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achim, Ries Webb, and Piator*
ST. JAMES'S HALI,
The Musical idorld.
LONDON: SATURDAY, OCTOBER 18, 1862. MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS.
QUR readers will not have forgotten thať a large number One Hundred and Fourth Concert.
of Mendelssohn's compositions, including the Symphony
in D (the “Reformation Symphony”), to which some interON MONDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 20, 1862. esting allusions are made in his recently published Travelling SECOND APPEARANCE
Letters, still exist in manuscript. They are now, we believe,
in the possession of the family, and the majority of them in OF
England. We have by no means altered the opinion we HERR JOACHIM.
felt bound to express some years since-when the question PROGRAMME.
was first discussed, and when the dilatory and apathetic PART. I.
proceedings of the four Leipsic professors * entrusted with QUARTET, in B flat (No. 3, Op. 54), for two Violins, Viola, and
the important charge of preparing them for publication were Violoncello
frequently dwelt upon—that these compositions, at the death SONG, “Young Agnes, beauteous flower.” (Fra Diavolo) ... ... Auber. of their author, should have been, as a matter of course,
Mr. Henry Haigh.
production, &c., indispensable to a proper understanding Pianoforte solo ,
Beethoven, *** Mr. Lindsay Sloper.*** ***
and appreciation of their value as stepping-stones, or stages, PART II.
in the intellectual progress of a great genius. On the DOUBLE QUARTET, in E minor, Op. 87, No. 3, for four Violins,
contrary, we adhere to it pertinaceously, and believe that two Violas, and two Violoncellos
the arguments adduced in favor of speedy, if not immediate, Second Quartet :-MM. Ries, Wicner, Hann, and Paquo.
publication were unanswerable. Nevertheless, in deference SONG, “Elly Mavourueen." (Lily of Killarney) ...
to Mdme. Mendelssohn-who experienced, we have reason Mr. Henry Haigh. PRELUDE AND FUGUE, in G minor, for Violin solo
Bach. to believe, considerable annoyance on the part of a certain Herr Joachim. SONG, “O'er the bright flood" ... ...
Schubert. self-glorifying clique of quasi-reviewers, quasi-musicians, in Miss Banks. TRIO, in E flat, Op. 93, for Pianoforte, Violin, and Violoncello
North Germany (the “Mutual Adoration Society," as an
... Hummel, Mr. Lindsay Sloper, Herr Joachim, and Signor Piatti.
American composer happily christened them), and whose To commence at Eight o'clock precisely.
anxious tenderness for her immortal husband's fame was
deserving of all sympathy-we, and others who share onr NOTICE.
opinion, refrained from further advocacy of a cause which, It is respectfully suggested that such persons as are not desirous of remaining till the end of the performance can leavo either before the commencement of the last instru.
at the same time, we could not but regard as sacred; nor mental piece, or between any two of the movements, so that those who wish to hear the
are we just at present-although the lamented death of wholo may do so without interruption.
Between the last vocal piece and the Trio for the Pianoforte, Violin, and Violin Mdme. Mendelssohn has snatched from the hands of our sello, an interval of FIVE MINUTES will be allowed. The Concert will finish before half-past Ten o'Clock.
opponents their only legitimate controversial weapon-about
to resume it. On the other hand, we cannot forbear proSofa Stalls, 58.; Balcony, 38.; Admission, ls. Tickets to be had of Mr. Atstix,
testing against a paragraph contained in a recent impression at the Hall, 28 Piccadilly : Messrs. CHAPPELL & Co. 50 New Bond Street; and the principal Musicsellers.
of The Athen oeum, the musical editor of which literary
journal has more than once reproved in unmeasured terms TO CORRESPONDENTS.
the desire of amateurs and musicians, more enthusiastic DANTESQUE.–Our correspondent is almost, but not exactly right. | about Mendelssohn than himself, to see and become acThe couplet goes :
quainted with all that Mendelssohn had left behind him. “Ma quella reverenza, che s' indonna
Not only was their very natural wish denounced as imper. Di tutto me, pur per Be, e per Ice." It alludes of course to Bice or Beatrice Portinari.
tinent, but they were twitted with hankering after dead men's wares, with prying into dead men's secrets ; and this
in a tone of oracular authority, before which, although long NOTICES.
