activity of soul, of which it is only the mediate and secondary CONCERT FOR HOSPITAL OF WOMEN, SOHO-SQUARE.—The Marquis cause.

and Marchioness of Westminster placed their magnificent mansion, With the exception of the two cases in which the impression Grosvenor house, Grosvenor-street, at the disposal of the committee of of music mingles with the national and religious feelings, there management of the above institution for a musical and drainatic peris no occasion to consider what it might gain by becoming Ger

formance, which took place on Monday in aid of the funds. The man, Russian, French, or Italian, supposing it to rely wholly on

Picture Gallery was selected both for concert-room and theatre, and its own resources. Is it not its most precious advantage over all

the decorations and fittings were left to the charge of Baron Marochetti,

one of the committee of management, and Mr. Phillips, Roral Acadespoken languages, that it is a universal language, the elements

micia. The music. which was under the direction of Mr. Henry whereof lie in nature, and in the universal laws of the human

Leslie, was of the popular miscellaneous kind. The singers—including organization, admitting, neither in a theoretic nor an æsthetic

pon-professionals-were Mrs. Sartoris, Mrs. Nassau Senior, Madame point of view, of any local tradition or difference between races?

Gassier, Miss Wilson, Mr. Charles Braham, Mr. Tennant, Hon. William In the state of nature, music is always special, because it is still

Ashley, Sir John Harington, Mr. Albert Smith, Herr Kümpel, M. very imperfect; the more perfect it becomes, the more universal

Gassier, Signor Belletti, and the London Deutscher Männer Chor; the does it seek to be. Its universality, which is one of its essential instrumentalists, M. Hallé, Herr Ernst, Signor Piattı, and Herr Blu. attributes, is also the goal to which it must strive. Let us un menthal. Besides Mr. Henry Leslie, the director general of the music, derstand one another. By means of its intrinsic peculiarities, there were sundry sous-officiers, who presided variously. In the first music corresponds to the different emotions of the soul only in a part Mr. Benedict was at the piano ; in the second, Mr. Lindsay Sloper. general, and, so to say, abstract manner. If the question be, Mr. Frank Mori accompanied Mr. Charles Brabam in two airs by how to bring before the hearers the impression, or, more strictly Verdi, and Herr Ernst Pauer directed the London Deutscher Männer speaking, the musical equivalent of an emotion, our art presents Chor. Never was concert more diversely conducted, or better. Between no object which can awaken this in us, as poetry and painting the parts was presented a comedietta, by Mr. Tom Taylor, entitled The can : it applies neither mediating elements nor artistic illusion; Late Lamented, written expressly for the occasion, the characters by but it touches immediately the principle, out of which all the

e out of which all the Mrs. Sartoris, Miss Mary Boyle, Mr. Alfred Wigan, Mr. Spence and emotions of the kind in question flow. We hear two or three

the author. It was well acted, and elicited much applause. Not the phrases of a melody, a harmonic series of some chords, and we

least entertaining part of the performance was Mr. Albert Smith's

“ Country Fair," which made the aristocratic audience “laugh consay, “ These express joy, these despair, and these love." This

I sumedly." Above eight hundred and fifty tickets were disposed of, and music can do without the interpretation of a text, and without

a considerable sum has been realised for the funds of the hospital. The making use of the representative signification, which custom

Duchess of Cambridge, the Princess Mary, and the Duchess of Meckmay have attached to certain melodies. The outward symptoms

lenburgh Strelitz, were among the fashionables present. and the moral shadings, which modify the expression of passions

MEYERBEER. - The distinguished composer of the Huguenots and the according to manners, religions, and social ideas, language and

Prophète, who has not been in England since 1832, is at present in climate, belong to the domain of the literatures, of which they

London, superintending the production, at the Royal Italian Opera, of fix the necessary speciality or nationality. Music in itself pos

his last great work-- L'Etoile du Nord. It is almost needless to remark sesses no means of expressing these ; or, if it sometimes succeed

that M. Meyerbeer has been received by the social and artistic coteries in doing it, it is only through the association of ideas, of which of the metropolis with all the respect due to one who has contributed we have above spoken. All such portrayings are enclosed in a so much to their enjoyment, the Queen having also paid him the honour purely psychological circle, and never give anything beside the of inviting him to dine at Buckingham Palace. We would suggest human me. What we call dramatic character is for the musician that our local musical societies should present an address to M. Meyernothing more than the temperature or naturel of the person, beer, and request him to honour us with a visit during his stay in which verifies itself in the situation of the piece, and must be England. He is the greatest of living (writing) musicians, and some determined, not by what the person could do, say, think, or wish, complimentary notice ought to be taken of his presence amongst us. but solely by what it has the capacity to feel; and that because

