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knowledge, and raised the music above the nervous interpretation of the words, without sacrificing the psychical truth of expression in tho melody. At the same time, he developed the received forms, and created, especially for the so-called concerted pieces, perfectly new ones, distinguished for a scope never before known, and for an amount of work previously unattempted. Such a finale as that in the second act of Lodniska, and that in Les deux Journe'es, was without parallel upon the French operatic stage, and if Spontini subsequently surpassed Cherubini in these grand points, he enjoyed the advantage of Mozart's great example, which he was enabled to follow, while it was impossible, as we have already proved historically, that Cherubini could have known anything about Mozart's chefs-d'auvre, when composing Lodoiska, Medea, Elisa, and Les deux Journeys.
That he afterwards deeply respected and reverenced Mozart is certain. He was the first to introduce that master's Requiem to the notice of the Parisian public (in 1805). "Despite the disinclinations of the Parisians for German music," said German papers of the period, "and, despite the repugnanceof Parisian artists tosuch a difficult performance, Cherubini's zeal and love for this work of Mozart enabled him to get it performed by 200 of the best singers and instrumentalists, and performed, too, in such a manner that, on the very same day, he received a request to repeat it. As a mere musical work, unassisted by any of the brilliant adjuncts of the stage, it had produced a deep impression on the Parisians." Gerber, from whom we take the above, adds, in his new Lexicon der TonkiinsUr (vol. 1, p. 698), that Prince Esterhazy, on leaving Paris in 1810, after having resided there several years, sent Cherubini a ring worth 4000 dollars.
The worthy Gerber makes an interesting confession, by the way, as to how much Cherubini was in advance of his age. After relating, under the heading "Cherubini," the observations of Joseph II. ana Napoleon on the music of Mozart and Cherubini, with respect to the "too many notes," he continues thus:—
"When such could be the opinion of two of the most accomplished dUitlanti (Napoleon, as we all know, had no right to the title) in Vienna and Paris,. what can be the opinion of others in places where art is immeasurably less flourishing and less practised? Unfortunately, I fear that, with the extraordinary progress of instrumental compositions, this would at present be the unanimous opinion of the majority of dilittanti on hearing such music, supposing them capable of saying what they thought with the freedom of a Joseph II. or a Bonaparte. For how is it, how can it be, possible for them, unprepared, to follow the artist in the expression of his multifarious ideas entwined into a whole? Who will choose, and who will be ready, to thank him for the great but unappreciated art he has employed? We feel inclined to exclaim to composers: 'Even though ye should turn again and become as children, ye will not,' <Src.—It is the same over-tension, the same relation which the new-faBhioned theology and philosophy of the professors in our academies bear to the ideas and powers of comprehension of the rest of the world!"
And yet the same man says of Beethoven (1810):—
"How desirable is it that the health and life of this extraordinary artist should be spared, in order that we may be enabled to gain from his great and lofty genius still much more that is rare, admirable, and tending to perfect art itself. It is a pity that, in most of his works, his genius inclines to seriousness and melancholy; sentiments, on account of the misfortunes of the period, only too predominant in his German fellows! Happily, the encouraging and joyous spirit of Haydn still exists among us in his works, and by their means we may still be enabled to recover a more happy frame of mind."
