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BLONDE OR BRUNETTE,
TESTIMONIAL TO A MANAGER.-A Testimonial, in the shape of a POPULAR SONGS, &c. FROM THE NEW OPERETTA, handsome Silver Tea and Coffee Service, with Salver, has been lately presented to Mr. Henry B. Webb, Lessee of the Queen's Theatre, Dublin. The following inscription was engraved on the Salver :
WRITTEN BY " Presented to Henry Berry Webb, Esq., Lessee Queen's Royal
J. P. WOOLER, ES Q., Theatre Dublin, from a few of his private and professional friends
TIB MUSIC COMPOSED BY and admirers, as a slight token of their esteem and regard.—27th August, 1862.” Mr. J. J. Cunningham, at the meeting held at
W. M. LUTZ. Jude's Hotel, was in the chair, and in an excellent speech, proposed the toast of the evening, saying, “ It was only necessary to mention
MERRY LITTLE MAUD. Tenor Mr. Webb's name to ensure a cordial response. He had resided among them some years, and had conciliated and won the respect
'TIS GONE! THE HOPE THAT ONCE DID BEAM. Soprano and esteem of all who knew him, and had proved himself a judicious
HURRAH! FOR THE CHASE. Baritone and worthy caterer for the Dublin public, &c." Mr. Grice. | AS I LAY UNDER THE LINDON TREE. Tenor ... ... 2 Honorary Secretary to the Testimonial Committee, then read an
LOVE'S BRIGHTEST DREAM. Soprano ... ... ... 2 address, in a portion of which he commented on “Mr. Webb's THE BELLE OF BALLINGARRY. do. ... urbanity of manner and upright conduct, both in private, as a friend WHICH IS MINE, THE HAND OR FLOWER? Duet. and gentleman, and in business transactions, as a manager.” Mr. Soprano & Tenor ... ... Webb, in expressing his thanks, said that the Testimonial became HOW OFT UNKINDLY THUS WE CHIDE. Baritone ... of superlative value, as being symbolical of the respect entertained | SWEET MAIDEN MINE. Tenor ... ... ... ... 26 for him, and the more so, in view of the sources from which it emanated. He could not forbear to mention, that his brother actors, both here and in England, had united with the gentlemen
THE RING AND THE KEEPER. of the Committee, and had proved by their subscriptions how much they sympathised in that object. Upwards of 200 gentlemen
AN OPERETTA, written by J. P. WOOLER, Esq., had testified their opinion of him, as "a man of energy, industry,
A the Music composed by W. H. MONTGOMERY. and integrity." He was very proud of this endorsement of his
THE DEAR FORGET-ME-NOT. Tenor ... character, and trusted to hand it down to his children, as a most
ANNALIE . ... ... ... do. ... ... ... 2 6 precious heir-loom. In concluding a feeling and admirable speech,
SOMETHING TO LOVE. Soprano. ... ... he expressed his heart-felt gratitude and pleasure.
MY LADY'S PAGE ... do. ...
... ... ... 26 KEEPER, TAKE THIS RUBY RING. Duet
THE JOLLY BEGGARS. WHEN I BADE GOOD-BYE TO PHEBE. The Popular
Song from G. LINLEY's successful Cantata, “ The Jolly
Beggars," in A and C ... ... ... .. ... ... 2 6 THE JOLLY BEGGARS' QUADRILLE, by Coone. Illus
trated in colors ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 PRINLEY RICHARDS.-The DREAM of a WAN. D DERER. Romance for Piano, 2s. 6d.
HATTON'S NEW SONG,
CHILDREN." Words by LONGFELLOW. Sung by Miss
ELODIES OF SCHUBERT.--Transcribed for the MAGGIE LAUDER, Transcribed for Piano, by W.IM
Pianoforte. M VINCENT WALLACE. 33.
No. 1. Die Taüschung TINE FLEUR DE POLOGNE, Mazurka pour Piano,
2. Der Neugierige par W. VINCENT WALLACE. 3s.
3. Die Post
Complete, price 4$.
