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A NEW EDITION OF THE PIANOFORTE

STUDIES

BY

STEPHEN HELLER,

Thoroughly Revised and partly Re- written.
Published under the immediate superintendence of the Composer.

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.

"A great number of Studies for the Pianoforte already exist, solely intended to form the mechanism of the fingers. "In writing a series of short characteristic pieces, I have aimed at a totally different object.

"I wish to habituate both Students and Amateurs to execute a piece with the expression, grace, elegance, or energy required by the peculiar character of the composition; more particularly have I endeavoured to awaken in them a feeling for Musical Rhythm, and a desire for the most exact and complete interpretation of the Author's intentions

"STEPHEN HELLER."

THE EDITION CONSISTS OF FIFTEEN BOOKS, FBICE SIX SHILLINGS EACH.

LONDON:

ASHDOWN AND PARRY, 18 HANOVER SQUARE.

M. THALBERG'S

USTIEW COMPOSITIOITS

AS PERFORMED AT HIS CONCERTS IN LONDON.

THALBERG'S BALLADE,

AN ORIGINAL COMPOSITION FOR THE PIANO.
Price 4*.

"An exquisite Romance, which no imitator, however ingenious, could have written—as quaint, as fascinating, and at the same time as Thalbcrgian as anything of the kind that has been produced for vears." The Timet.

THALBERG'S ART OF SINGING,

APPLIED TO THE PIANO.
New Series. Price Zs. each.
No. 18. Serenade from "II Rarbiere."

14. Duet from " Zauberflote."

15. Barcarole from " Giani di Calais."

16. "La ci darem," and trio, "Don Juan."

17. Serenade by GrtHry.

13. Romance from "Otello."

"Among the hitherto unknown compositions were some selections from the 'Art of Singing applied to the Piano,' 'Transcriptions' of Operatic Melodies, arranged in M. Thalberg's ornate and elaborate manner, invaluable to Pianists who believe that the instrument of their choice can, under skilful management, emulate the violin itself in the delivery ofcantabile jiassages.— The Times

BOOSEY AND SONS, HOLLES STREET.

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JOSEPH GODDARD'S PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC.

J Price Ts, M. (To Subscribers, M.)

Boosit & Soxs, Holmes Street.

BOOSEYS' SHILLING MESSIAH, complete Vocal Score, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Organ, demy 4to (size of " Must- cnl Cabinet**). Price Is.—Roosbt & Sons have much pleasure in announcing their new Edition of the " Messiah," printed from a new type, on excellent paper, and in a form equally adapted for the Pianoforte or the Concert-room. The text revised by G. F. Harris, from the celebrated Edition of Dr. John Clark. As a specimen of cheap music, this book is quite unprecedented, and it is only in anticipation of the universal patronage it will command at the approaching Handel Festival the publishers are able to undertake it. Orders received by all Booksellers and Muslcsellers. Post free, Is. id. An edition in cloth boards, gilt, 2s.

Boosst & Sons, Holmes Street.

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CHAPPELL'S, 50 NEW BOND ST.

ALEXANDRE AND SON .

Have taken out a new Patent for the Drawing-Room Harmonium, which effects the greatest Improvement they hare ever made in the Instrument. The

Drawing-Boom Models will be found of a softer, purer, and in all respects mere agreeable tone than any other instruments. They have a perfect and easy means of producing a diminuendo or crescendo on any one note or more; the ban can be perfectly subdued, without even the use of the Expression Stop, the great difficulty in other Harmoniums. To each of the New Models an additional blower is attached at the back, so that the wind can be supplied by a second person, and still under the new Patent the performer can play with perfect expression. ■'■'

THE NEW CHURCH HARMONIUM,

WITH TWO ROWS OF KEYS.

These Instruments are it perfect substitute for the Organ; the upper keyboard has a Venetian Swell, and acts as a Soft or Choir Organ, on which it perfect diminuendo and crescendo can be produced; and the lower keyboard answers the purpose of a Full Organ. The tone of these Instruments more closely resembles that of an Organ than any Harmonium yet produced, being rich and pure in quality. The construction is of a simple character, and not likely to be affected by damp, rendering them peculiarly suited to Churches. An additional blower is attached to each Instrument.

No. Guineas.

1. Eight Stops (three and a-half rows of vibrators), Rosewood Case ... 45

2. Twenty-two Stops (six rows of vibrators), Rosewood Case ... — ... 7*

3. Twenty-two Stops (eight rows of vibrators), Bosewood Case, 2J

Octaves of Pedals ... ... * ... ... ... ... 85

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Printed by Htinniuos, Rait, and Fixrox, at No. 13, Winilev Streot, Oxford Street, in the Parish of Marylebone, In the County of Middlesex. PabUitad by Jobs Boosit, at Utt Office of Boom A Soya, 31 Holies Street cars, OtfoNr 18, IMS.

