« ElőzőTovább »
pattern, but his idol. For Haydn, although he studied with him some time, he entertained no very deep or hearty sympathy; and, except, perhaps, in their orchestral symphonies in C and D major, their pianoforte sonatas in C minor, and their concertos for pianoforte with orchestral accompaniments in C major and C minor (in which a very strong affinity is evident), nowhere do Mozart and Beethoven more nearly approach each other than in the six quartets respectively dedicated by either master to Haydn and Prince Lobkowitz. The Quartet in G major is the least elaborate of Beethoven's Op. 18; but so ceaseless is its flow of melody, so spontaneous, even the most quiet and unpretending of its themes, so neat, compact, and ingenious the structure of every movement, that, as a work of art, it yields to none of its five companions. It is a highly-finished cabinet picture, the more to be prized as one of the very rare exemplifications of absolute repose and unclouded serenity to be found scattered throughout the rich catalogue of Beethoven's productions. On the other hand—as was once suggested of its companions in A and B flat major—notwithstanding its comparative simplicity, its almott Haydnesque scherzo and trio (almost —for Beethoven can never quite put on the wig of "Papa Haydn"), and other ingenuous, not to say primitive features, the entire work, from the first bar of the first movement to the last of the finale, reveals the independent spirit of the "immeasurably rich musician," whose inexhaustible invention and ever-active fancy never permitted him to borrow ideas from the intellectual storehouses of others, but to the end supplied him with abundant materials for the exercise of his art. Beethoven is Beethoven, even when shaking hands with Mozart across their admitted art-frontiers; and what is more, even when joining in the cheerful laugh of Haydn, and, with resolute (if not heavier) step, emulating that genial master in the measured pace and staid progressions of the minuet.
To the Editor of the Musical World.
Sir,—I do not, by any means, take part in the astonishment at the success of the Monday Popular Concerts, which is the stock-in-trade of most reporters of musical matters. There can be no surer mode of attracting an audience than by announcing performances of the works of Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn; and no surer way of gratifying it than by committing their performance to Herr Joachim, Mr. Sainton, Mr. Webb, Siguor Piatti, Mons. Paqne, Mdlle. Arabella Goddard, Mr. Charles Halle, Mr. Lindsay Sloper, and others of the highest class of executants, with which this generation is singularly blessed. The popularity of the art of music, and of the Monday Popular Concerts, or of any institution conducted with equal zeal and conscientiousness, is part and parcel of our much boasted civilization, and needs no wonderment, but hearty appreciation and enjoyment.
The pleasant geniality of Haydn's mind was well shown at the first concert of the present season, by the quartet in D minor, more especially in the andante and finale. The beauty and power of the first allegro rise beyond Haydn's ordinary level, and distinctly show the influence of his great contemporary, Mozart. The quartet, too, was magnificently given, the grandeur of Herr Joachim's playing, his wonderful grasp of the composer's intention, his command of tone, and his passionate expression, being exhibited in every bar. The Sonata in D major, in which Mr. Halle' has already been heard more than once, is one of the most admirable of all the pianoforte works, numerous as they are, of the com
poser. The brio and dash of the first movement, and the quiet beauty of the adagio, are entirely Mozartean; while the last movement shows his fertility and inimitable genius still more forcibly.
After these two works, the Ottetto of Mendelssohn was doubly welcome, the expectation and enjoyment of the audience being by this time raised to the highest pitch. This incomparable work, without rival among string compositions, for ingenuity and variety of effect, has been three times previously given at these concerts, and never without creating wonder and delight. The superb allegro which commences the work is broad and vigorous in the extreme; while the inimitable scherzo could have emanated from no composer but him of the Midsummer Night's Dream. The Sonata for pianoforte and violin (in G) of Beethoven, too, contains a world of beauty and original thought, which impress more and more at every hearing.
Then the song of Glinka, plaintive in style, like-all true Russian music; the two charming lieder of Schubert (perfectly sung by Miss Banks, who has already won a place among English singers, which the purity and freshness of her voice, united to unquestioned musicianship, will enable her to maintain); the melodious "Paga fui," by an undeservedly neglected master (Winter), with the quaint "Savoyard's song" of Mendelssohn (both set down for Miss Lascelles, who has a powerful voice); and last, not least, the very pleasing nottumo of Paer (for two voices)— Mr. Lindsay Sloper accompanying the vocal pieces—made up the sum total of a programme with which if an audience had remained unmoved it must have been an audience of blocks, and which, if it had not proved attractive, would have proved that there is no attraction in music. Let us wonder no more about the Monday Popular Concerts being a paying speculation. Mr. Arthur Chappell best knows why it is so. I am, Sir, yours,
Sio. ScmitA has returned to London after visiting the principal towns of Northern Italy. He is engaged, we are informed, upon the libretto of an English Opera for Covent Garden.