Now, Cherubini was also acquainted with Haydn's symphonies, which he appreciated most highly. According to a statement of Keichardt, in the Briefs art* Paris, these symphonies were the cause of the greater breadth and depth of Cherubini's style. Cherubini proved how great was the veneration he entertained for Haydn by the answer he gave his friends when they urged him to dedicate the score of Les deux Journe'es to the old composer: "No; as yet I have written nothing worthy of such a master." No one will now reproach him, as the critics of the time reproached him, with his music being too learned; on the contrary, it must be admitted that his most recondite polyphonies and contrapuntal combinations are invariably clear and transparent. That the French could not appreciate his style of melody, and that his tunes, with a few exceptions, among which is the first romance of the water-carrier in Les deux Journe'es, never became popular, was really no fault of his
The melody with him is not only beautiful and noble, but appears in new forms. Fetis himself, whom no one, certainly, will accuse of injustice to the French, says:— *
"There is a copiousness of melody in Cherubini, especially in Les deux Journict, but the richness of the accompanying harmony, the brilliant colouring of the instrumentation, and the inability of the public of the period to appreciate the combination of such beauties, were so great, that the real worth of the melody was not at all understood; thus, it was lost sight of beneath all those things for which the French possessed no intelligence. Their critics and biographers, who do not know what they are saying, accuse Cherubini's melodies of want of originality, while originality is precisely one of their most marked characteristics, since, with all their charm, they are perfectly new and unusual in form. There would be more justice in accusing him of not having always been guided by a perception of what was requisite for the stage. His first idea is almost invariably a happy one, but his partiality to give his notions greater breadth, by working them out, often causes him to forget the exigencies of the dramatic action; the outline becomes too extended as he is writing; he is too much taken up and carried away by musical considerations, and the consequence is that the situation sometimes suffers. Too elaborate development injures the ihimated progress of the action."
As is well known, the musical epoch of the nineteenth century began in the last ten years of the eighteenth. First and foremost, Mozart, then Haydn, in his last twelve symphonies and the Creation, Winter, and, among the Italians, Piuini, Salieri, Cimarosa and Paesiello, contributed their most valuable treasures, while Cherubini, in his Lodoiska and Medea, and Beethoven in his earlier works, came forward as the representatives of the new period. The abovenamed Italians, to whom were added, after 1800, Simon Mayr, Paer, etc., rifled the inheritance left by Mozart, but they were deficient in the sacred fire bestowed from above. Even the patronage of the mighty ones of this world, especially of Napoleon, and the petty courts of Germany, could not save them from perishing. Oulibiacheff describes most correctly, in the introduction to his last work, the two overpowering circumstances which, in the first few years of the present century, proved the ruin of Italian music:—
"In the first place, Mozart's operas, at the commencement little understood in Germany, and as good as unknown in the rest of Europo, began, with the new century, to become national works among the Germans; while they were spreading in Russia, France, and other countries, there was light in the world of music. The man of all times, of all places, of all nations, became also the man of the day, the fashionable composer—an honour which did not fall to his lot till some fifteen years after his death, and which he was not destined to enjoy long. We can easily understand how much this popularity of Mozart, after his decease, must have thrown the Italian masters of the transition period into the background. But there was another rival element still more terrible and destructive to them, namely, the contemporaneous rise of the true dramatic music of the nineteenth century, the musio founded by the great masters of the French school—Cherubini, Mehul, and Spontini. What could composers who continued to work according to a worn-out system do against such works as Lodoiska, Let deux Journies, Faniska, Joseph, and Die Vestalin, which Europe received with enthusiasm, and in which it instantly recognised itself? Even France, which gave the first impulse to the nascent century, was naturally the first to find in music expressions and forms for the stonn-loaded lime it had produced. Musicjmirrors tho Btate of men's'souls, just as literature reflects a people's mind. If, on the one hand, Gluck's calm and plastic grandeur, and, on the other, the tender and voluptuous charm of tho melodies of Pinini and Zucchini had suited the circumstances of a state of society nourished with classical exhibitions, and sunk in luxury and gallantry, nothing of all this could satisfy a society shaken to the very foundations of its faith and its organization. The whole of the dramatic music of the eighteenth century must naturally have appeared cold and languid to men whose minds were so moved with troubles and wars, and even at the present day, the word ' languor' will, perhaps, best express generally that which no longer touches us in the operas ot the last century, without quite excepting even Mozart himself. What we require for the pictures of dramatic music is larger frames, including more figures, more passionate and more moving song, more sharply marked rythms, greater fulness in the vocal masses, and more sonorous brilliancy in the instrumentation. All these qualities are to be found in Lodoiska and Les deux Journe'es, and Cherubini may be regarded not only as the founder of modern French opera, but also as that musician who, after Mozart, has exerted the greatest influence on the general tendency of art. An Italian by birth, and the excellence of his education, which was conducted by Sarti, the great teacher of composition, a German by his musical sympathies, as well as the variety and
Published this day.