familiar to readers of The Athenoeum in particular, the 18.-Advertisers are informed, that for the future musical world in general has not yet learned to quall. the Advertising Agency of THE MUSICAL WORLD is established What, then, are we to think of the subjoined (Athenaeum, at the Afagazine of MESSRS. DUNCAN DAVISON & Co., 244, Regent Street, corner of Little Argyll Street (First Floor). | MUSICAL AND DRAMATIC Gossip.-In the thematic catalogue of MenAdvertisements can be received as late as Three o'Clock P.M., on delssohn's works, drawn out in his own beautiful handwriting, those who Fridays—but no later. Payment on delivery.
inspected it while in London might well be tantalised by the sight of a
double pianoforte Concerto, if not two, figuring in the list of works nerer • Top Two lines and under ... ... ... 2s. 6d. given by him to the press. Chance has enabled us to speak of one of these. ar | Every additional 10 words ... ... 6d.
Our admiration of Mendelssohn's tact and sagacity has been confirmed by the To PUBLISHERS AND COMPOSERS— All Music for Review in The
satisfaction of a natural curiosity. Interesting though it be to trace am
artist's mind and fancy through the stages of their progress, the work, con MUSICAL WORLD must henceforth be" forwarded to the Editor, sidered without such a motive, is one the publication of which was discreetly withcare of Messrs. DUNCAN Davison & Co., 244, Regent Street.
held. It is discreetly written (for neither as boy nor as man could Mendelssohn A List of every Piece sent for Review will appear on the Saturday
be ever careless), but it shows not a sign of the author of the Midsummer
ur on the saturaay Night's Dream music-not one of the writer of the Pianoforte Quartett in B following in The Musical WORLD.
minor: both of the above works of his youth. On the contrary, it is rather à To CONCERT GIVERS.—No Benefit-Concert, or Musical Perform
la Mozart without Mozart's grace and spontaneous flow of melody ; regular in ance, except of general interest, unless previously Advertised, can
its construction, with few touches of individuality-briefly, weak, and tedious. be reported in Tux MusicAĻ World,
• M. M. Moscheles, Rietz, David, and Hauptmann,
It would appear from this piece of "gossip" that the not; whether he be right or wrong, about the “doublecritic of The Athenaeum has actually done that which in pianoforte-concerto," as he styles it; whether the “ double others he would have condemned as sheer impertinence. pianoforte concerto " be “discreetly written,” or indiscreetly He has availed himself of an advantage, which, in mere written, à la Mozart, or not à la Mozart, “ briefly, weak; consistency, he should have disdained. He has obtained and tedious," or, (which is more likely to be the case), access to the MSS. of the dead composer, and indulged in “ briefly,” neither weak nor tedious, the question remains the very “hankering" he formerly held up to reprobation. precisely where it stood. One thing may be taken for We need not inquire what was the “ chance" that gave him granted :-it is not within the province of an Athenoum to admittance to these treasures. No doubt he asked to be settle it, either one way or the other. allowed to see them, and was politely granted his request by those in whose custody they are kept. For this, however, we absolve him heartily, He has condoned the absurdity THE Monday Popular Concerts are gradually rendering of his former arguments by gracefully eating his own words. || Beethoven's quartets as familiar to our musical amateurs In short, we envy him the privilege it has been his good as the plays of Shakspere to the lovers of theatrical enter. fortune to enjoy. But here, however inclined to be tainments. The first six, and even the three dedicated to charitable, we must stop. It was in questionable taste, Count, or Prince, Rasoumoffsky, are already so well known having been allowed such a privilege (more especially that preferences have begun to be established for one quartet taking the past into consideration), to boast of it in print ; over its immediate fellow and vice versâ. The time is but this is by no means the worst part of the business. To equally at hand for the general appreciation of Nos. 10 and boast of having seen these much coveted MSS. was merely 11, and, as a natural sequence, for the so-called “ Posthu. to tell the readers of The Athenæum that The Athenæum mous." The few observations we have to make at present, had access everywhere. The lyre of that Orpheus was however, relate exclusively to the first and most widely irresistible. It would be a passport even to the infernal appreciated set—the six quartets, Op. 18, inscribed by regions, where, if its possessor wished to rummage over the the illustrious musician to his friend and constant patron, unpublished songs of Nero or Domitian, he might accom- Prince Lobkowitz, Duke of Raudwitz. plish his soul's desire. But granted the free entry of The The published order of these quartets is not that in which Athenoum to all quarters-even to dead men's portfolios they were written; the one in F major, which stands first the exercise of such a privilege imperatively demands a in the printed editions, being third according to the date of certain reticence, not to say discretion. In the instance the manuscript; while the one in D major, which comes under consideration, however, we regret to find this down to us as “No. 3," ranks “No. 1,” according to the wholly unobserved. Questionable as the taste of in-same authority. It is somewhat remarkable that two of the forming his readers that he had been allowed to examine least pretending as to style, and least elaborate as to conMendelssohn's forbidden papers, it becomes venial, nay, struction and detail, among these six masterpieces-viz., the almost amiable, by the side of the further use to which the A major (with the popular variations), and the B flat majorcritic of The Athenæum has turned his “ chance."