Lyceum Theatre.—Mr. A. Harris's term of management expired on Thursday night. Mr. Iindus, the new lessee, opens on Monday, with Delicate Grounds, Love, (Sheridan Knowles), and Perfection, a somewhat "ancient and fish-like" bill of fare.
Astley's Amphitheatre.—We understand that Mr. Boucic&ult has not taken this theatre "for a term," but purchased it "out and out."
Royal Academy Of Music.—At a meeting of the Directors, on the 17th of September, (Sir George Clerk, Bart., chairman,) Mr. John H. Nunn, Penzance, was created an associate.
Musical Society Of London.—The four orchestral concerts of this Society are already fixed to take place on Wednesdays, Jan. 28, March 25, April 22, and May 27. Here are to be two orchestral trials of new works, on Feb. 25, and Nov. 4, and one (only one), "conversazione" on June 10. The choral practices will proceed as usual, under the direction of Mr. Henry Smart. Mr. Alfred Mellon retains the post of Conductor of the concerts. The annual general meeting of fellows is announced for Feb. 4.
Mr. E. Land's Tour.—The "grand touring party" engaged for the autumn months by Mr. Land, including Mad. Gassier, Mdlle. Marie Cruvelli, Mr. Swift, Herr Herrmanns, Sig. Bottesini, M. Sainton, Mad. Arabella Goddard, and Mr. Land himself (as conductor), started on Thursday afternoon for Southsea, near Portsmouth, where their first concert was to take place on the same evening. This day they will be heard at Brighton. A company more varied in attraction has rarely been sent out to explore the provinces.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
ORCHESTRAL BALANCE OF POWER.
Sib,—It is impossible to state definitely the number of D Concert Flutes required to evenly balance the power, or weight of tone, given out by the G Bass Trombone, or, how many Violins would be required to exactly counterpoise the weight of tone, thrown out by a number of D Concert Flutes, and a Bass Trombone combined, because it depends, as well on the individual strength of the performer, as on the quality of the instrument, and on the selection of notes. As for instance, on the Oboi, the lowest notes are the strongest, on the Trombone, the middle ones, and on the Clarionette, the highest, &c, &c. So much however, is certain, that Brass Instruments are stronger in sound than Reed, and Reed are stronger than stringed instruments. In a String Orchestra, the majority will therefore be stringed instruments, and then more Reed than Brass. A proportion of Four Stringed instruments, against Two Reed, and One Brass, would have the majority of stringed instruments, and the double number of Reed, against Brass instruments, as now the G Bass Trombone, would not be selected before Horns, Trumpets, Cornets, and Tenor Trombones, in which case it would be the tenth or twelfth number of the Brass instruments selected, the stringed instruments would then number forty or more, the Reed twenty, with Flute, Oboi, Clarionette, and Bassoon parts doubled. In these combined proportions, one G Bass Trombone would then be against five Flutes, four or five Obois, and twenty Violins, there may be sometimes a little alteration, so long as the difference of combination, is not too much against the natural rule, (which is, less Brass instruments than Reed, and less Reed than stringed instruments) the manner of playing, and the right remarks of an efficient Orchestral Director, will reach the evenly Orchestral balance of power, in many different cases. C. Mandel, (Professor of Theory.)
KmUer Hall, October Uth., 1862.
Sra,—Would you please inform me, through your correspondents, where Mdlle. Patti was born, also her present age, and whether or not Patti is an assumed name, and oblige yours truly,
Manchester, Oct. 15th. J. F. M.
[Perhaps Miss Patti may choose to answer these questions herself.—Ed.]
STANDARD PITCH. Sir,—Will you be good enough to give among your notices to correspondents, the number of vibrations agreed upon in standard pitch of C, at the meeting held some time ago in London? If you can add the number of vibrations adopted in Paris you will oblige,
[We were not present at the meeting, which, we believe, led to no results! Our columns are open to any one who may be able and willing to forward the information desired by our'correspondent.—Ed.]