Could not our Philharmonic Society give a grand performance of some musical analogies answer indirectly to the interior and hidden of his works, and request him to conduct on the occasion ? Such a springs of the passions ; that is, to their principle. But this

performance wonld be a most proper and appropriate compliment to principle is the same with all men; and this is the reason why

M. Meyerbeer, and migut be made to reflect credit both upon him and the empire of music embraces all countries, all classes of society,

upon ourselves. all stages of civilization, all degrees of intelligence, and stretches

MERTHYR.–The Messiah was given in the Temperance Hall by the far beyond the geographical and intellectual limits, where the

Musical Union on Thursday eveoing. The execution was highly crekingdom of the other arts leaves off. In theory, this universal

ditable to the committee, who originated the performance. The solo intelligibleness is the fairest prerogative of the composer; but,

vocalists were Miss Cole (London), Miss Tavlor and Miss Roberts

(Merthyr), Mr. Marshall Ward (Hereford Cathedral), Messrs. Rosser, in the practice of the theatre, he is continually forced to renounce

J. Jones, D. Davies, and Hopkins. The receipts of the concert, which it partially, whether he will or not.

was for the benefit of the vocal orchestra, did not meet the expenses, Every nation, every epoch has its own taste, which it neces

the “solitary point of failure,” according to the Merthyr Journal. sarily imparts to the musicians whom it produces. This taste is in its nature special, and what is special never can be wholly

HOW TO TAKE SEBASTOPOL.-A musical instrument mnker of Geneva

has received an order from Russia for 100,000 musical boxes to play harmonized with the expression of things absolute--as, for

the national air. A general of the first French republic, surrounded example, the human passions considered in their principle.

by superior forces, wrote to the minister :-“Send me a reinforcement Hence it follows, that the imitations of dramatic music have

of several regiments, or some thousand copies of the Marseillaise.'commonly only a relative worth, only a passing and local re The government, which had fourteen armies to maintain, found it more semblance to objects represented, that is to say, to the feelings convenient to send copies of the Hymn. The soldiers learned it, and, of the persons; a resemblance, which on the one hand constantly singing it, broke through the enemy's ranks. The Czar thinks, perhaps, diminishes with the change in musical taste, and which on the to relieve Sebastopol in a similar manner, and, as the Russians cannot other does not exist at all to a strange audience. The speciality sing, on account of their unmusical language, to furnish them with of the taste of the times is a cause why music becomes anti music ready made. On a given day, each soldier will attach one box quated, and the speciality of the local taste a cause which makes to his knapsack, the general will give the word, “ Play! forward, march !" it less intelligible and less attractive in localities where a different the gates of the city will open, the army advance, and the enemies' taste prevails. When one sets out to give the universal language

batteries be silenced or fall, as the walls of Jericho at the sound of of feeling, he gets no further than producing the language of his

Joshua's trumpet. time or of his hearers. But, since the musicians cannot do If heaven bas blessed you with a lively imagination, you will often sit otherwise, we will see how they contrive, as natives, to please

alone for hours as if chained to your piano, endeavouring to give vent the public and themselves. If one wishes to convince himself, to your inmost thoughts in harmony, and the less clear the realms of he will find four ways of nationalizing or localising the score of

harmony are to you, the more mysteriously will you be drawn within an opera.

the magic circle. Such hours as these are the happiest of our youth.

Take care, however, not to deliver yourself up too often to a talent that (To be continued.)

causes you to waste both time and strength on shadows. -Schumann.