should have been last in the order of production-Nos. 5 and If the works are not fit for publication, they ought surely 6; nor is it less worthy of note, that the most admirable, to be held exempt from public criticism, and more em- beautiful, and thoroughly original of the set (original, notphatically so when that criticism is unfavorable. Yet notwithstanding that the spirit of Mozart is clearly reflected in only is the musical community warned off from the precious the principal theme, and in certain other passages of the documents, to sigh after which is impertinence, or something opening movement)-viz., the one in D major-should (not worse ; they are absolutely bound to accept the verdict of a even excepting the quartet in F major, with its superb gentleman, who, by some means, has obtained the access adagio) have preceded them all in the design of the composer. denied to themselves, and to endorse a sentence which con. The first three quartets in Op. 18, (D major, G major, and signs the MSS. henceforth and for ever. to the index F major) were engraved and printed before the othersexpurgatorium. Now we beg leave to say, in the name of about 1801, if the journals of the time may be credited the musical world (of England at all events), that the (some years previous to the early Fidelio; or, according to musical world is inclined to do nothing of the sort; that the original German title, Eleonore, oder die eherliche Liebe) nobody would ever have dreamed of leaving the decision of and therefore during the most fresh and vigorous period of 80 important a matter to the critic of The Atheneum, or Beethoven's productive career, just in the advance of that indeed, to any other single gentleman, however large his which gave the Eroica Symphony and the “Rasoumoffsky" professed “admiration for Mendelssohn's tact and sagacity.” Quartets to the world, when the composer, still young, A much higher authority, an authority universally acknow entirely freed from the influence of his once favorite model, ledged competent, would alone satisfy those who know how laid the solid foundation of what has been designated his much thought was expended by Mendelssohn, even upon“ second manner," and of his future renown as the Colossus his least ambitious works; and were such an authority at of instrumental music. hand, we still greatly doubt whether its judgment would The “model,” to whom allusion has been made was, of meet with anything like unanimous acceptance. Besides, course, Mozart-the only composer with whose music even what proof have we that the critic of The Athenceum is able the earliest productions of Beethoven can be said to present to read a full score with such facility as to help him to a any marked features in common. The Six Quartets, Op. 18, sound opinion? Where are his credentials ? Before we which belong exclusively to the so-styled “first manner," succumb to a decision, put forth with flippant self-suffi. have often been compared with the set of six composed by ciency, in some half dozen sentences, and thereby virtually Mozart, and dedicated to his illustrious friend and affectionate set at rest a question that interests, and must continue to rival (his predecessor, contemporary, and survivor), Haydn. interest, every lover of music, we have surely a right to ask The comparison, whatever stipulations may be made, is not for these. No credentials, no security. But seriously- without good show of reason. Before Beethoven was enwhether the critic of The Atheneum can read a score or I tirely and unreservedly Beethoven, Mozart was not only his pattern, but his idol. For Haydn, although he studied poser. The brio and dash of the first movement, and the with him some time, he entertained no very deep or hearty quiet beauty of the adagio, are entirely Mozartean; while sympathy; and, except, perhaps, in their orchestral sympho- the last movement shows his fertility and inimitable genius nies in C and D major, their pianoforte sonatas in C minor, still more forcibly. and their concertos for pianoforte with orchestral accom After these two works, the Ottetto of Mendelssohn was paniments in C major and C minor (in which a very strong | doubly welcome, the expectation and enjoyment of the affinity is evident), nowhere do Mozart and Beethoven more audience being by this time raised to the highest pitch. nearly approach each other than in the six quartets respec This incomparable work, without rival among string com. tively dedicated by either master to Haydn and Prince positions, for ingenuity and variety of effect, has been three Lobkowitz. The Quartet iu G major is the least elaborate times previously given at these concerts, and never without of Beethoven's Op. 18; but so