BEETHOVEN'S OVERTURE in C. Op. 124. This Overture was composed for the inauguration of the Josephstadt Theatre, in Vienna, which took plaee on the Emperor's name day, the 3rd of October, 1822. Under the engagement to write it, Beethoven spent a day in the preceding summer with Schindler and his adopted nephew Carl, in the Eelencn Thai, a beautiful valley of Baden, a few miles from Vienna. It was ever his wont to court inspiration in the seclusion of a country retreat. Bies narrates how he spent an entire day in a wood at Shiinbrun, musing over the last movement of the great F minor Sonata, walking rapidly a serpentine course among the trees, and humming to himself some one or other phrase incidental of the design, and that he came not forth until the composition was completed in his mind; so, on the occasion to which I now refer, he separated himself from his companions, walked alone for some half hour, and when he rejoined them, had noted down two themes in the sketch-book he constantly car. ied. These he showed to Schindler, saying that one might be effectively worked in his own style, the other in that of Handel; and Schindler advised him to choose the latter for the sub ject of the Overture he was about to produce, pleasing him especially by this suggestion, since, at the time, Beethoven esteemed Handel above all composers, and he was accordingly well satisfied to have an inducement to emulate his peculiarity of manner. The Overture had small success when it was played, but Schindler still took credit to himself for having been in some degree influential upon its composition, alleging always hat its imperfect execution was the cause of its ineffectiveness, and assuring
the composer that the great merit which has since been discovered in it, would be appreciated, when it was made known through a competent performance. The Overture was published, together with the Mass in D and the Choral Symphony, it having been played at the very remarkable concert in 1823, at which these two colossal works were produced; and it was dedicated by Beethoven to Prince Nicholas Galatzin, the Russian nobleman who had commissioned him to write the three Quartets which are inscribed with the name of this dilettante, but the composition of which had been procrastinated, while the composer was engaged on the present Overture and the more extensive works of this important period. It was possibly with the idea of making some reparation to his patron for the delayed fulfilment of his engagement, that Beethoven, wholly unsolicited, associated the Prince's name with the work under consideration. The world owes every acknowledgment to a man who, when critics were disposed to depreciate the merit of the master, had not only the discernment to perceive this, but the independent zeal for art and the liberality to honour it; and we must all think the better of Beethoven, that he, as sensitive to kindness as to injury, anticipated the world's acknowledgment of the true spirit of this amateur, in his voluntary dedication of the present work.
Appropriately to the twofold occasion for which it was composed—the celebration of the imperial fete day, and the opening of a new theatre—the Overture is of an essentially jubilant character. However Beethoven may have aimed at the style of Handel in the design of this work, its plan and its details contain far more that is individual to himself than of what may be regarded as specially characteristic of his model A few preludial chords introduce a long continuous melody,—
of such definite rhythm, and such broad and emphatic character, that it might well have been adopted for a national hymn, and that it may well be interpreted as an outburst of loyalty, the expression equally of gladness in offering a prayer for the sovereign, and of confidence that this will be granted. The grandeur of this well-marked tune is even increased by the massive orchestration with which the whole is given for a second time; it is now followed by a flourish of trumpets, the greeting as it were of some mighty potentate, whom all that heard it where ready to honour; and this is succeeded by a long passage of constantly increasing power, built upon this phrase—
which are constantly worked together, sometimes the one above and the other below, as in the quotation, sometimes with their relative position inverted— that is, the one forming a double counterpoint to the other. Pursuant to tho idea that the Overture was to be written (according to the suggestion of the subject) after the style of Handel, there is a single bar of Adagio immediately preceding the termination of the fugue, according to the frequent practice of the old master j but then, quite remote from the habitual conciseness of his model, Beethoven prolongs this termination into a very extensive Coda, to which—as is the case in more than one movement of the Mass he wrote at the same period as the work before us—the effect of remarkable length is given by the very many complete closes that anticipate the final conclusion.
G. A. Maofarben.
Fhankfort-on-tue-maine.—The harp on which the unfortunate Marie Antoinette received lessons, during her imprisonment, from her valet, Floury, is to be sold. After Fleury's death in Hanover, it became the property of a Mad, Fleur, and afterwards of a family residing in Wolfen btlttel.
Naples.—Vincent Ficdo, the last of raesiello's pupils, died here lately, aged eighty-five. He continued up to the time of his decease, an active member of the " College of Music."
REMARKS ON THE RENDERING OF THE
We fancy ws need not commence this article by assuring the readers of the Niederrheinitche Mutik-Zeitung that, in the following reflections and remarks upon the rendering ot the Sinfonia Eroica, we shall not refer to those dreamy interpretations in which the asthetical expounders of this master-uiece think themselves at liberty to indulge. Our opinions of such fantastic flights are sufficiently known, and what Beethoven himself thought of them we have frequently been informed by A. Schindler, both in many passages of his Biography °f Beethoven, and in this paper, namely in No. 2 of the series for 1856, where the energetic protest of the composer against such interpretations, and against the errors resulting from them, is proved by a letter of 1819.t
It may, however, be objected: "That the third symphony has a programme, which Beethoven himself wrote for it; we know, also, that it was, at first, his intention to pourtray (!) or, at least, glorify the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte in the symphony. Consequently, this programme must be taken as the basis of the proper reading and performance of the work."