A NEW EDITION OF THE PIANOFORTE
Thoroughly Revised and partly Ee-written.
EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.
"A great number of Studies for the Pianoforte already exist, solely intended to form the mechanism of the fingers. "In writing a series of short characteristic pieces, I have aimed at a totally different object.
"I wish to habituate both Students and Amateurs to execute a piece with the expression, grace, elegance, or energy required by the peculiar character of the composition; more particularly have I endeavoured to awaken in them a feeling for Musical Rhythm, and a desire for the most exact and complete interpretation of the Author's intentions
THE EDITION CONSISTS OF FIFTEEN BOOKS, PBICE SIX SHILLINGS EACH.
ASHDOWN AND PAERY,*18 HANOVER SQUARE.
AS PERFORMED AT HIS CONCERTS IN LONDON.
AN ORIGINAL COMPOSITION FOR* THE PIANO.
Price is. - .: . J ■'
"An exquisite Romance, which no imitator, however ingenious, could have written—as quaint, as fascinating, and at the same time as Thalbergian as anything of the kind that has been produced for years." —The Timet.
THALBERG'S ART OF SINGING,
APPLIED TO THE PIANO.
14. Duet from " Zauberflote."
15. Barcarole from " Gianni di Calais."
1G. "La ci darem," and trio, "Don Juan."
"Among the hitherto unknown compositions were some selections from the 'Art of Singing applied to the Piano,' 'Transcriptions' of Operatic Melodies, arranged in M. Thalberg'u ornate and elaborate manner, invaluable to Pianists who believe that the instrument of their choice can, under skilful management, emulate the violin itself in the delivery of cantabile passages.— The Times.
BOOSEY AND SONS, HOLLES STREET.
JOSEPH GODDARD'S PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC.
J Price 7s. 6d. (To Subscribers, 6s.)
Boosby St Soss, Holmes Street.
BOOSEYS' SHILLING MESSIAH, complete Vocal Score, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Organ, demy 4to (size of " Musical Cabinet"). Price Is.—Boosky & Sons have much pleasure in announcing their new Edition of the "Messiah," printed from a new type, on excellent paper, and in a form equally adapted for the Pianoforte or the Concert-room. The text revised by G. F. Harris, from tho celebrated Edition of Dr. John Clark. As a specimen of cheap music, this book is quite unprecedented, and it is only in anticipation of (ho universal patronage it will command at the approaching Handel Festival the publishers are able to undertake it. Orders received by all Booksellers and Musicseliors. Post free, is. 4d. An edition in cloth boards, gilt, 3s.
kBoo«fiT & Sox*, Halle* Street.
CHAPPELL'S, 50 NEW BOND ST.
ALEXANDRE AND SON
Have taken out a new Patent for the Drawing-Room Harmonium, which effects the greatest improvement they have ever made in the Instrument. The Drawing-Boom Models will be found of a softer, purer, and in all respects more agreeable tone than any other instruments. They have the perfect and easy means of producing a diminuendo or crescendo on any one note or more; the bass can be perfectly subdued, without even the use of the Expression Stop, the great difficulty in other Harmoniums. To each of the New Models on additional blower is attached at the back, so that the wind can be supplied by a second person, and still under the new Patent the performer can play with perfect expression.
THE NEW CHURCH HARMONIUM,
WITH TWO ROWS OF KEYS.