... ... 40 "O! sweet-flowing streamlet," 28. 6d. “ Bird Song," 2s. 6d. (Poetry of all these by
As performed by M. THALBERG, at his Concerts, with great success. Geo. Linley). "Oh! ye tears" (Poetry by Chas. Mackay), 2s. 6d. “Kathleen aroon" (Poetry by Mrs. Crawford), 2s, 6d. “The dear old songs of home" (Poetry by Mrs. Fenton Aylmer), 2s, 6d. "Farewell, my Fatherland" (Poetry by J. E. Carpenter), 28. 6d. “Wood notes," four-part song, separate parts, 23. “Good morning,"
HALBERG'S SONG"WITHIN THE CONVENT 23. “My heart replies," 28.
GARDEN," with German and English Words.
NEW PIANOFORTE MUSIC BY R. ANDREW8.
Easy Transcriptions of REICHARDT's Popular Songs. " Are they meant but to deceive me?" (Mazurka Polonoise) ... " The Golden Stars " (Die Goldenen Sterne) ... "Good Night" (Cradle Song) “Thou art so near and yet so far" (Cradle Song) ...
London: DUNCAN Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street, W.
PRINLEY RICHARDS' COMPOSITIONS.
D BRINLEY RICHARDS' “ Leopold " (Mazurka) ...
2s. BRINLEY RICHARDS' “ Ethel " (Romance) ...
London : DUNGAN DAVISON & Co., 244 Regent Street, W.
METZLER & CO.
EXTRACT FROM PREFACE. " A great number of Studies for the Pianoforte already exist, solely intended to form the mechanism of the fingers. “In writing a series of short characteristic pieces, I have aimed at a totally different object.
“I wish to habituate both Students and Amateurs to execute a piece with the expression, grace, elegance, or energy required by the peculiar character of the composition ; more particularly have I endeavoured to awaken in them a feeling for Musical Rhythm, and a desire for the most exact and complete interpretation of the Author's intentions.
“ STEPHEN HELLER."
THE EDITION CONSISTS OF FIFTEEN BOOKS, PRICE SIX SHILLINGS EACH. :
R ORCHESTRA.-MEYERBEER'S GRAND
EXHIBITION OVERTURE is now ready, for full orchestra. Price 125
Also AUBER'S GRAND EXHIBITION MARCH, for Orchestra. Price Ts. 6d. NEW COMPOSITIONS
BOOSEY & Sons, Holles Street. AS PERFORMED AT HIS CONCERTS IN LONDON.
CIGNOR GARDONI'S NEW SONG, “ Pourquoi."
Romance. By SIGNOR MURATORI. Sung by SIGNOR GARDONI at the Concerts
of tho Nobility during the present Season, with immense success. Price 28. 6d. THALBERG'S BALLADE,
Boogey & Sons, Holles Street.
CIMS REEVES' NEW SONG, “She may smile on “An exquisite Romance, which no imitator, however ingenious,
many." By HOWARD GLOVER. Sung by Mr. Sius Reeves with unprecedented
success. Encored on every occasion. Price 3s. could have written-as quaint, as fascinating, and at the same time as Thalbergian as anything of the kind that has been produced for years."
Boosky & Sons, Holles Street. - The T'imes.
MOZART'S DON JUAN. 98. Boosey & Sons' THALBERG'S ART OF SINGING,
M Now Edition, complete, for Voice and Pianoforte, with English and Italian
Price 9s. In cloth (400 pages).
This splendid Edition, the best and cheapest over published, of Mozart's great
work, should be in the hands of every professor of music. Also Figaro, s. New Series. Price 3s. each.
Booser & Sons, Holles Street.
TOSEPH GODDARD'S PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC.
Price 78. 6d. (To Subscribers, 6s.)
BOOSEY & Soxs, Holles Street.
DOOSEYS' SHILLING MESSIAH, complete Vocal " An
D Score, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Organ, demy 4to (size of “ Musiwere som
cal Cabinet"). Price 1s.--BoOSEY & Sons have much pleasure in announcing their Cra
new Edition of the "Messiah," printed from a new type, on excellent paper, and in a Operatic Melodies, arranged in M. Thalberg's ornate and elaborate
form cqually adapted for the Pianoforte or the Concert-room. The text revised by manner, invaluable to Pianists who believe that the instrument of their
G. F. İLARRIS, from the celebrated Edition of Dr. Joux CLARK. As a specimen of
cheap music, this book is quite unprecedented, and it is only in anticipation of the he violin itself in the
universal patronage it will command at the approaching Handel Festival the pubdelivery of cantabile passages. The Times.
lishers are able to undertake it. Orders received by all Booksellers and Musicsellers.