We have already, on various occasions, stated our views with regard to the Bonaparte-story, and, among other things, shown that it is beyond a doubt that Bernadotte requested Beethoven to contribute some musical work to the glorification of the hero of the age (because Beethoven himself has expressed liis feelings on the subject, wnich he mentioned, moreover, in the letter with which he transmitted the Jfitta Solemnia to the King of Sweden). Bernadotte could have made this request only in the year 1798 (see No. 22, page 171, of the Jfiedtrrheinuche Musik-Zeilung for 1861), while the Symphony was not composed till 1804, and not played for the first time till January, 1805. To these dates we merely add that, early as the 16th of May, 1804, Bonaparte was proclaimed by the Senate Emperor, the throne being declared heriditary, and, on the 18ih May, the constitution of the Empire was published. In the year 1803 (according to Schindler), Beethoven composed "Christus am Oelberge," three Sonatas with violin, Op. 30; three Sonatas, Op. 31; and fifteen Variations, Op. 35. In the year 1804, the Symphony No. II, in D major, and the Pianoforte Concerto in C minor. In January 1805, the first performance, soon followed by the second, of the Eroica took place. And yet it is asserted that the fair copy of the score, with the title page: "Bonaparte. Luigi van Beethoven "—and "not a word more," as F. Bies aays—was completed as early as the beginning of June, 1804. This may be possible! But the subjoined assertion "that Beethoven had already thought of handing it to General Bernadotte, to send to Napoleon," is certainly impossible, since Bernadotte had not returned to Vienna since 1798.
To our object, the question is a matter of indifference; if Bonaparte was in the symphony, he was not removed from it by the fact of the title-page—or, to use without doubt, a more correct term, the dedication page, being torn out. We have not to pay attention to Ries's Bonaparte programme, but to Beethoven's programme: "Composed to celebrate the memory (Andenken) of a great man "—the "memory" [per peitoggi are il touvenire), that is: "of a hero who was dead," as is plainly proved by the second movement, the dead march. But the truth is that the anecdote is more acceptable than the original document to the programme—musicians of the present day; they would be only too delighted to stamp the Eroica, by the inscription "Bonaparte," as the predecessor of the Symphonies: Faust, Columbia, Dante, etc. The sole question for us is: "Can, or njust Beethoven's programme influence the rendering of the Symphony?"
If the idea of the hero was to be Bet forth by means of music, it would fall into the domains of the Beautiful, because music is an art. It would not, therefore, be expressed by reflection, but only by the composer's fancy, within the limits of music, and by means of the resources the latter offers for the purpose. Beethoven's fancy consequently created for the principal movement, a theme, a musical motive, which, in addition to the first thing required of it, namely, that it shall be beautiful, possesses a certain characteristic something, which may awaken in the hearer, but in no way must necessarily awaken the notion of heroism. It is, however, the triumrh of Beethoven's genius, that the purely artistic labour of that genius, namely, the union of
• From the Niederrheinitche Musik-Zeitung. lisnslatcj for the Musical World by J. V. Bridgeman.
+ This letter was dictated to Schindler by Beethoven, ir. the autumn of 1819, at Modling, near Vienna, and addressed to Dr. Christian Mullcr, at Bremen. We repeat the request made by us, on the occasion in question, to Sherran Rheinthaler, Pclzer, Schmidt, Engcl, etc., of Bremen, for information as to what has become of the papers left by Dr. Mttller, amongst which there must have been several letters from Beethoven, since M filler visited him in Vienna, and they corresponded with each other for a considerable period.
creative fancy, with the conscious employment of musical knowledge, continually forces upon us, with increasing vividness, the idea of the heroic, by means of the principal motives of the first movement, and carries along with it our fancy, because, to the latter for the conception of the purely musically Beautiful, the tendency to the heroic is imparted, by the inscription "Eroica." Not only, however, does its object lend this work its purport, but also the musical motives, and their wonderful development. In this, in the development of the leading musical thoughts, there is certainly displayed in Beethoven, more especially, the characteristic, nay, the dramatic quality of his style, for he attains the powerful effect of this developement, not by his thematic work, based upon polyphony and counter-point, as is the case with Bach, Haydn, and Mozart, but by repetition, variation, modulation, contrast, expansion, extension, preparation, and gradual elevation of the theme.
But to return to the main question, namely, whether the supposed idea of the " Heroic," ought to exercise an influence upon the execution, this influence can only affect, on the whole, the conception of the first movement (for of this alone are we treating to begin with), that is to say, the tempo, and what is generally adapted for characteristic rendering, so that what is grand may be rendered in a grand and spirited, not a little and affected, a sleepy, or sentimental manner. But even this is greatly modified by expression of details, otherwise, for instance, everything in the first movement, would have to be played strongly and vigorously, and everything in the Dead March sadly and sorrowfully.
(To be continued.)
HANDEL. IN 1718—1728.
FOUNDATION OF THE OPERA IN LONDON.