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"the Worth or Art Appears Most Eminent In Music, Since It Requires No Material, No Subject-matter, Whose

MU3T BE DEDUCTED: IT IS WHOIXT FORM AND POWER, AND IT RAISES AND ENNOBLES WHATEVER IT EITRES8J5S."— Githt,

STJBSCRIPTION-Stamped for PoBtage-20a. PER AOTTCTM Payable In advance.by Oaah or Post-Offloe Order to BOOSEY & SONS, 28, Holies Street, Cavendish Sq. London, W.

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THURSDAY, OCTOBER 30, AT 8.
GRAND CONCERT OF NATIONAL MELODIES.
Band of 20 Harps and Chorus of 400 voices.

'. The programme will include Irish, Scotoh, and Welsh melodies. Sung by a Chorus
of 400 Voices (Members of the Vocal Association and other principal Metropolitan
Choral Societies), and accompanied by a Band of Harps (the most eminent per-
formers in London). The harp parts, with new preludes, and symphonies are
arranged expressly for this occasion by Mr. John Cheshire.

Conductor: Ma. ALBERTO RENDEGGER.

Tickets at Austin's, IS, Piccadilly. Sofo Stalls 6s., Balcony 3s., Area 3s.
Admission Is.

THE ENGLISH GLEE AND OPERA UNION.—
Madame Bejwbtt Gilbert, Miss Eliza Travbrs, Madame Laura Leslie;
Mr. Stanley Mayo, and Mr. Auram Thomas. Conductor, Dr. Bennett Gilbert.
For terms, apply to Mr. Staxlst Mayo, Bee., 116 Camberwell, New Road, S.

ENGLISH OPERA ASSOCIATION (limited).—
Application for Shares should be made forthwith. Forms and prospectuses,
and every Information may be obtained at the Company's Office, 69, Regent Street,
and at all the principal mnslesellers In town and country.

MARTIN CAWOOD,

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FLUTE, OTJITAB, AND CONCEBTIWA.

R. AND MADAME R. SIDNEY PRATTEN

have resumed their teaching on the above instruments for the winter season, elbeck Street, Cavendish Square, W., where may be had all their publications.

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THE VOICE AND SINGING

(The formation and Cultivation of the Voice for Singing).
.. .BY ADOLFO KBKRAKL'

"The great and deserved success of this ithile. I&sKrotight it, faW ronfr time, to » second edition, carefully revised, and enriched with a number of additional exercises, which greatly Ihcre'asdits value.

"Since its first publication this book has met with general acceptance, and Is now used as a vade-mecnm by many "of the'most eminent and intelligent voeal Instructors both in the metropolis and the provinces. We say vocal instructors, because it is only to Instructors that works of this class can be of material use. Singing is not an art ■which can be learned by solitary study with the help of books, and those who are self, taught (as it is called) are always badly taught. But a good treatise. In which the principles and roles of the art, founded on reason and experience, are clearly expressed, is of Infinite value, first to Instructors, in assisting them to adopt a rational and efficient method of teaching, and next to puplls'themselves, in constantly reminding them of, and enabling them to profit by, the lessons of their master. In both these ways Signor Ferrari's work has been found •pre-eminently useful. ■

"The foundation of singing is the formation of the voice. A bad->oioe cannot be made the good one; but the most mediocre voice may be made a source of pleasure both to its possessor and to others. Accordingly, ample dissertations on the formation of the voice abound in our treatises on singing. But it unfortunately happens that these dissertations are more calculated to perplex than to enlighten the reader. We could refer to jroU-known works by professors of sinking of great and fashionable name, in which the rules for the formation of the voice are propounded with such a parade of leicnco, and with descriptions of the vocal organs so minute, and so full of Greek anatomical terms, that no unlearned reader can possibly understand them. Signor Ferrari (as he tells us) was brought up to the medical profession before following the bent of his Inclination, he betook himself to the study of music Bnt this circumstance, while it made him acquainted with the physical construction of the human organs of sound, has not led him into the common error of displaying superfluous learning. We have not a' word about the 'glottis' 'or the ''irachsea,' but we have a broad principle distinctly enunciated, and Intelligible to everybody. '• i ' ••