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ORCHESTRA.- Violin, Violoncello, Clarionet, Oboe,

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JUST PUBLISHED.—FANTASIA on the celebrated


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Jacobite Song "Will ye no come back again ?" for the Pianoforte, by DOYAL POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION. -- FOR T. W. Naumann, price 23. 60., free by Pist. This Piece is admirabiy adapted for IL ONE NIGHT ONLY, WEDNESDAY, the Isth inst., at Eight o'clock. A

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Just published, in a very handsome volume, price One Guinca, a collection of DANK OF DEPOSIT, No. 3, Pall Mall East, London.

Welsh Melodies, arranged for the Harp by John Thomas, as introduced at his late

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28, Holles-street. 1 degree of Bachelor in music, by Richard Hacking, Junr. Bury, Laucashire, being a sacred Cantata for five voices with orchestral accompaniment entitle i “ Judgments and Mercies," and performed before the University of Oxford in com.

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MADAME GASSIER.—The celebrated Valse, sung by n. A. OSBORNE.- A TE O CARA for the Piano11 Madame Gassier, in Il Barbiere di Seviglia, arranged for Pianoforte by IU. forto. Second Edition. Price 2s. 6d. Buosey and Sons, 28, Holles-st. Madame Oury, price 2s., with a Portrait.-Boosey and Sons, 28, Holles-street.


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expressive manner, but so that we only perceive the ray of the OPERA AND DRAMA.

pupil, and not the inward organisation, as yet formless in itself.

When the people invented melody, it pursued the same course PART I.

as that adopted by an actual natural human being, who, by the involuntary act of sexual intercourse, procreates and brings

forth man. The latter is complete when he sees the light, and OPERA AND THE CONSTITUTION OF MUSIC.

is immediately manifested by his outward shape, but not by a BY RICHARD WAGNER.

display of his inward organisation. Greek art only looked at (Continued from page 418.)

this man from the point of view of outward shape, and exerted

itself to imitate him in as true and living a manner as possible Our task is finished—for we have pursued the capability at last doing so in bronze and stone, Christianity, on the conof music in opera up to the manifestation of its incapability. trary, proceeded anatomically: it wished to discover the soul of

When we speak, now-a-days, of operatic music, properly man, and, therefore, opened and cut up the entire body, exposing so-called, we no longer speak of an art, but a mere fashion. all the inward, shapeless organisation which disgusted the eye, Only the critic, who feels nothing of the pressure of artistic simply because it never was, nor never will be, put there for it. necessity within his breast, is still able to give utterance to hopes In seeking the soul, however, we killed the body; in endeavouror doubts of the future of opera ; the artist himself, provided | ing to hit upon the source of life, we destroyed the indication of he has not sunk to the level of a speculator on the public, proves | it, and reached, therefore, the dead inside, which could only be a that he regards opera as dead, from the fact that he tries to condition of life while in conjunction with the possibility of life's find other outlets for himself, and, in so doing, stumbles over the being indicated without. The soul sought, is, however, in truth, energetic participation of the poet as something to be sought. nothing more than life; what, consequently, remained for

But here, in this participation of the poet to be sought, we Christian anatomy to contemplate was-death. come to the point on which we must attain full, conscious | Christianity had smothered the organic, artistic vital power of clearness, as light as day, if we would comprehend and retain, in the people--its natural power of procreation; it had cut into its its real, healthy naturalness, the relation between the musician flesh, and even disturbed the organisation of its artistic life with and the poet. This relation must be one entirely different from the dualistic dissecting knife. Association, in which alone the that to which we have been accustomed, and so completely artistic generative power of the people could rise to the capachanged, that the musician, for his own advantage, will only feel bility of a complete art-creation, belonged to Catholicism; only at ease in it, when he gives up all remembrance of the old in solitude, where portions of the people—far distant from the unnatural connection, the last bond of which would necessarily pull great highway of common life-were alone with themselves and him back again into his old unfruitful madness.

nature, the people's song, which had grown up in inseparable In order to render this healthy and only beneficial relation, connection with poetry, maintained itself in childish simplicity which must be adopted, perfectly clear, it is necessary that we and scanty narrowness. should, above all things, once again describe,shortly but decidedly, 1 If we turn our glance from this kind of song, we perceive, on the constitution of our music ut the present day.

the other hand, within the sphere of the polite arts, music

taking a new and unheard-of course of development; namely, We shall arrive most quickly at a clear view of the subject, by that which proceeded from its organization-anatomically cut comprehending, curtly and concisely, the constitution of music / up, and inwardly dead-to a new display of life by means of a under the idea of melody.