A kind of serious opera, with comic passages, had been popular long before the establishment of the London academy, especially in Vienna; all Handel's Italian operas, written before 1720, belong to this style. But the taste for this style was nowhere so decided as in England, and a separate development of serious and comic opera was generally foreseen. The preference of English amateurs for such operas is easily understood. England had not invented the opera, like Italy, or framed its dramatic form, like France, or busied herself with its public production, like Germany; she had accepted, admired, and enjoyed it, when fully prepared, in foreign lands, and then made arrangements to render the same enjoyment a permanent one at home. This enjoyment, as one purely musical, depended solely on the worth of the composition, and on the production of the moment; and we see that in London a value is placed on composition and the art of singing greater than is to be found in other theatres. Even Italy, although she has pursued these two objects, composition and song, to a degenerate excess, never judged opera from the same point of view as dramatic concert music, from which point, as unprejudiced enquiry will convince us, progress towards a better operatic form becomes impossible. Even in degeneracy, the Italians have striven for dramatic progress.
With these views understood, the musical forces of the academy were intelligently enough selected. On account of their own effeminate natures, neither Bononcini or Ariosti were good musical representatives of the musically dramatic and comic elements of their countrymen; and, contradictory as the assertion may appear, Handel, on account of his great force, was the very one necessary as the representative of the lyric direction of taste in London, a direction that was of so immensely important an influence on hisartistic creative powers. In him the strength and importance of this direction were apparent, but in his rivals its weakness only could be perceived. But, in order to understand the distinction between the real Italy and Italian London, we will glance at Scarlatti's operas. The gushing richness of melody, the fullness of forms, mostly of small dimensions, and well and dramatically drawn, the striking character, and natural flow of all his tone pictures, scarcely appears to have been that, which, in spite of the great admiration for this rare and esteemed master, created an absolute desire to imitate him. His almost unrivalled comic vein, without which Scarlatti ceases to be himself, and which, even in his latest operas, remained as fresh as with Keiser, had to be entirely thrown aside, on account of the limitations of the opera seria. Scarlatti's operas would have become even more popular than they were in England, for, in truly excellent composition they very far exceeded all works extant, or that it was in the power of living Italians to write; but Handel^was there to fill Scarlatti's place in such a manner, that the works of the latter were in danger of being forgotten. None of Scarlatti's most devoted pupils more studied and copied him than Handel, who had yet been little with him; and none better understood how to improve on his often imperfect forms. He comprehended the value of the essentially musical points; he excelled in the pathetic, the full expression of all deep emotions of the mind, the purely impassioned and noble, he attained a freer and richer formation of the instrumental subject; and all these excellences, being of the highest importance to the academy, rendered Scarlatti's compositions almost unnecessary. Handel's striking themes—I will not say, his operas altogether—held the same relation to those of Scarlatti, as the perfect fruit in its proper season holds to that which ripens too early, and is not fully grown. And this comparison becomes more faithful, on account of their resemblance in form,which, without direct imitation, extends to the smallest and most isolated particulars. It would be difficult to find, in the whole range of operatic composition, two masters who stand so near each other, in spite . of their distinct individuality, as Scarlatti and Handel; and, if we would judge them with a complete absence of prejudice, while giving the prize to our Handel, we must allow to his great predecessor the merit of more originality. The more we compare Handel's works with those of his predecessors jand older contemporaries, the more we become convinced, that with all his remarkable artistic superiority, he was never morbidly desirous of originality, but firmly resolved to cling to old forms, and so to mould them according to his wants, as to convey, as fully as possible, the ideal of the beautiful. What he had to say, he was able to say in those forms which had been already made use of by others, before and with him. His creations are more distinguished by an inward working towards which is characteristic, beautiful, and ideally free, than by an outward augmentation of musical material; but by this inward manner of working, he greatly augmented his musical resources. In this way, his songs, of their kind, excelled everything that had preceded them, while his style of composing them, rendered it impossible that they should ever be in turn excelled. Such a perfection of the musical theme, the first thing in dramatic solo song, was all the more unexpected, since, according to the old, slow mode of development, and so soon after Scarlatti, and near Bononcini, it appeared improbable. But it is a peculiarity of every feat of genius, that it steps at once into the light, as soon as the necessary previous conditions are fulfilled. And, in Handel's case, these conditions were already in existence.
The fact that Handel, a foreigner, obtained such success in Italian opera, of course excited great surprise, and, also of course, opposition, in certain quarters. These eight years of Italian opera, from 1720 to 1728, were essentially his, not only in London, but over all Europe; but all earthly means were brought into requisition to overcloud his merit, and his opponents did not acknowledge this, until universal approbation forced them to it. The blame of his contemporaries has enabled us to measure their narrow admiration of a lower grade of art than his; while their praise is re-echoed by posterity after every renewed artistic discussion. Handel, was probably indifferent to reckless criticism, for we can nowhere find that he endeavored to conciliate it in any way. He gave no other answer, save that the Best penetrated his art as ever; and he only showed himself indignant, when every bad influence of the day united to render this a difficult task to him. But this first happened at a later period. The years we are now describing, fully deserved the epithet we have given them, "golden days," for they ended cheerfully, honorably, and victoriously to Handel.