"Signor Ferrari's irrinolple is of the simplest kind. ** Everyone,1 he says,'who can speak may sing. The only dlfferenccfcctweenspeakfngasa Singing Is, that In speaking, we strike the sound impulsively and immediately leave It, whereas in singing we have to sustain the sound with the same form of articulation with which we struck it impulsively.' It is ou this principle that Signor Ferrari's practical rules for the formation and cultivation of the voice are based. To give the pupil a sufficient control of the breath for the utterance of prolonged sounds—to soften the harshness and Increase the strength and equality of the natural tones of the voice, without ever forcing it-- these are the objects of the scales and exercises on sustained sounds, which must be practised under the careful supcriutendeneo of the teacher, whose assistance Slgnor Ferrari always holds to be indispensable. j \

"Signor Ferrari makes an observation which, as far as we are aware, is now. It is evidently well founded, and of great importance. Owing to the want of attention to the tone in which children ipeak, they acquire bad habits, and contract the habitual tone which is mistaken for their natural voice. It is a result of this neglect, he says, that 'the young ladies of the present day speak lu a sulKlucd, muffled tone, or what may be called a domi-falsetto, in consequence of which very few natural voices are heard.' Uence a young lady, when she begins to sing, frequently continues to use this habitual tone. "The result is,'says Signor Ferrari, 'that not only does she never sing well, but soon begins to sing out, of tunc, and finally loses her voice, and in too many instances injures her chest. Indeed,'he adds,1I have no hesitation In saying that hundreds of young Indies bring upon themselves serious chest affections from a bad habit of speaking and singing." Signor Ferrari afterwards shows how this great evil may be citron by making the pupil read or recite passages in a deep tone, as though engaged in earnest conversation;' aim1 he adds, 'I cannot advise too strongly'the greatest attention to the free and natural development of the lower tones of the voice. It'is to the stability of the voice, what a deep foundation is to the building of a house,'

11 Signor Ferrari deprecates, as fatal errors, the custom of practising songs or solfeggio with florid passages before the voice is sufficiently cultivated. He is of opinion that young ladies ought to begin the study of singing at thirteen or fourteen, and not, as is generally done, at seventeen or eighteen, by which time they ought to be good singers. In regard to the important question how long the pupil ought to practise, he observes that this will depend on the acquisition of a proper method. The more a pupil practises with an improper lutoratton the worse; but once able to sing with a' natural tone, he may practise two, three, or more hours a day without danger. All Signor Ferrari's precepts are of the same sound and rational character.

"The excreises, embracing the scales, and all thevarious passages, which belong to modern, melody, are sufficiently copiooa-and admirably adapted to their purp 'sc.. In the original publication these exercises were confined to the soprano, or the corresponding male voice, the tenor. Bat in this new uml revised edition a number of exercises are added for contralto or baritone voices—a very great addition to too value of the work."—Illuitraled i'eiei.

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Ustooh: DUNCAN DAVISON & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.

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... Price 3t.

Who has not in a happy dream'
Sweet converse held with distant friends;
And felt the grief which ever blends
With memories of that passing gleam f I
And when the morrow's sun hath set,
And moonbeams lie upon the hill,
Do we not hope the voices still
Of last night's dream may haunt us yet ,

Like one awoke from dream of light,

I think upon the days gone by; , f■ /1. ,i r

Those days that fled so merrily,—

That sea so calm, that sky so bright.J i ,

And like a dreamer roused, I pine

To see that vision soon again;

Hope tells I shall not pine in vain, , :"

The sunbeam hid again will shine.

Oh.' speed to me bright hour of dawn.
Come back with hope and gladness crowned;

And shed that calm and peace around

I knew but in thy memories gone!

Then, Joy for ever, I shall gate

Once more upon that glowing sea,

And find my dreams come back to me

With voices known in happy days '.

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The Music by J. P. Knight. . . ,■ Price as.

Night came in visions lone,
Methought I heard again
Thy voice's silv'ry tone, (;
Like music's distant strain:

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Liko music s distant strain: j ,
But I woke to know that thy gentle breath,
Is for ever hush'd in the sleep of death.

I thought I saw thine eye,
E'en as in bygone days,
'Look on me tenderly,

With thy deep and earnest gaze i. But I woke to know that death shadows lie Within the depths of that earnest eye.

I thought I held thy form Unto my beating heart. Wlth:a pressure fond and warm, As though we ne'er could part: "''' But I woke to know that on earth's cold kt That form is laid in its last deep rest.

And night has come to me,

A long and starless night.

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Let life be bright, why cloud It dVr

With shadows of a oomtng woe t" It may be thou wilt ne'-er ejcBiore.