new arrangement and fresh growth of the separated organs. In As the Internal is the foundation and condition of the External, the songs of the Christian church, harmony had developed itself while however, the Internal is first plainly and decidedly mania independently. The natural exigence of its life drove it, of fested by means of the External, hurmony and rhythm are indeed necessity, to utterance as melody; it required indispensably, the organs of shape, but melody is the form of music itself. however, for this utterance, to keep to the organ of rhythm Harmony and rhythm are the blood, flesh, nerves, and bones, which gave form and movement, and which it took, as an arbiwith all the inside, which, like the qualities in question, are out trary standard, more imaginary than real, from the dance. The of the ken of the eye that contemplates the created, living man. new union could only be an artificial one. As poetry was conMelody, on the other hand, is the man himself, as he strikes our structed according to the precepts which Aristotle had taken eye. On seeing him, we merely look at the elegant figure, as from the tragic authors, music had to be composed in obedience expressed to us in the form-giving limits of the outer covering to certain scientific suppositions and rules. . This was at the of skin; we sink into the contemplation of the most expressive same period that even men were to be made from learned means of utterance contained in the features, and at last stop at recipes and chemical decoctions. Learned music, too, endeathe eye, the most lively means of utterance, and that most voured to construct a man of this description : mechanism was to capable of communicating sensations, in man, who manifests his produce organization, or, at least, supply its place. The restless most inward nature to us in the most convincing manner, by the impulse of all this mecbanical invention was, however, in truth, aid of this organ which, again, obtains its power of communica- directed only to the real man, who, produced over again by the tion only from the universal capability of receiving the impres- idea, should thus at last awake to real organic life. We here sions of the surrounding world. Thus is melody the most perfect touch on the whole monstrous course of development pursued expression of the inward being of music, and every true melody, by modern humanity! conditional on this most inward being, speaks to us, also, through The man that music wanted to produce was in truth naught the eye, which communicates to us the inward being in the most else than melody, that is to say, the moment of the most decided,

most convincing utterance of life, of the really living, inward quality in the people's melody, when changed into an operatic organization of music. The more music developed itself in this air, saw themselves, therefore, urged to the necessity, more or necessary yearning to become man, the greater the certainty less distinctly experienced by them, of reflecting on the with which we perceive the attempt to attain clearer melodic organic production of melody itself. The operatic composer manifestation rise to the most painful aspiration, and in the | stood nearest to the discovery of the necessary mode of works of no master do we behold this aspiration grow to such proceeding, but was precisely the person who could not succeed, power and force as in the great instrumental works of Beethoven, because he occupied a fundamentally false relation with regard where we admire the most monstrous efforts of mechanism to poetry, the only element capable of fructifying, and because, striving to become man. These efforts tended to resolve all its in his unnatural and usurped position, he had to a certain degree component parts in blood and nerves of really living organisa- deprived this element of its generative organs. In his prepostion, in order, through it, to attain infallible utterance as terous attitude towards the poet, the composer might do what melody.

he chose, but whenever his feeling raised itself to the height of It is here that, in the case of Beethoven, the peculiar and melodic utterance, he was obliged to bring his ready-made decisive course of our entire system of artistic development is melody with him, because the poet had to accommodate himseif displayed much more surely than in the case of our operatic to the entire form, in which the melody was to be displayed; and composers. The latter regarded melody as something ready- this form exercised so despotic an influence on the contiguration made and lying beyond the limits of their artistic creation; of operatic melody, that it decided in reality its essential having taken no share in its organic production, they detached purport. it from the mouth of the people, thus tearing it out of its organi

(To be continued.) sation, and employed it just as it suited their own caprice, without justifying what they did by aught but luxurious whim. If this

REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC melody of the people was the outward form of the man, the operatic composers stripped him, so to say, of his skin, with

BEFORE MOZART. which they covered a lay figure, in order to give the latter a

(Continued from page 458). human appearance; the most they could effect was to deceive The first and obviously the simplest way is to bring the music the civilized savages of our operatic public, that only half looks to the mill of the national melody; then the opera becomes on while anything is going forward.