Post free, Is. Ad. An odition in cloth boards, gilt, 2s. BOOSEY AND SONS, HOLLES STREET.
Boobry & Soxs, Holles Street.
d to th
Printed by HENDERSON, Rait, and Fenton, at No. 13, Winsley Street, Oxford Street, in the Parish of Marylebone, in the County of Middlesex,
Published by Joux BoosEy, at tho Office of BoosEY & Sons, 28 Holles Street - Saturday, October 4, 1862.
"THE WORTH OF ART APPEARS MOST EMINENT IN Music, SINCE IT REQUIRES NO MATERIAL, NO SUBJECT-MATTER, WHOSE EFFECT
SUBSCRIPTION-Stamped for Postage_20s. PER ANNUM
ST. JAME S'S HALL.
AREENWICH.-MR. HENRY KILLICK
U MORLEY'S ANNUAL CONCERT will take place on Wednesday Evening,
Eleanor Armstrong, Mr. Lewis Thomas, and Mr. Sims Reeves. Instrumentalists:
Herr Joachim, Signor Piatti, and Mr. Lindsay Sloper. Conductors : Messrs. Harold
Thomas and Henry Killick Morley,
Laurel Bank, High Road, Lee, S.E.
TNGLISH OPERA ASSOCIATION (LIMITED). eminent artists in London. The Chorus will consist of the Members of the Vocal V Application for Shares should be made forthwith, Forms and prospectuses, Association and the Royal Academy of Music. Conductor, Mr. JOHN THOMAS | and every information may be obtained at the Company's Om
Regent Street, (Pencerdd Gwalia.) Sofa Stalls, 58. Balcony, 38.; Area, 28.; Admission, ls., at and at all the principal musicsellers in town and country. Austin's Office, 28, Piccadilly, W.
MARTIN CAWOOD, Secretary.
MM. J. & E. VAN DEN BOORN, Pianist and Har- THE CONSERVATIVE LAND SOCIETY. The
1 moniumist, from Belgium, beg to announce that they will give a concert, in I eleventh year. Trustees, Viscount Ranelagu, and J. C. COBBOLD, Esq., M.P.
terest, payable in half-yearly warrants, five per cent. per annum on shares, (with
any profits above that allowance) and four per cent. per annum on
Deposit Accounts-the investors then becoming members of the Society. THE ENGLISH GLEE AND OPERA UNION.
CHARLES LEWIS GRUNEISEX, Secretary.
Offices: No. 33, Norfolk Street, Strand, London, W.C.
ST. MARTIN'S HALL, LONG ACRE.-To be Let
D on Lease or Sold, these very valuable Premises, consisting of Large and small
music halls, admirably adapted for musical, religious, or literary purposes, or for any MR. VIOTTI COOPER will sing BEETHOVEN'S
object requiring large space, together with class-rooms, a good dwelling-house, cellars,
and conveniences. For particulars apply p.p. to Messrs. DANGERFIELD and FRASER, JV "ADELAIDA" at CROYDON, October 13th. Address, care of Messrs.
Solicitors, 26, Craven Street, Charing Cross. DUNCAN DAVEBOX & Co., Foreign Music Warehouse, 244 Regent Street, W.
MUSIC BUSINESS. An Old Established Business to be Ariss HELEN HOGARTH begs to announce to her
I disposed of, conducted by the late Mr. D. ROLLS upwards of forty-five years. M Friends and Pupils that she has returned to town for the season.
Stock consists of 35 Pianofortes (best makers), mostly new, Violins, Violincellos,
Tenors, Brass Instruments, Flutes, Concertinas, Accordions ; and a rare collection of
Beparately, with immediate possession, and the whole of the Stock, etc., taken at &
fair valuation. Apply to Mr. G. F. ROLLS, Professor of Music, 4, University Street. M . "THE SILVER CORD," THIS DAY, and during the onsuing week, in Tottonham Court Road, W.C., or of Mr. J. J. ROLLS, Weymouth, Dorset. tho English and German Courts, at the International Exhibition.
Weymouth, October 11th, 1862.