That grief, those tears may never flow. It may be that the sun hath set

Which o'er thy path shod goldeu light i But sunset's glow is lingering jut

With chastened beams, stilt life is bright.

Now fades that gleam; the daylight dies,
And stars'appcar like gems of fight;

The sun hath set, yet lift thine eyes,'
No gloom is there, still life is bright.'

Then chase the shadows from thy heart,
Nor shroud it in the gloom of night;

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Let boding fears and c:i"res depart," while it may let life be bright.

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MUSICAL BIOGRAPHY.. The universal badness of musical biographies will hardly be disputed. It will at all events soon be conceded by any one who will take the trouble to compare half-a-dozen standard lives of workers in any other department of art with the lives of half-a-dozen great musicians. Among the most common defects in these books there is a provoking tendency to secondhand gossiping, which alternates with critical passages of a wonderful kind. We know of no parallel in literature to the portentous use of superlatives which it is not unusual to meet with when the musical biographer comes to review, or addresses himself to worship, his hero's masterpieces. The want of a genuine critical standard Is apparent at every turn. We sometimes get mere complacent twaddle like that of Burney, who was the Coryphssus of musical writers a hundred years ago, and who has prefaced his bulky Hietory of Music with a definition worth quoting:—

"What is muslo 1 An Innocent luxury; not necessary, Indeed, to our existence, bnt a great improvement and gratification of the sense of hearing."

This is taking the extreme sensuous view with a vengeance. One wonders whether painting is an innocent luxury, not necessary indeed to op existence, but a great improvement and gratification of t he sense of sight. Yet, after all, mere twaddle is better then the silly pretentiousness that would set Music above Poetry, or than the literary ignorance which has permitted a comparison of Beethoven, sometimes to Dante, sometimes to Shakspeare and Michel Angelo, and sometimes to Jean Paul Bichter.

The reason of these shortcomings is not far to seek. It must be remembered that the great prizes of the musical profession not only may be secured without, but, as a general rule, mutt be sought for by a more or less definite abandonment of, an enlarged and liberal cultivation. The demands made upon mechanical dexterity in every department of music are now so heavy that little short of engrossing practice from a very early age is found sufficient to meet them. During Mendelssohn's visits to London, it was remarked of him, as an unusual and unexpected merit, that he was good company without his music. Now, it is upon eminent professional musicians that the duty of commemorating their brethren generally devolves. It devolves, that is, upon men whose lives have been spent within a narrow circle of interests and sympathies, and whose judgment, naturally inclined to be biassed and distorted, is very poorly provided with the salutary checks and compensations that come of a genuine liberal education. Many of Mr. Mill's readers will remember an interesting passage treating of music, in his Dissertation on Poetry and its Varieties Short as that passage is, it is quite enough to set the general run of musical criticism in strong relief against what such writing might become, if illustrated by the attention of only a few independent thinkers, possessed of real learning and wide culture. The failure of the art to attract writers like these has been accounted for by supposing that a taste for music is a kind of defect in the organization of the brain, and that your man of first-rate intellect is uniformly unmusical—sure to be disinclined, if he is not organically disqualified, to treat of the subject. It is really curious to find how much apparent ground for this notion may be gained by running over at random a list of great names whose likes and dislikes in this respect happen to have been recorded; though the single exception of Milton is enough to show that the notion is nothing more than a fancy. Milton not only understood and regularly practised music himself, but in his Tract on a model scheme of Education, he warmly recommends it as a means by which—in Aristotle's phrase—raX&c cxoXaZitv, a worthy and noble method of relaxation. ^ Men of letters have probably been repelled by several causes working » together. There is, first, the fact that the section of the public who take an interest in music a> an art is a very small one indeed. As a mere source of amusement, music is almost universally patronised. The rush to the pianoforte made by both sexes of late years proves that the effort of mastering the rudiments of execution is an increasingly popular diversion. The statistics of concerts show that people like, better than ever they did, assembling to listen even to the elaborate compositions of great masters. But the combination of physical and non-physical endowments necessary to judge of music, and to perceive its real intention and scope.is a very uncommon one indeed—much more uncommon, probably, than the analogous combination which makes a tolerable judge of paintings. Beethoven himself, forty years ago, believed the capacity of musical perception to be then decidedly on the decrease :—

"I once asked Beethoven (says one of his biographers) why he had not affixed to the different movements of his Sonatas an explanation of the poetical ideas they expressed, so that these ideas might at once present themselves to the mind of the intelligent hearer. His answer was that the age In which he composed his Sonatas was more poetical than tho present (1823), and that at the former period such explanations would have been superfluous. 'At that time,' he continued,1 every one perceived that the Largo in the Third Sonata in D, Op. 10, painted the'feclings of a grief-stricken mind, with the varying

• From The Saturday Stview.

tints In the light and shade, In the picture of melancholy In all its phases. There was

then no need of a key to explain the meaning of the music.' On another occasion I

requested him to furnish me with the key to two Sonatas (F minor, On. 67, and D minor, Op. 29). His answer was, abruptly,' Bead Shakspeare'a Ttmpttt."