ceaseless is its flow of melody, creating wonder and delight. The superb allegro which so spontaneous even the most quiet and unpretending of its commences the work is broad and vigorous in the extreme; themes, so neat, compact, and ingenious the structure of while the inimitable scherzo could have emanated from no every movement, that, as a work of art, it yields to none of composer but him of the Midsummer Night's Dream. The its five companions. It is a highly-finished cabinet picture, sonata for pianoforte and violin (in G) of Beethoven, too, the more to be prized as one of the very rare exemplifications contains a world of beauty and original thought, which of absolute repose and unclouded serenity to be found scat- impress more and more at every hearing. tered throughout the rich catalogue of Beethoven's pro | Then the song of Glinka, plaintive in style, like-all true ductions. On the other hand-as was once suggested of Russian music; the two charming lieder of Schubert its companions in A and B flat major-notwithstanding its (perfectly sung by Miss Banks, who has already won a comparative simplicity, its almost Haydnesque scherzo and place among English singers, which the purity and freshtrio (almost--for Beethoven can never quite put on the wig ness of her voice, united to unquestioned musicianship, will of “ Papa Haydn"), and other ingenuous, not to say enable her to maintain); the melodious “Paga fui,” by an primitive features, the entire work, from the first bar of undeservedly neglected master (Winter), with the quaint the first movement to the last of the finale, reveals the “ Savoyard's song" of Mendelssohn (both set down for independent spirit of the “immeasurably rich musician," Miss Lascelles, who has a powerful voice); and last, not whose inexhaustible invention and ever-active fancy never least, the very pleasing notturno of Paer (for two voices)— permitted him to borrow ideas from the intellectual store- Mr. Lindsay Sloper accompanying the vocal pieces—made houses of others, but to the end supplied him with abundant up the sum total of a programme with which if an audience materials for the exercise of his art. Beethoven is had remained unmoved it must have been an audience of Beethoven, even when shaking hands with Mozart across blocks, and which, if it had not proved attractive, would their admitted art-frontiers; and what is more, even when have proved that there is no attraction in music. Let us joining in the cheerful laugh of Haydn, and, with resolute wonder no more about the Monday Popular Concerts being (if not heavier) step, emulating that genial master in the a paying speculation. Mr. Arthur Chappell best knows measured pace and staid progressions of the minuet.
why it is so. I am, Sir, yours,
N To the Editor of the Musical WORLD. SIR.-I do not, by any meang, take part in the astonish. Sig. Schira has returned to London after visiting the principal · ment at the success of the Monday Popular Concerts, which
towns of Northern Italy. He is engaged, we are informed, upon
the libretto of an English Opera for Covent Garden. is the stock-in-trade of most reporters of musical matters.
LYCEUM THEATRE.—Mr. A. Harris's term of management exThere can be no surer mode of attracting an audience than
pired on Thursday night. Mr. Lindus, the new lessee, opens on by announcing performances of the works of Bach, Handel, Monday, with Delicate Grounds. Love.. (Sheridan Knowles), and Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn; and no surer Perfection, a somewhat " ancient and fish-like” bill of fare. way of gratifying it than by committing their performance | ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE._We understand that Mr. Boucicault to Herr Joachim, Mr. Sainton, Mr. Webb, Signor Piatti, has not taken this theatre " for a term," but purchased it “out Mons. Paqne, Malle. Arabella Goddard, Mr. Charles Hallé, and out.” Mr. Lindsay Sloper, and others of the highest class of ROYAL ACADEMY OF Music.-At a meeting of the Directors, executants, with which this generation is singularly blessed. on the 17th of September, (Sir George Clerk, Bart., chairman) The popularity of the art of music, and of the Monday | Mr. John H. Nunn, Penzance, was created an associate. Popular Concerts, or of any institution conducted with equal MusicAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.- The four orchestral concerts zeal and conscientiousness, is part and parcel of our much of this Society are already fixed to take place on Wednesdays, boasted civilization, and needs no wonderment, but hearty |
Jan. 28, March 25, April 22, and May 27.* There are to be two
orchestral trials of new works, on Feb. 25, and Nov. 4, and appreciation and enjoyment..