entirely national. Certainly, but then two little difficulties are In Beethoven, on the contrary, we recognize the natural vital in the way. There are countries which possess no proper national impulse to give birth to melody out of the inward organisation melody; and then I scarcely know of any national melody, which of music. In his most important works, he does not at all is adapted to the various ex

is adapted to the various expressions of dramatic music, whepresent melody as a something ready from the first, but has it | ther serious or comic. The cases, in which popular melodies brought forth from its organs before our eyes, as it were: he are applicable to the lyric stage, are always among the excepinitiates us in this act of parturition, by presenting it to us in

tions. Such is the case when the song is given for what it really conformity with its organic necessity. But the most decisive is in the opera, or when the nationality of a people or an indifact that the master at last shows us in his great work is the vidual forms the subject of the piece. Thus Weigl has with necessity felt by him, as a musician, to throw himself into the singular success employed Swiss airs in his opera, Die Schweizerarms of the poet, in order to accomplish the act of procreating familie (The Swiss Family), the subject of which is home-sicktrue and infallibly real redeeming melody. In order to become | ness. But such exceptions never can become the rule. a man, Beethoven was obliged to become an entire man, that is L A second means of lending a smack of nationality to theatrical to say a gregarious man, subject to the sexual conditions of male music consists in employing everywhere certain melodic turns, and female. What serious, profound, and longing meditation passages, rhythms, and forms in the accompaniment, which, was, at last, unveiled to the immeasurably rich musician by the without being drawn exactly from a national source, have kept simple melody with which he broke out into the words of the their hold through a silent but not the less binding undertaking poet: “Freude, schöner Götterfunken!” But this melody solves between composers, singers, and the public. Such is the convenfor us the secret of music: at present we know how to proceed, tional fornu which we remark in the old as well as the new and have obtained the capability of being, with consciousness, | Italian opera. organically creating artists.

The third means consists in systematically destroying the Let us dwell, at present, upon the most important point of our balance between the elements of an opera, in favour of one of investigation, and be guided in it by Beethoven's “ Freude- them. When, for example, the declamation is sacrificed to the melodie.”

| melody, the orchestra to the vocal parts, truth to material effect, The people's melody presented us, on its rediscovery by the expression to the bravura, and the contrary, any one who kuows

their exclusive tendencies, who knows in what parts of the same natural beauty, when we met with it undistorted, among the the composers of a nation have distinguished themselves, and people itself, and that of searching after its internal organisa- | what parts they are wont to slight, can judge of the music and tion. The delight necessarily remained, strictly speaking, un- say, that is French, German, Italian music. fruitful for our artistic creations; we should have exerted our Finally, there is yet a fourth means, whose employment tends selves, both for the forin and purport, strictly and solely in to make the national colouring most obvious. It consists in a kind of art similar to the people's song itself, in order to be lending to the music a character corresponding to any peculiarity, enabled to imitate melody with any degree of success ; in fact, or even to any particularly remarkable weakness, which diswe should ourselves have been artists of the people, in the tinguishes one people from another. We see, for example, that strictest sense, if we would have attained the capability of imi what to-day makes the Germans the first musicians, the poeticotation ; we ought, therefore, properly not to have imitated at metaphysical genius of the nation, so favourable to the sublime all, but to have invented, in our tun, as the people itself. inspirations of pure music, does not always lead them so well in

On the other hand, involved in quite another style of artistic the most positive application of this art-I mean the musical creation, altogether differing from that of the people, we conld drama. We recognize this predominant tendency to the ultraonly employ •this melody in the coarsest sense, and that, tov, romantic and the hyper-original in some of their most celebrated with surrounding objects und under circumstances which must operas; in their frequently too much enveloped songs; in necessarily distort it. The history of operatic music is really intentions, which from their very fiueness lose themselves in and solely to be traced back to the history of this melody, in indefiniteness ; in a certain mixture of repose and sentimental which, according to certain laws, like those of the ebb and flood, dreariness, which unstrings the very hottest passions of their the periods of the adoption and re-adoption of the people's nature : in a knowledge which is not always very clear, or very melody alternate with those of the beginning and continually dramatic; but everywhere we meet the stamp of reflection, of increasing preponderance of its distortion and degeneration. tone, originality, and individuality, which marks all the artistic Those musicians who became most painfully aware of this bad l productions of the land.


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