These Instruments are a perfect substitute for the Organ; the upper keyboard has a Venetian Swell, and acts as a Soft or Choir Organ, on which a perfect diminuendo and crescendo can be produced; and the lower keyboard answers the purpose of B Full Organ. The tone of these Instruments more closely resembles that of an Organ than any Harmonium yet produced, being rich and pure in quality. The construction is of a simple character, and not likely to be affected by damp, rendering them peculiarly suited to Churches. An additional blower is attached to each Instrument.
1. Eight Stops (three and a-half rows of vibrators), Rosewood Case ... 45
2. Twenty-two Stops (six rows of vibrators), Rosewood Case 70
3. Twenty-two Stops (eight rows of vibrators), Rosewood Case, 2$
Octaves of Pedals 85
THE DRAWING-ROOM MODEL
IS MADE IN THREE VARIETIES I
1. Three Stops, Percussion Action, additional Blower, and in Rosewood
2. Eight Stops ditto ditto ditto 25
3. Sixteen Stops ditto ditto Voix Celeste, &c.
(the best Harmonium that can be made) 60
Messrs. Chappeix have an enormous Stock of the
FIVE-GUINEA AND SIX-GUINEA HARMONIUMS,
COMPASS, FOUR OCTAVES;
NEW FIVE-OCTAVE HARMONIUM AT SEVEN GUINEAS:
And of all varieties of the ordinary kind, which are perfect for the Church, School, Hall, or Concert Room:
1. One Stop, Oak Case 10
2. Ditto, Mahogany Case 12
3. Three Stops, Oak, 16 guineas;
4. Five Stops (two rows of vibrators),
Oak, 22 guineas ; Rosewood ... 23 6. Eight Stops (ditto), Oak, 26
truincas; Rosewood 36
6. Twelve Steps (four rows of vibrators), Oak or Rosewood Case ... 36
7. One 81
Oak Case, 16 guineas;
8. Three Stops (ditto). Rosewood
9. Eight Stops (ditto), Oak or Ro
10. Twelve Stops (ditto), oak ... 40
11. ditto (ditto), Rosewood 45
12. Patent Model (ditto), Oak or
Testimonials from Professors of Music of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the Organists of St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey, the Professor of the Harmonium at the Royal Academy of Music, &c, &c, together with full descriptive Lists (Illustrated), may be procured on application to
CHAPPELL & CO., 49 & 50 NEW BOND STREET.
SUBSCRIPTION-Stamped for Postage-20s. PER ANNUM Payable in advance by Cash or Post-Office Order to BOOBEY & SONS, 28, Holmes Street, Cavendish Sq. London, W.
QONGS OF SCOTLAND.—Hanover Square Rooms.—
o THURSDAY NEXT, October 9-- Mr. Kxxxkdt, by Desire, will repeat his ENTERTAINMENT on the SONGS OF SCOTLAND, on Thohsdat Evening, to Commence at Eight o'clock. For the Fourth and last time. Pianoforte, Mr. Land. The Programme will comprise the most successful pieces in his repertoire, including Recitations from Burns' " Tara O' Shanter," and Allan Ramsay's 41 Gentle Shepherd. Stalls, O. ; Family Tickets, for Four Persons, 12s. Area, M. ; Back Seats, Is. Tickets at Mitchell's, Old Bond Street; all the Principal Music Sellers, and at the Rooms.
T. JAMES'S HALL.—Welsh National Melodies,
with Band of twenty Harps, and Choir of 400 voices. Conductor, Mr. John Thomas (Penccrdd Owalia). Mr. William Locktkr, Secretary to the Vocal Association, begs to announce that he will give a PERFORMANCE OF THE WELSH NATIONAL MELODIES on the most perfect scale possible, and solicits an early application for Tickets. Sofa Stalls, 6s.; Balcony, a, ; Body of the Hall, 2s.; Admission, M., at Austin's Office, 28, Piccadilly, W.