But there is a mora important explanation of the estrangement of men of letters from musical matters. It accounts, at any rate, for an unwillingness in such men to write about music. This is the ill-defined position of Music as a branch of art. More, incomparably more, than any other branch, it has suffered from the foolish claims of its devotees. The broad expression and the intensification of passion were its earliest known functions; and these still remain its most legitimate province. There are, however, many ardent musicians who go farther, and claim for music a versatility and delicacy of delineation equal, if not superior, to the productions of poetry and painting. The question then is, obviously, how comes it that no sooner does a musical passage approach actual and pronounced description than we are sensible of a violation of taste? The magnificent oratorio of Israel in Egypt, and the works of Handel generally, supply plenty of instances. Or (to look at matters from another point of view) take the well known canto (xi.) of In Memoriam, which begins—

"Calm is the morn, without a sound,
Calm as to suit a calmer grief,
And only through the faded leaf 1
The chestnut pattering to the ground."

It would be hard to meet with a poetical passage more capable than this is of being rendered, in its broad outlines and general tone, by musical sounds. More than one strain from the Lieder ohne Worte might be used for the purpose, almost without alteration. The conceptions of unbroken peace in earth and sky, of clearness and far-reaching prospect, of the gentle swaying of waves felt, not seen, to underlie the silver sleep on the sea—all these might be expressed with great power and beauty, either by the pianoforte or by concerted music. But leave the poet's broad outlines and come to the details. Observe, not only the echo from the stillness, magically drawn out to mingle with his own suspirium de profundi), but the consummate art which has, in fewest words, conveyed that harmony to other ears in tones of absolute clearness. What somite pathetique has done, or could be made to do, the same'! Not that music would be unable to dash the calm with melancholy, to infuse an element of passion into the wide tranquillity; but compared with the surpassing delicacy of this poem, the effect would be wavering and indistinct. There would bo just this result, and no more, from the musical sounds. Passion would be understood to be entering into the calm—the hearers would be left to complete the union ad libitum.

Mr. Mill, in the Essay mentioned before, refining on a favorite air of Winter's ("Paga fui "), says that the melody seems to express not simple melancholy, but the melancholy of remorse. But this is only to give passion a new turn, to deepen a shade in the coloring of the picture. To intensify is one thing—to draw is another. What we are contending for is that music draws vaguely—that its descriptive power is feeble compared with the capabilities of other arts. Music falls short of poetry in this—that unless aided from without it is able only to enhance existing modes of feeling. It has no power of close demarcation, analysis, or illustration—at any rate none that can hold the field for a moment against the articulate powers of language. It is when the framework of passionate expression has been at least begun, if not completed, from alien sources, that the real triumphs of music become apparent in a gorgeous decoration or superstructure. Music will not dig the channels of emotion with the precision of language, of painting, or of sculpture; but, those being once indicated, it will widen and fill them to overflowing. It will prove fuller of meaning than the very words without whose aid its own meaning would have been doubtful and hard to interpret. To refer once more to In Memoriam. Any lover of Beethoven's music will feel how well he would have set the canto (xv.) beginning, "To-night the winds began to rise;" or, the single verse (exxix.), "Thjr voice is on the rolling air." But if, impressed by the very same emotions as the poet, he had sat down to give them utterance with his own art as the sole vehicle, he would never have equalled the distinct delineation of the poet. Similarly, in a little piece called The Lake, Professor Sterndale Bennett has very cleverly described a calm sheet of water, presently ruffled by a creeping current of wind. Yet, if H were not for the verbal announcement of the subject, one sees no reason why the same strain should not do duty as the description of a calm moonlight scene, broken by some envious cloud, and by-and-by relapsing into serene light. But, whatever be the value of these individual distinctions, it is to some wider and sounder method of criticism that we must look in order to define and raise the artistic platform of music, and to make it worth the while of cultivated and reflecting men to pay more attention than they now do to the subject. Men of genius among musicians may then hope for some worthier memorial than they are now likely to obtain.

[We should like to hear Mr. Joseph Goddard's opinion of this piece of self-sufficient literary paradox.—Ed.]

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