought and feeling, before abstracted, composition, we must allow that he conceives them correctly, attains living and significant unity, and that the abstract idea is and our judgment of his works is identical with the decision appreciated, as a material form, a picture, an actual representa- to which we come, with regard to the correctness of his
conception of them. If the work is empty, void and Whenever we find a genial individuality at work in art, a deficient in character, the most perfect technical execution, new world of thought is immediately open to us; the ever- and the most truthful and careful rendering of his intenactive spirit of truth raises us quickly from out our tions will not invest it with the slightest importance. first feeling of astonishment; with rapture do we perceive On the other hand, however, it very frequently happens that an the elevated ideas, to which we anxiously cling, illuminated by instrumentalist, who, as a composer, can command only commona new light, and glittering with additional brilliancy; we see the places, and melodious phrases and arabesques, wherewith to inexhaustible principle of life with all the treasures of the express his feelings, succeeds in producing the most extravarious appearances it can assume, pass before us in new ordinary efforts by what is termed his "play.” That which in pictures and forms; many a depth, hitherto unobserved, is such cases so magnetically works upon us, is the complete revealed to us by astonishing relations and combinations, and self-sacrifice made by a warm and inspired soul to the composijoyfully do we celebrate the triumph of beauty and light. Evention into which it unreservedly pours itself. The greater when the genial workman delights in plunging into the the peculiarity, depth, warmth, passion, enthusiasm, melancholy, abysses of nature, and, deeply shaken by the discords humour, childish innocence, and sparkling fun, with which such of the moral world, finds a pleasure in displaying the latter to a soul is represented to us by the performer's execution, the us in moving pictures and lamentations-out of the beauty of more will it attract, overpower and captivate us. The same the pictures, and the very harmony of the lamentations, arises | holds good, when the instrumentalist plays the work of another, that feeling of reconciliation, which never is, or can be, wanting | supposing that, without any pretensions to a higher signification to any true work of art.
and more elevated artistic beauty, it has been written by the But it is not by genial or creative minds alone that art works composer merely for the sake of finding a vent for his feelings upon life ; there can be but few such, and when any art has in tune, and affording the virtuoso an opportunity of shewing reached its most flourishing period, in any particular epoch of a l off his powers of execution in a piquant, bold, or elegant nation's civilization, if it has exhausted the treasures of form, manner, or the power of expression of its peculiar organ on entering its In this case the performer will not be able to produce epigeum, we cheerfully greet the mock suns that rise in our any very great effect, unless, besides truly conceiving the senhorizon, just as, during the sway of the great masters, we timent expressed in the work, he does not himself feel, and, williugly acknowledge their most distinguished pupils, and so to speak, reproduce it froin his own soul. Even a certain welcome lesser talents, who are able to excite us mentally, | peculiarity of conception, marked by true and warm gentiand are endowed with the power of artistic form; for ment alone, if it does not encroach too much upon the arts and sciences are the arteries of man's intellectual the fundamental idea of the composition, and works in life, and no educated nation can exist without the combination with the power of individuality, will spoil constant motion of those vital channels; the secure pos nothing, while anxious acquiescence in each discernible intention session, and constantly recurring enjoyment of the genial lords of the composer, will prove totally ineffective, when the soul of of art is not sufficient for us : intellectual life does not stand the performer himself is not actually engaged. still a single instant, it is an uninterrupted course of develops Whenever classical compositions are to be played, the task of ment, and whatever new treasures it seizes and works up, the executant is doubly important and requires much greater from day to day, out of the inexhaustible stores of nature, care. The performer must penetrate deeply into the spirit of