(To be continued.)
THE MUSIC AND DANCING LICENSES.
The Court sat at Clerkenwell, Mr. Pownall presiding.
The license to the Nag's Head, Oxford-street, applied for by Henry Saunders Lamb, was refused. The license to Weston's Music-hall, Holborn, was renewed, nem. con., as a matter of course. An application was made for the transfer of a license from Frederick i rampton to Jhan Kranchy for the Lord Nelson Music-hall, Duke's-row, by St. Pancras Church. Mr. Healey, a local majistrate, opposed on the ground that no spirit license was granted in the name of Kranchy. The house had been transferred to Kranchy, but there was some difficulty with respect to the completion of arrangements. Mr. Kranchy had, it was said, expended a good deal of money, in addition to the purchase money, for
improvements, but at present was not in actual possession of the spirit license. License refused. A license was granted to the Irish Harp, at
Alhambra.—In this case, Mr. William Wilde, jun., applied for a license, and was opposed on the part of the authorities of St. Martin in the Fields. The opposition was withdrawn on the understanding that the establishment was not to be turned into a casino,—dancing to be excluded, and the license for music was granted ntm. con.
Star and Garter, Green-street Leicester-square.—Mr. Cooper applied in this case on behalf of James Woods. Mr. Metcalfe opposed on behalf of the parish authorities. It was stated that the divisional magistrates had been set at defiance, and that the place was a noted resort of bad characters, thieves, and prostitutes. The learned counsel said it was quite time such assemblages were put a stop to. License refused.
Adelaide Gallery.—Agostino Gatti and Giacomo Monico, as it transfer from John Burns IJryson applied for a license for this place. Mr. Sleigh supported ; Mr. Metcalfe opposed for the parish. It was represented that the premises were so near to St. Martin's Church that the privilege of the license would cause great annoyance to persons leaving Divine worship on Sunday evenings, when the place was kept open for public admission. Mr. Sleigh said there would be no music on Sundays, and no application would ever be made either for a spirit, wine, or beer license; the refreshments served were tea, coffee, ices, Sec Mr. Sleigh wanted to know if it were not better to license such a place than a publichouse. Inspector Makenzie said the attention of the police had been directed to this establishment, and it had been frequented by boys and girls. License refused.
A license to the Oxford Gallery was refused. Mr. Cooper supported. A license was also refused for the proposed Strand Music-Hail, Exeterchange, the building not being completed. Mr. Warton opposed; Mr. Sleigh supported.
<Si> Hugh Myddelton, ClerkenxceU.—In this case the license had been refused proformH on Thursday, on the complaint of a majistrato that free admission tickets had been distributed among servant girls for this establishment. The explanation given by Mr. Deacon was that a gentleman or some gentlemen had written to him for orders to visit and see his music-hall, and that without his knowledge, much less his concurrence, they had got by some means into the hands of persons for whom they were never in any wise intended. For the future a rigid regulation would be carried out as to these free admissions, and it was urged forcibly upon the Court by Mr. Sleigh, who appeared as counsel for Mr. Deacon, that no one, either of the police or general public, had had the least cause of complaint as to the way in which the Music-hall had been conducted since Mr. Deacon opened it; on the other hand, it had achieved as high a character as any similar place of entertainment, and there was not the least ground for supposing that Mr. Deacon would lend himself to what had been imputed. After some discussion the question was put, and the vote of refusal was rescinded, and the license granted.
Cyder Cellart.—John Hart applied for the renewal of a license, and the point which the Court had to decide upon involved the fate of several other applications. In the case of the Cyder Cellars it was admitted that songs of an obscene character had been permitted to be sung, but it was urged, on Mr. Hart's behalf, that it was by persons over whom he had no control, as they had contracted with him for the place, and, although his spirit license was refused in April, ho could not get rid of them until the 14th of August, and they had brought actions against him. On the refusal of his spirit license, he went to the Commissioners of Excise, and, on the credit of his having a music Ucense they were empowered by an Act of Parliament to grant a license of permission for him to continue the sale of spirits, although the Petty Sessional Justices had taken it from him. Mr. Sleigh, admitting that what Mr. Hart had done amounted almost to contempt of the Licensing Justices, contended that in getting the Excise license he had only done what others had done and what was authorized by an Act of Parliament. How could he be blamed for doing that which an Act of the Legislature said he had a right to do? The Assistant-Judge said that, apart from the legal point, he could say from what had come before him, that this place, from what it was notorious had been going on there, was a perfect disgrace to civilized society. The Chairman said it was never intended that a music license should be made the pretext for procuring a spirit license from the Excise when the Licensing Justices had refused it. License unanimously refused, several others on the same ground. Some withdrawn.