one (only one), “ conversazione ” on June 10. The choral pracThe pleasant geniality of Haydn's mind was well shown
tices will proceed as usual, under the direction of Mr. llenry at the first concert of the present season, by the quartet in Smart. Mr. Alfred Mellon retains the post of Conductor of the D minor, more especially in the andante and finale. The concerts. The annual general meeting of fellows is announced beauty and power of the first allegro rise beyond Haydn's | for Feb. 4. ordinary level, and distinctly show the influence of his great MR. E. LAND'S TOUR.–The grand touring party" engaged contemporary, Mozart. The quartet, too, was magnificently for the autumn months by Mr. Land, including Mad. Gassier, given, the grandeur of Herr Joachim's playing, his wonder
Malle. Marie Cruvelli, Mr. Swift, Herr Herrmanns, Sig. Bottesini, ful grasp of the composer's intention, his command of tone, M. Sainton, M ful orhan of the composer's intention his command of tone M. Sainton, Mad. Arabella Goddard, and Mr. Land himself (as and his passionate expression, being exhibited in every bar.
conductor), started on Thursday afternoon for Southsea, near
Portsmouth, where their first concert was to take place on the The Sonata in D major, in which Mr. Hallé has already
aay same evening. This day they will be heard at Brighton. A combeen heard more than once, is one of the most admirable of pany more varied in attraction has rarely been sent out to explore all the pianoforte works, numerous as they are, of the com- | the provinces.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
the composer that the great merit which has since been discovered in it, would be appreciated, when it was made known through a competent performance.
The Overture was published, together with the Mass in D and the Choral ORCHESTRAL BALANCE OF POWER.
Symphony, it having been played at the very remarkable concert in 1823, at * To MR. MARTINUS SCRIBLERUS, Hull.
which these two colossal works were produced; and it was dedicated by Beethoven
to Prince Nicholas Galatzin, the Russian nobleman who had commissioned him Sir, It is impossible to state definitely the number of D Concert to write the three Quartets which are inscribed with the name of this dilettante, Flutes required to evenly balance the power, or weight of tone, given but the composition of which had been procrastinated, while the composer was out by the G Bass Trombone, or, how many Violins would be required engaged on the present Overture and the more extensive works of this important to exactly counterpoise the weight of tone, thrown out by a number of period. It was possibly with the idea of making some reparation to his patron D Concert Flutes, and G Bass Trombone combined, because it depends, for the delayed fulfilment of his engagement, that Beethoven, wholly unsolicited, as well on the individual strength of the performer, as on the quality associated the Prince's name with the work under consideration. The world of the Instrument, and on the selection of notes. As for instance, on owes every acknowledgment to a man who, when critics were disposed to the Oboi, the lowest notes are the strongest, on the Trombone, the depreciate the merit of the master, had not only the discernment to perceive middle ones, and on the Clarionette, the highest, &c., &c. So much this, but the independent zeal for art and the liberality to honour it; and we however, is certain, that Brass Instruments are stronger in sound than must all think the better of Beethoven, that he, as sensitive to kindness as to Reed, and Reed are stronger than stringed instruments. In a String injury, anticipated the world's acknowledgment of the true spirit of this amateur, Orchestra, the majority will therefore be stringed instruments, and in his voluntary dedication of the present work. then more Reed than Brass. A proportion of Four Stringed instru- | Appropriately to the twofold occasion for which it was composed--the celements, against Two Reed, and One Brass, would have the majority of bration of the imperial fête day, and the opening of a new theatre-the Overstringed instruments, and the double number of Reed, against Brass ture is of an essentially jubilant character. However Beethoven may have aimed instruments, as now the G Bass Trombone, would not be selected at the style of Handel in the design of this work, its plan and its details conbefore Horns, Trumpets, Cornets, and Tenor Trombones, in which case tain far more that is individual to himself than of what may be regarded as it would be the tenth or twelfth number of the Brass instruments specially characteristic of his model. A few preludial chords introduce a long selected, the stringed instruments would then number forty or more, continuous melody, the Reed twenty, with Flute, Oboi, Clarionette, and Bassoon parts doubled. In these combined proportions, one G Bass Trombone would
Pet. then be against five Flutes, four or five Obois, and twenty Violins, there may be sometimes a little alteration, so long as the difference of combination, is not too much against the natural rule, (which is, less Brass instruments than Reed, and less Reed than stringed instruments)
of such definitè rhythm, and such broad and emphatic character, that it might the manner of playing, and the right remarks of an efficient Orchestral
well have been adopted for a national hymn, and that it may well be interpreted Director, will reach the evenly Orchestral balance of power, in many
as an outburst of loyalty, the expression equally of gladness in offering a prayer different cases. C. MANDEL, (Professor of Theory.)