* This will appear but once previous to a Sale by Auction of the whole stock. MONIOT'S CELEBRATED “SOHOTTISH
DRIZE MEDAL FOR PRATTEN'S PERFECTED I D'AMOUR" will be played by the Band of the Coldstream Guards, under the direction of Mr. Godfrey, at the SOUTH KENSINGTON Musku» CONVERSAZIONE, ON
FLUTES, WITH THE OLD SYSTEM OF FINGERING.-Boogey & Sons
have much pleasure in announcing that these instruments have received the Prizo
upon application to the manufacturers, BOOSEY & Sons, 24, Holles Street, W. TO CONCERT GIVERS IN BRIGHTON AND
1 TOWNS ADJACENT.-MR. H. C. COOPER (Solo Violinist) and MADAME DRIZE MEDAL FOR BOOSEY & SONS' MILITARY TONNELIER (Prima Donna) are in Brighton for the season. Terms for Concerts,
I BAND INSTRUMENTS, CORNETS, &0.-BOOSEY & Sons have much do., either separately or together-may be known on application (by letter) to Mr.
pleasure in announcing that these instruments have received the Prize Medal of tho COOPER, No. 3 Cobden Place, Brighton.
International Exhibition. An Illustrated Catalogue may be obtained upon application
to the manufacturers, BOOSEY & Sons, 24, Holles Street, w. MADAME RUDERSDORF has returned to town.
U All communications respecting engagemonts, &c., to be addressed to H. THE CECILIAN PITCH PIPE (a new invention), for
tone than any other at present in use—the pitch does not vary, whether sounded Piano
Price (any note), 25. 6d. Post-freo.
BOOSEY & CHING, 24 Holles Street, W. * 1 her Friends and Pupils that she has RETURNED to TOWN for the Season. 50, Bedford-square, W.C.
IM by HUMMEL. Price 2s. full size.
BOOSEY & Sons, Holles Street.
ASHDOWN & PARRY (successors to Weseer & Co.)
beg to inform the Profession that they forward Parcels on Sal R. BENEDIOT begs to announce that he will references in town. Returns to be made at Midsummer and Christmas
RETURN to LONDON for the Season the Last Week in October. All Their Catalogues, which contain a great variety of Music calculated coinmunications to be addressed “2, Manchester-square, W."
purposes, may be bad, post-free, on application. Berlin, Sept., 1862. bis
London ; 18 Hanover Square.
MOZART'S JUPITER SYMPHONY for Pianoforte,
New Pianoforte Music.
New Vocal Music.
DREAM DANCE. . For the Pianoforte. By EMANUEL OI TU SAVAIS. Romance. Composée par M. W.
U AGUILAR. 35.
EMORY. . Song. The Poetry by DESMOND Ryas.
The Music by ALEXANDER REICHARDT. 24 “These are three morceaux de salon of the most elegant description. Mr. AGUILAR'S Dream Dance' is a graceful and imaginative movement, which would make a charming accompaniment to a dance of sylphs or fairies in a ballet. Mr. CAST THOU NO TEAR FOR ME? Ballad. The Berger has selected as the themes of his fantasia the two most favourite airs, There's
I Words by M. Degu. The Music by CIRO PINSUTI. 35. truth in woman still,' and A young and artless maiden,' in Mr. Howard Glover's pretty operetta ; working them, by adding a short introduction, and a brilliant coda in
SLEEP AND THE PAST. Canzonet. The Poetry tempo di valsa, into a masterly and animated pianoforte piece, in which the vocal melodies are embellished by a rich and varied accompaniment. Mr. Macfarren's D by HARRIET POWER. The Music by J. P. KNIGHT. 35. Tarantella is of course in the time and measure of this Neapolitan dance, and preserves the rapidity of its breathless whirl. While, however, it is thus conventional TY GENTLE ELODIE. Romanza. The Poetry by in its form, it is new and original in its details. There occurs, in particular, in the
| M Mrs. CRAWFORD. The Music by EDWARD LAND., 38. midst of it, a deliciously soft and flowing melody, played with the left hand, as if on the violoncello or bassoon, with a light and airy accompaniment in the upper part
London : Duncas Davison and Co. which contrasts beautifully with the impetuous current of the rest of the movement." The Press.
“The above are a few of the prettiest vocal pieces that have appeared during the
past publishing season. They are all by well-known and popular composers, o THE AIRS, BALLADS, FANTASIAS, QUADRILLES, whose talents they are agreeable specimens. Balfe's French romance is in his hap
piest vein. Our countryman has successfully contended with the Parisian composers WALTZES, &c. IN THE OPERETTA OF
on their own ground-witness the reception of his fine operas, Les Quatre Fils dyssey
and Le Puits d'Amour, at the Opéra Comique; and in the little song before us he "ONCE TOO OFTEN.". shows how entirely he is at home in the French style. It is tender and passionate,
with that infusion of graceful lightness and gaiety which gives the French poetry and COMPOSED BY HOWARD GLOVER.
music of this class their peculiar charm. Signor Gardoni has sung it in public with Performed with the greatest success at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. delicious effect; but it by no means requires the aid of such a singer to make it
charming. Mr. Alfred Mellon's ballad is worthy of that able and eminent musicisa.