Testimonial To Dr. Chipp—A handsome testimonial has been presented to Dr. Edmund T. Chipp, upon the occasion of his leaving Trinity Church, Paddington, of which he was the organist. In our next, we purpose giving full particulars.
Pabis.—M. Rc'ty has resigned the management of the Theater, Lyrique.
ETA DEI PIU' CELEBRI AUTORI INGLESI.'
[We commend the subjoined to the special notice of our literary readers. Ed. M. W.]
H Nestore dei viventi scrittori inglesi e Walter Sara go Landor, il poeta classico e liberate, l'autore delle Conversazioni immaginarie, di Zebir, Giovanna di Napoli, etc., dhnorante in una sua bella villa presso Firenze, il cjuale annovera gia 87 anni, mentre il piu giovine degli autori inglesi, Giacome Haneos, poco noto fuori dTnghilterra, ne ha appena 35. Tra questi due estremi, schieransi cronologicamente i seguenti scrittori:
Matteo Arnold, poeta classico, antore d'Empedocle suWEtna, ecc. 40 anni; Kingsley, famoso romanziere, autore A'Ipazia (il piii bel romanzo moderno al dire di Bunsen) Alton Loche Yeast, ecc, 43 anni; il capitano Mayne Reid, celebre in Europa pe' suoi romanzi d'awenture, 43 anni; G. H. Lewes, autore della migliore biografla di Goethe e di un Dizionario biogrofico jilosofico, 45 anni; Tom Taylor, poeta drammatico, 45 anni; Carlo Shirley Brooks, poeta drammatico anch'egli, 47 anni; Guglielmo Steward Russell, il rinomato corrispondente del Times, di cui il nome h divenuto popolare per le sue belle relazioni della guerra di Crimea e dell,insurrerione delle Indie, 48 anni; Aytoun, poeta di grido ed autore, fra le altre cose, di bellissime ballate scozzesi, 49 anni; Roberto Browning, il piii in voga dopo Tennyson de' poeti inglesi, 50 anni; Carlo Mackay, autore popolare del Gran libro di Londra e della libera int America e di applaudite poesie, 50 anni; Carlo Dickens, il gran romanziere, 50 anni; il suo rivale e forse piu grande romanzieri, Thacheray, che fondb ultimamente una rivista umoristica, CorniWs magazine, la quale toccb nel secondo fascicolo la cifra favolosa di 100,000 abbonati, 59 anni; Alfredo Tennyson, il poeta laureatus, l'antore di deliziose poesie, 52 anni; Marco Lemon, 52 anni; M. Milnes, autore di due volumi di belle poesie, 52 anni; Guglielmo Ewart Gladstone, uiinistro attuale delle finanze, celebre come scrittore e come statista, 53 anni; Carlo Lever, romanziere valente, autore dello stupendo romanzo Harry Lorreguer ed altri romanzi irlandesiumoristici, 56; BeniaminoDisraeli,giaministro,tory, uomo di Stato ed autore_ di Coningsby Sibilla o Le due nazioni, Tancredi ed altri famosi romanzi politici, 57 anni; Harrison Ainsworth, autore di romanzi storici e di genere, fra i quali Giacomo Sheppard, La torre di Londra, II Castello di Windsor, 57 anni; Edoardo Bulwer Lytton, romanziere di fama mondiate, 59 anni; Barry Cornwall, autore di poesie liriche e romantiche, 63 anni; Samuele Lorer, poeta, musicante e romanziere irlandese, autore delle Leggende e delle Storie d' Irlanda, 64 anni; G. R. Gleig, uno de' piii fecondi e moltiformi scrittori inglesi, 67 anni; Tommaso Carlyle, il grande storico e filosofo, autore del Passato e presente, del Culto degli eroi, dell' Istoria della rivoluzione francese e di Federico il Grande, 67 anni ; Guglielmo Howitt, manto della celebre autrice Maria Howitt, ed autore del Libro delle slagioni, ecc, 67 anni; Sir John Bowring,
Sovernatore d'Hong-Kong, filologo, poeta, scrittore politico e trauttore, 70 anni; H. H. Milman, teologo e poeta, autore della Caduia di Gerusalemme, d' Anna Bolena, dell' Istoria degli eroi, 71 anni; Payne Collier, il gran critico di Shakespeare, accusato ultimamente a torto da Hamilton di aver f alsificato documenti riguardanti il sommo tragico, 73 anni; l'infaticabile Lord Brough, autore di tante opcre politiche, 84 anni. G. S.