for the sovereign, and of confidence that this will be granted. The grandeur
of this well-marked tune is even increased by the massive orchestration with Kneller Hall, October 14th., 1862.
which the whole is given for a second time; it is now followed by a flourish of
trumpets, the greeting as it were of some mighty potentate, whom all that ADELINA PATTI.
heard it where ready to honour; and this is succeeded by a long passage of SIR,— Would you please inform me, through your correspondents,
constantly increasing power, built upon this phrasewhere Malle. Patti was born, also her present age, and whether or not Patti is an assumed name, and oblige yours truly, Manchester, Oct. 15th.
J. F. M. [Perhaps Miss Patti may choose to answer these questions herself.—ED.]
which leads directly to the principal movement. Thus far the Maestoso e
Sostenuto un poco più Vivace--and meno moso—which constitute the introSTANDARD PITCH.
dnction. The Allegro con Brio consists of a very free fugue upon the subSir,– Will you be good enough to give among your notices to
joined somewhat trite, but certainly Handelian, subject and countersubject correspondents, the number of vibrations agreed upon in standard pitch of C, at the meeting held some time ago in London ? If you can add the number of vibrations adopted in Paris you will oblige,
A SUBSCRIBER. [We were not present at the meeting, which, we believe, led to no results! Our columns are open to any one who may be able and willing to forward the information desired by our correspondent.-Ed.]
BEETHOVEN'S OVERTURE in C. Op. 124.
| which are constantly worked together, sometimes the one above and the other October, 1822. Under the engagement to write it, Beethoven spent a day in
below, as in the quotation, sometimes with their relative position inverted
that is, the one forming a double counterpoint to the other. Pursuant to the the preceding summer with Schindler and his adopted nephew Carl, in the
idea that the Overture was to be written (according to the suggestion of the Helenen Thal, a beautiful valley of Baden, a few miles from Vienna. It was ever his wont to court inspiration in the seclusion of a country retreat. Ries
subject) after the style of Handel, there is a single bar of Adagio immediately narrates how he spent an entire day in a wood at Shönbrun, musing over the
preceding the termination of the fugue, according to the frequent practice of the last movement of the great F minor Sonata, walking rapidly a serpentine
old master; but then, quite remote from the habitual conciseness of his model,
Beethoven prolongs this termination into a very extensive Coda, to which-as course among the trees, and humming to himself some one or other phrase incidental of the design, and that he came not forth until the composition was
| is the case in more than one movement of the Mass he wrote at the same
period as the work before us--the effect of remarkable length is given by the completed in his mind; so, on the occasion to which I now refer, he separated himself from his companions, walked alone for some half hour, and when he
very many complete closes that anticipate the final conclusion. rejoined them, had noted down two themes in the sketch-book he constantly
G. A. MACFARREN. car ied. These he showed to Schindler, saying that one might be effectively worked in his own style, the other in that of Handel; and Schindler advised
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAINE.-The harp on which the unfortunate him to choose the latter for the subject of the Overture he was about to pro
| Marie Antoinette received lessons, during her imprisonment, from her duce, pleasing him especially by this suggestion, since, at the time. Beethoven
valet, Fleury, is to be sold. After Fleury's death in Hanover, it esteemed Handel above all composers, and he was accordingly well satisfied to
became the property of a Mad. Fleur, and afterwards of a family have an inducement to emulate his peculiarity of manner. The Overture had
| residing in Wolfen büttel. small success when it was played, but Schindler still took credit to himself for NAPLES. Vincent Fiedo, the last of Paesiello's pupils, died here having been in some degree influential upon its composition, alleging always lately, aged eighty-five. He continued up to the time of his decease, hat its imperfect execution was the cause of its ineffectiveness, and assuring | an active member of the “ College of Music.”