The melody is simple and natural, without being trite or commonplace ; and the 8. d.
whole composition shows that new and striking effects of modulation and harmony " Oh! Glorious Age of Chivalry." Duet. For Soprano and Contralto ... 40
may be produced without setting at defiance (as is too often done) the established " The Solemn Words his Lips have spoken." Grand Air. For Soprano ...
principles and rules of art.-Few vocal pieces of the present time have obtained greater * The Love you've slighted still is true." Ballad. Sung by Mlle. JENNY BAUR 2 6
popularity than Herr Reichardt's song, “ Thou art so dear," not only in English, " Stratagem is Woman's Power." Ballad. Sung by Miss EMMA HEYWOOD... 2 6
but (by means of its German and French versions) all over the Continent. His des "Love is a gentle Thing." Ballad. Sung by Miss Emma HEYWOOD
production, . Memory,' is of a similar character, and bids fair to have a similar sae. “A young and artless Maiden." Romance. Sung by Herr REICHARDT
cess. Mr. Desmond Ryan's verses are elegant, and Reichardt has united them to a " There's Truth in Woman still." Romance. Sung by Herr REICHÁRDT
melody at once pure, simple, and expressive. Signor Pipsuti's ballad, Hast thoa "The Monks were jolly Boys." Ballad. Sung by Herr FORYES ...
no tear for me?' has been recommended to the attention of the public by the pleasing “In my Chateau of Pompernik." Aria Buffa. Sung by Herr FORMES
performance of Mr. Tennant, for whom it was written, and by whom it has been sang
at many of the best concerts of the season. Signor Pinsuti, an Italian, bas produced FANTASIAS, QUADRILLES AND WALTZES.
an air of Italian grace and beauty, while he has entirely avoided the faults into which Brinley Richards' Fantasia, on “Once too Often"
foreign composers so often fall in setting English words to music. The melody pot Emile Berger's Fantasia, on “Once too Often" ...
3 0 'only expresses the sentiment oonveyed by the poetry, but does not present a single “ Fontainbleau Quadrille," by Strauss. (Handsomely Illustrated in Colours) 4 0 misplaced emphasis or accent- most important requisite in vocal music. Mr. "La Belle Blanche Waltz," ditto ...
Knight's canzonet is melodious, flowing, and extremely well fitted for a mezzo-soprano London : Duncan Davison & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.
or contralto voice. There is a flaw in one place which dims the elearness of the harmony. In bar 8, page 2, G flat in the melody is accompanied by E natural in the
bass, creatiog a diminished third (or tenth-an interval very rarely allosed, and MEYERBEER.
not, we think, in the present case. There is much that is masterly in Mr. Land's
romanza, and Mr. Santley, for whom it was composed, has sung it with deservai soeMHE FOLLOWING COMPOSITIONS (Copyrights),
cess. We could have wished it had been a little less elaborate ; that the flow of the
melody had been less disturbed by extraneous modulation ; and that the pianoforte I by this eminent Composer, are published by DUNCAN DAVISON & co.:
accompaniment had been lighter and less loaded with notes. It is & fine song, VOCAL.
nevertheless, and not unworthy of the author's well-merited reputation." -The Press. “ Friendship." (Freundschaft.) Quartet for 2 Tenors and 2 Basses ... ... 40 “ The merry hunters." (Die Lustigen Jägersleut.) Chorus for Tenors and
. NEW AND REVISED EDITION. Basses ... ... .. . ... ... ... . .. ... ... "To thee, dear land, I sing" (à la Patrie), for 2 Tenors, 2 Basses, and Chorus « God save the Queen," 2 Tenors and 2 Basses, with Piano ad lib.