Ml mwiiumtst, from Belgium, beg to announce that they will give a concert, in s's Rooms, on Monday Evening, October 13th ; to commence at half-past seven o'clock. Artists, Miss Banks, Vocalist; Herr LIdel, VioUncelllstl Conductor, Flerr A. Rica. Tickets, 7s. each. Family Tickets, to admit four, One Guinea; to be obtained at the principal Music Warehouses, and at the Rooms.
fM. J. & E. VAN DEN BOORN, Pianist and Har
rpo CONCERT GIVERS IN BRIGHTON AND
J ITOWNS ADJACENT.—MR. H. CtCOOPER (Solo Violinist) and MADAME TONNF.LIER (Prima Donna) are In Brighton for the season. Terms for Concerts, Ac,—either separately or together—may be known on application (by letter) to Mr. Cooper, No. 3 Cobden Place, Brighton.
MADAME RUDERSDORF has returned to town' All communications respecting engagements, Ac, to be addressed to H Ctt, Esq., at Messrs. Di'xcix Dxvuos and Co.'s Foreign Music Warehouse 344 Regent Street, W.
MRS. J. HOLMAN ANDREWS begs to announce to her Friends and Pupils that she has RETURNED to TOWN for the Season. *0, Bedford-square, W.C.
MR. BENEDICT begs to announce that he will
MUSICAL PRACTICE WANTED,-- A LADY, a
ORGANIST.—Wanted, a Situation for a BLIND FEMALE, aged about 23, of excellent character. She is a good Pianist and Organist. Letters to be addressed to Mr. F. Plaw, Vestry Hall, Fancras-road, N.W
TO ORGANIST'S AND PROFESSORS OF MUSIC. A young man of respectability and good education, possessing musical taste and knowledge, age 25, desires to article himself to a professional man, in whose employing the
ment he would have an opportunity of learning and practising teach the elements of music and composition, ami the cornet.
i organ, lie can
Address "Sigma," care of.Mr, Ofg, Baker, Post-office, Nurtlv Place, Gray's Inn Road, London, W.C. f
QT. MARTIN'S HALL, LONG ACRE.—To be Let
O on Lease or Sold, these very valuable Premises, consisting of Large and small music halls, admirably adapted for musical, religious, or litorary purposes, or fur any object requiring large space, together with class-rooms, a good dwelling-house, cellars, and conveniences. For particulars apply p.p. to Messrs. Dam,uu nan aud Fuisfcit, Solicitors, 26, Craven Street, Charing Cross.
PRIZE MEDAL FOR PRATTEN'S PERFECTED FLUTES, WITH THE OLD SYSTEM OF FINGERING.—Booser & Sons have much pleasure in announcing that these Instruments hare received the Prizo Medal of the International Exhibition. An Illustrated Catalogue may be obtained upon application to the manufacturers, Boosst & Sons, 24, Holmes Street, W.
PRIZE MEDAL FOR BOOSEY & SONS' MILITARY BAND INSTRUMENTS, CORNETS, Ac—Booskt A Son have much pleasure in announcing that these instruments have received the Prize Medal of tho International Exhibition. An Illustrated Catalogue may beobtained upon application to the manufacturers, Boosar A Boss, 24, Holmes Street, W.
ASHDOWN & PARRY (successors to Wessel & Co.) beg to Inform the Profession that they forward Parcels on Sale upon receipt of references in town. Returns to be made at Midsummer and Christmas.
Their Catalogues, which contain a great variety of Music calculated for teaching purpose .may be had, post-free, on application.
London: 18 Hanover Square.
rpHE CECILIAN PITCH PIPE (a new invention), for
J the waistcoat pocket, is superior to all others, being much more powerful in tone than any other at present in use—the pitch does not vary, whether sound ed Piano or Forte—Is easily repaired, or the pitch altered if required. Price (any note), 2s. 6d. Post-free.
Boosar & Cuing, 24 Holmes Street, W.