REMARKS ON THE RENDERING OF THE creative fancy, with the conscious employment of musical knowledge,
continually forces upon us, with increasing vividness, the idea of the “SINFONIA EROICA." *
heroic, by means of the principal motives of the first movement, and We fancy we need not commence this article by assuring the readers carries along with it our fancy, because, to the latter for the conception of the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung that, in the following reflections of the purely musically Beautiful, the tendency to the heroic is and remarks upon the rendering of the Sinfonia Eroica, we shall not imparted, by the inscription “ Eroica." Not only, however, does its refer to those dreamy interpretations in which the asthetical expounders object lend this work its purport, but also the musical motives, and of this master-piece think themselves at liberty to indulge. Our their wonderful development. In this, in the development of the opinions of such fantastic flights are sufficiently known, and what leading musical thoughts, there is certainly displayed in Beethoven, Beethoven himself thought of them we have frequently been informed more especially, the characteristic, nay, the dramatic quality of his by A. Schindler, both in many passages of his Biography of Beethoven, style, for he attains the powerful effect of this developement, not by and in this paper, namely in No. 2 of the series for 1856, where the his thematic work, based upon polyphony and counter-point, as is the energetic protest of the composer against such interpretations, and case with Bach, Haydn, and Mozart, but by repetition, variation, against the errors resulting from them, is proved by a letter of 1819.f modulation, contrast, expansion, extension, preparation, and gradual
It may, however, be objected: “That the third symphony has a | elevation of the theme. programme, which Beethoven himself wrote for it; we know, also, But to return to the main question, namely, whether the supposed that it was, at first, his intention to pourtray (!) or, at least, glorify the | idea of the “ Heroic," ought to exercise an influence upon the execuFirst Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte in the symphony. Consequently, tion, this influence can only affect, on the whole, the conception of the this programme must be taken as the basis of the proper reading and first movement (for of this alone are we treating to begin with), that performance of the work.”
is to say, the tempo, and what is generally adapted for characteristic We have already, on various occasions, stated our views with regard rendering, so that what is grand may be rendered in a grand and to the Bonaparte-story, and, among other things, shown that it is spirited, not a little and affected, a sleepy, or sentimental manner. beyond a doubt that Bernadotte requested Beethoven to contribute some But even this is greatly modified by expression of details, otherwise, musical work to the glorification of the hero of the age (because for instance, everything in the first movement, would have to be played Beethoven himself has expressed his feelings on the subject, which he strongly and vigorously, and everything in the Dead March sadly and mentioned, moreover, in the letter with which he transmitted the sorrowfully. Missa Solemnia to the King of Sweden). Bernadotte could have made
(To be continued.) this request only in the year 1798 (see No. 22, page 171, of the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung for 1861), while the Symphony was not composed till 1804, and not played for the first time till January,
HANDEL IN 1718–1728. 1805. To these dates we merely add that, early as the 16th of May,
FOUNDATION OF THE OPERA IN LONDON. 1804, Bonaparte was proclaimed by the Senate Emperor, the throne
(Continued from Page 645.) being declared heriditary, and, on the 181h May, the constitution of A kind of serious opera, with comic passages, had been popular the Empire was published. In the year 1803 (according to Schindler), long before the establishment of the London academy, especially in Beethoven composed “ Christus am Oelberge," three Sonatas with | Vienna: all Handel's Italian operas, written before 1720. belong to violin, Op. 30; three Sonatas, Op. 31; and fifteen Variations, Op. 35.