Price 12s. The Lord's Prayer for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, with Organ a " This house to love is holy." Serenade for 8 Voices (without accompaniment) " Aspiration," for Bass, Solo, and Chorus of 3 Sopranos, 2 Tenors, and 1 Bass · Here on the mountain," with Clarinet obbligato
Violin or Violincello in lieu of Clarinet, each
“The great and deserved success of this work has brought it, in no long time, to s London ; DUNCAN DAVISON & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.
second edition, carefully revised, and enriched with a number of additional exercises, Just published, price 38.
which greatly increase its value."—Nlustrated News.
THE VOICE AND SINGING
(The Formation and Cultivation of the Voice for Singing).
MLLE. ADELINA PATTI'S NEW WALTZ,
V "DI GIOJA INSOLITA." Song with distinguished success by Mlle. London: DUNCAN DAVISON & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.
No. 1. "Freyschütz," dedicated to Miss Catherine M. Pfeil.
“Freyschütz," dedicated to Miss Taylor ...
Norma," dedicated to Miss Katherine Greenhill MHE HARP OF WALES. Ballad. Composed by
4. “Norma," dedicated to the pupils of Miss Gilbertson I BRINLEY RICHARDS, sung with such distinguished success at the CARNARYON
5. “Oberon," dedicated to Miss Parkes FESTIVAL, by Mr. Lewis Tuomas, is published, price 3s. by
6. “ Martha," dedicated to Miss Frances Gurney ... Duncan Dariso3 & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.
London: Duncan DAVISON & Co. 244 Regent Street, W.
dramatic? And do we not find the same true of the childlike style of “Rome or death, for my own lov'd Italy!” Composed by
histories which last the longest,-witness the Bible and Herodotus ? MADAME DE VAUCHERAN (Charles Jefferys).
Music, which underlies speech, as character and feeling underlies This spirited effusion is appropriately dedicated to the hero of the opinion,--Music, which is the universal dialect, through which souls Two Sicilies. The words embodying the patriotic aspirations which converse from those inmost intentions which are apt to harmonise ; inspire the bosom of every Italian who loves freedom, and yearns - Music lends itself most readily to this dramatic need ; the play for that " United Italy !" which was the dream of the dead Cavour, of passions and of feelings, in which souls vibrate to or across each as it is of the happilly still living Garibaldi. The melody to which other, sometimes chiming, sometimes jarring, becomes in her more Madame de Vaucheran has wedded them is energetic, stirring, and fluid medium transparent and suggestive, in their worst chaos and to the purpose. It is best suited to a baritone or contralto voice, imbraglio of the harmonic resolution to which all things tend. and just now, if delivered with the requisite point and force, would The Musical Drama, (including originally, vratorio as well as produce a marked effect at certain of our metropolitan concerts.
Opera), grew, like the spoken drama, out of the old Mysteries and
in which the church dramatised the characters and events of Sacred OPERA.
History, or the allegorical personifications of moral and metaphyFROM opera resulted the effort of music to escape the fantastic
sical entities (if not sometimes nonentities), by way of making fetters of science, and the tedium of long monkish training, and to
its dull lessons palatable to the wandering minds of weary listeners. get back to nature. It was her strong and successful protest
Classic and mythological subjects followed sacred, or were mixed against church-cramped forms. By the time that these old, rigid grotesquely up with them. Music must have borne a part in them half-furnished scales, which the church preserved and consecrated
quite early, at least to the extent of here and there a chorus in the these ecclesiastical “tones” or “modes," with their Greek names
course of the performance. But it was only when composers, out“ Dorian,” “Lydian," "authentic," "playul," etc.-had got deve
growing the church ordinances, grew liberal towards secular sponloped into the full modern scale with all the semi-tones and means
taneous melodies, and dared to wander from the beaten path of the of modulation ; by the time that science and invention, working
plain chant, which was the subject-matter of the old music; it was and refining on that slender stock of rude and antique models, the
only when there began to be a mania for reproducing the traditional plain chants, had well nigh exhausted ingenuity in the working up 1.