Mdlle. Patti has been engaged by Signor Merelli, director of the Karl Theatre, Vienna, for thirty performances between the 24th of February and the 24th of April. After the first fifteen performances Mdlle. Irebelli will arrive, and will appear on alternate nights with Mdlle. Patti. Thus the subscribers to the Viennese Opera will have the opportunity of hearing two of the most charming singers of the day at one and the same establishment—which makes all the difference to them between a single and double subscription. The principal tenor at M. Merelli's theatre will be Signor Giuglini; the principal baritone M. Faure. It is said that for the two months Mdlle. Patti is to receive £2000. Before proceeding to Vienna Mdlle. Patti has a three months' engagement to fulfil at the Italian Opera of Paris, where she makes her debut in the second week of November.
• From the E rirata Giornak Letterario Artittico TealraU, Oct. 11. H362.
SioNon Verdi has once more gone north-east (if the author of A Journey Due North will allow us to say so) and is now superintending the rehearsals of his new opera, La Foria del Destino, at St. Petersburg. It may be remembered that the production of this work was prevented last year by the illness of Mdme. Lagrua, the mueh-admired and rather overrated prima donna of the great northen capital, for whom the topram part was specially written. It appears now that, although Mdme. Lagnu has recovered, the part originally destined for her is to be given to another singer—a Mdme. Barbet, of whom we now hear for the first time. It will be well for operatic interests in general if Mdme. Barbet achieves a great success, for there is a great want just now of " robust " sopranos capable of performing such parts as Lucrezia and Norma with effect. There is Madlle. Titiens, to be sure ; but Madlle. Titiens is unable to sing at two theatres at the same time; and, as Mr. Gye cannot succeed in engaging her for the Royal Italian Opera, the Royal Italian Opera is obliged to Intrust the parts that were formerly played by Grisi to vocalists of an inferior order.
Madme. Penco.—Mdme. Penco is said to be a greater favorite in Paris than in London. This we can readily believe, for in London, in spite of her talent, which is undeniable, she has never achieved any striking success. The fact is, good singing alone will never insure the popularity of a vocalist with an English audience. She must also posses a certain amount of genius, and, above all, a certain " charm," which, being indescribable, we will not attempt to describe. Mdlle. Krcolomini was certainly endowed with genius, and it is still more certain that she interested and delighted the public by something in her manner that pleased them quite irrespectively of her singing, which in itself was by no means excellent. Mdme. Penco sings well, but happens not to possess the art of enlisting the sympathy of the audience—the art (if it be not a gift) of pleasing. Her singing, compared with Mdlle. Piccolomini's, is what good prose is to brilliant, flashy poetry; compared with Mdlle. Patti's, what good prose is to poetry of the most beautiful kind.— Illustrated Times
Literary Coptriqiit.—Mr. J. Alfred Novello, following Mr. Anthony Trollope, advocates in the Athenceum a law of copyright by which any author who first publishes his book in England shall be entitled to copyright therein for fifty years. He holds that in such matters the law should not distinguish between Englishmen and foreigners. This is the doctrine which Mr. Bohn be empliatically condemned at the last Social Science Congress. For ourselves, beyond the sentimental homage to authorship, we can perceive nothing to recommend it. With nearly all civilized nations we have now treaties by which UUnry rights are more or less effectually secured, and these treaties are subject to revision, and any improvement which experience may suggest. The line at the foot of every title-page, The Right of Translation Ruerttd, attests the modest expectation which these treaties excite in the breast of the British author. Mr. Novello's proposal, while it gives away everything, takes nothing in return, and would benefit no one except the few American authors we care to read in England. It is only the United States which holds back from entering into a treaty of reciprocal copyright with us, and the only inducement that will ever persuade that power to enter with us into a compact of justice will be the desire to secure copyright for its own authors in England. It is but fair that American authors should have no rights in England until English authors have rights in America.—Literary Budget,
MR. AUGUSTUS GREVILLE'S NEW BALLAD.
WHEN FIRST THEY MET. Price 2s. 6d. As sung by all the leading vocalists. Words and Music commend this ballad al one of the most elegant and refined compositions of the day.
Jeweix tt Co., 104 Great Russell Street, British Museum.
BRINLEY RICHARDS' COMPOSITIONS.Briklet Richards'" Leopold" (Mazurka) 2s.
BnmLKY Richards' "Ethel" (Romance) 2s.M.
IlmsLKY Richards' "Once too often" (Fantasia) **•
HuiM.w Richaeds' "The Harp of Wales" (Sung by Mr. L. Thokas) ... Hkim.lv Richards' "The Blind Man and Summer" (8nng by Miss Pauses) 3s. Brislrt Richards' "The Suliote War Song" (Sung by Mr. Saxtlet) ... J*. London: DtracAK Davisox A Co., 214 Regent Street, w,
In the Pros,
EW ORGAN MUSIC, BY HENRY SMART
O R a A N,
With Pedal Obllgato, by