:30this style. But the taste for this style was nowhere so decided as
this In the year 1804, the Symphony No. II, in D major, and the Pianoforte Concerto in C minor. In January 1805, the first performance,
in England, and a separate development of serious and comic opera soon followed by the second, of the Eroica took place. And yet it is
was generally foreseen. The preference of English amateurs for asserted that the fair copy of the score, with the title page : “ Bona
such operas is easily understood. England had not invented the parte. Luigi van Beethoven ”-and “not a word more," as F. Ries opera, like Italy, or framed its dramatic form, like France, or busied says-was completed as early as the beginning of June, 1804. This herself with its public production, like Germany; she had accepted, may be possible! But the subjoined assertion " that Beethoven had admired, and enjoyed it, when fully prepared, in foreign lands, already thought of handing it to General Bernadotte, to send to and then made arrangements to render the same enjoyment a perNapoleon," is certainly impossible, since Bernadotte had not returned manent one at home. This enjoyment, as one purely musical, to Vienna since 1798.
depended solely on the worth of the composition, and on the proTo our object, the question is a matter of indifference; if Bonaparte
Indifference; if Bonaparte duction of the moment; and we see that in London a value is was in the symphony, he was not removed from it by the fact of the
| placed on composition and the art of singing greater than is to be title-page-or, to use without doubt, a more correct term, the dedication page, being torn out. We have not to pay attention to Ries's
found in other theatres. Even Italy, although she has pursued Bonaparte programme, but to Beethoven's programme: “Composed to
these two objects, composition and song, to a degenerate excess, celebrate the memory (Andenken) of a great man"-the “memory"
never judged opera from the same point of view as dramatic concert (per pestoggi are il souvenire), that is : “ of a hero who was dead,” as is, music, from which point, as unprejudiced enquiry will convince us, plainly proved by the second movement, the dead march. But the progress towards a better operatic form becomes impossible. Even truth is that the anecdote is more acceptable than the original docu- in degeneracy, the Italians have striven for dramatic progress. ment to the programme-musicians of the present day; they would With these views understood, the musical forces of the academy be only too delighted to stain the Eroica, by the inscription “ Bona- were intelligently enough selected. On account of their own parte," as the predecessor of the Symphonies : Faust, Columbus, Dante, l effeminate natures, neither Bononcini or Ariosti were good musical etc. The sole question for us is : “ Can, or must Beethoven's pro
representatives of the musically dramatic and comic elements of gramme influence the rendering of the Symphony ? "
their countrymen; and, contradictory as the assertion may appear, If the idea of the hero was to be set forth by means of music, it would fall into the domains of the Beautiful, because music is an art.
Handel, on account of his great force, was the very one necessary It would not, therefore, be expressed by reflection, but only by the
as the representative of the lyric direction of taste in London, a composer's fancy, within the limits of music, and by means of the
direction that was of so immensely important an influence on his. resources the latter offers for the purpose. Beethoven's fancy conse artistic creative powers. In him the strength and importance of quently created for the principal movement, a theme, a musical motive, this direction were apparent, but in his rivals its weakness only which, in addition to the first thing required of it, namely, that it shall could be perceived. But, in order to understand the distinction be beautiful, possesses a certain characteristic something, which may between the real Italy and Italian London, we will glance at awaken in the hearer, but in no way must necessarily awaken the Scarlatti's operas. The gushing richness of melody, the fullness of notion of heroism. It is, however, the triumph of Beethoven's genius,
forms, mostly of small dimensions, and well and dramatically drawn, that the purely artistic labour of that genius, namely, the union of
the striking character, and natural flow of all his tone pictures,
scarcely appears to have been that, which, in spite of the great • From the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung. 1.unslated for the Musical admiration for this rare and esteemed master, created an absolute World by J. V. Bridgeman.
desire to imitate him. His almost unrivalled comic vein, without + This letter was dictated to Schindler by Beethoven, is the autumn of
which Scarlatti ceases to be himself, and which, even in his latest 1819, at Mödling, near Vienna, and addressed to Dr. Christian Müller, at
operas, remained as fresh as with Keiser, had to be entirely thrown Bremen. We repeat the request made by us, on the occasion in question, to
aside, on account of the limitations of the opera seria. Scarlatti's Sherran Rheinthaler, Pelzer, Schmidt, Engel, etc., of Bremen, for information
operas would have become even more popular than they were in as to what has become of the papers left by Dr. Milller, amongst which there
England, for, in truly excellent composition they very far exceeded must have been several letters from Beethoven, since Müller visited him in all works extant, or that it was in the power of living Italians to Vienna, and they corresponded with each other for a considerable period. | write; but Handel was there to fill Scarlatti's place in such a man