effect of the Greek drama in the recitative, that Opera developed of those old themes for lack of fresh ones. By that time thought
into that unique and pronounced form which it has since held among had got more free, the human mind and conscience had attained to
the departments of musical Art. their majority, ecclesiastical supremacy in all affairs of life was
These hints afford the key to its entire significance. Opera was questioned; the senses began to be respected, as well as the native | the first leap of the genius of Music, from its cradle in the church, instincts of the human breast, and music got replenished from the where it had been held down till well nigh bedridden and paralysed spontaneous secular melodies in which the full heart found so often for ever, out into the secular air. It was the idealising of the hopes utterance without the aid of science or the confirmation of the and fears, the loves and joys and sorrows, the social sympathies and church. Popular melodies sprang up like wildflowers in the low
excitements, the whole tragedy and comedy of private life, Music places and by-paths of life, in the listless warblings of the shep- sought its own in this natural, spontaneous religion of the human herd's pipe, in the warm love ditties of the Troubadours, in the heart. It became a voice to the good tendency which there is at Tyrolean mountain airs, in the boat songs and the ballads of the the bottom of all our love of excitement and pleasure. It took up the streets of Naples, etc. They were an unwritten music. The despised senses and saved them from wandering away out of all ecclesiastical composer did not recognise them. They modulated hearing of the soul. It refined sensibility into a love of beauty, through many a natural and expressive interval which science ruled and developed in passion the divine restlessness, the prophetic as. out. They accompanied themselves spontaneously in thirds and piration of the soul, which is at the bottom of it; and thus effected sixths, while artificial church harmony, confined to barren fourths in a measure a reconciliation between the higher and the lower and fifths, cast but occasional fond furtive glances at their forbidden tendencies in man, between the sacred and the secular. charms. Towards the opening of the 17th century, these natural Opera makes a purely ideal thing out of a personal history. It melodies attracted the attention of scientific composers, who had does away all the reserve and disguise, all the common-place there taste and feeling. The popular airs, especially the Neapolitan and is in human intercourse ; and satisfies our craving for expression, by the Sicilian, were gathered up and written out and harmonized. showing us men and women moving together in so strong a light And recitative, or singing speech, which had the double charm (1), that they become transparent. Passions, feelings, desires live and of natural expressiveness (the rhythm and melody following more move and interact before us without any screen of dullness or imthe free direction of the sentiment expressed than any law of science), perfect utterance. The rude materials are all fused together in and (2) of being supposed to be the very same glorified and lofty music, which is a perfect medium of communication. The dramatis speech in which the whole of the old Greek drama was recited, personæ of an opera, therefore, are so many personified passions or came into notice about this time, and has been ever since, more emotions, wearing glorified bodies, in place of the awkward, stiff and properly than any other reasoning inside of the music) the dis- homely embodiment of spoken words, the cast-off mantle of the flesh. tinctive feature of opera or dramatic music.
They are the inward history, the present inner lives of so many men Man was born to imitation. The trick of fancying ourselves and women, passing before us instead of their outward forms, which others whom we read or dream of, and of acting their deeds, their would be so cramped and conventional, fixtures of habit, and therelives over in our own persons with an artistic comprehensive brevity, fore impervious to the light. What romance, what tragedy there is the least artifical part of us. It is wearing the mask professedly would be in many a little scene of daily life, could we but remove and playfully, and with a lively alternating catholicity, instead of this evil of custom and appearance! This music does. It lifts the keeping on always the calculating, sober mask of habit which too veil, it banishes the obstructions, it abridges the time, concentrates often constitutes the propria persona. It is a happy, genial, frank the intrest, drops out the extraneous and accidental, compresses the faculty. Children have it to perfection, and they grow worldings as life of days and years into as many moments, giving life the speed they lose it. It is one of the soul's arts self-recovery, like humor. it would have in a less resisting element, and shows us spirits as it It is a way of testing and securing our moral freedom, of getting out were embodied here in time and space, and yet exempt from all their side of the limitations of our own characters, of realising things from limitations. It does away the friction and shows the effect in the the stand-points of many characters, of cultivating the universal, the cause. In an opera, therefore, there are very few words, and a very cosmopolitan side of our nature, of most vividly rehearsing the slight skeleton of a story. When we see the spirits, what they are, maxim: “There is nothing foreign to us which is human, " and of we do not want to know what they will do. They sing themselves to confessing, as we ought, our portion of the responsibility of every us; the story is no more than the stage on which they move, the human action under every set of circumstances. Could we expect canvas on which they project their esential “form and pressure." literature and art, then, to be less dramatic than human life itself Could we know the feelings, the vital springs and tendencies of men, is ; or the creative artist, the poet and composer, to cease to drama- we should learn at once what their words and actions could only tise in humble imitation of the all-wise and loving artist and gradually and by a roundabout way reveal to us. Music is the Creator? Is not the best and most effective part of story-telling i spontaneous language of feeling. Her tones are but the audible