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LES ECHOS DES FORETS
(FOREST ECHOES). POLKA, Composed by A. RIEDEL, Bandmaster of the I Gendarmerie of the Imperial Guard, played by the Band of the Gendarmerie at
Just Published. “ T H E CA P T I VIT Y."
A SACRED ORATORIO,
BY FRANCIS HOWELL, FIRST PERFORMED AT BIRMINGHAM, MARCH 13, 1862.
Now ready, for the Pianoforte.
the Horticultural Gardeos, and always encored. Price 3s.
THE NEW OPERETTA, BLONDE OR BRUNETTE
J. P. WOOLER, ES Q.,
THE MUSIC COMPOSED BY
ACT I. 1. Overture. 2. Duet. “Sir! my sister's reputation." Tenor and Barytone ... 3. Song. "Merry little Maud." Tenor 4. Duet. “ See your lover at your feet." Sopranos ... 5. Duet. “Is that what all lovers say?" Soprano and Tenor 6. Trio. "Whoe'er would trust." Sopranos and Bary:one 7. Song. "'Tis gone! the Hope that once did beam." Soprano 8. Song. "Hurrah ! for the Chase." Barytone 9. Finale. “ Farewell, for ever."
ACT II. 10. Serenade. "As I lay under the Linden Tree." Tenor 11. Ballad. “Love's brightest dream." Soprano ... 12. Quartet. “Ah! I fear he sees resemblance." Soprano, Tenor, and Barytones 4 0 13. Song. “The Belle of Ballingarry." Soprano ...
. Duet. " Which is mine, the hand or flower ?" Soprano and Tenor 13. Song. “How oft unkindly thus we chide." Barytone ... 16. Trio. "Hold ! you wish to fight, I see.” Soprano, Tenor, and Barytone ... 3 17. Ballad. “Sweet Maiden, mine!” Tenor ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 18. Finale. "Mine, at last."
Pianoforie and other Arrangements in the Press.
2.- In the third year ... ... ... Recit - Contralto.
Recit. Acct.-Contralto. 4.-Judah is gone into captivity
Chorus 5.- In the second year ... ...
Recit.-Bass. 6.- There is not a man ... ...
Chorus. 7.-Then Daniel spake and said
things ... ... ... ... Chorus. 12.-Nebuchadnezzar the King made an
image ... ... ... ... Recit.- Soprano.
Recit. - Tenor.
Air.- Contralto. 30.-Then Daniel answered and said ... Recit. Acct.— Tenor. 31.–March of the Medes and Persians ... 32.- In that night
Recit. - Bass. 33.-How art thou fallen ... Quartet.-S. C. T. B. 34.- The Lord hath broken
Chorus. 35.--My mouth shall speak
Air.— Tenor. 40.--To whom Thou hast spoken
Chorus. 41.-Behold, the days come
METZLER & CO.
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In the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London. Published by JOHN BOOSRY, at the Office of Booney & Sons, 28 Holles Street Saturday, August 2, 1862.
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UEEN'S CONCERT ROOMS, HANOVER
SQUARE—Mr. LEONARD WALKER has the honour to announce that his FIRST CONCERT will take place at the above Rooms on Monday evening, August 11th, to commence at Eight o'clock precisely.
Vocalists: Mile. Florbncb Lancia, Mad. Gordon, 'Miss Alice Dodd, Mile. Giorgi, the Misses Hiles. Mile. Montebella, Miss Lamartinr; Mr. Wilbye Cooper, Mr. Swipt, Mr. George Perren, Mr. Charles Fabian, Slgnor Ciabatta, and Mr. Leonard Walker.
Instrumentalists: Pianoforte—Herr Emilb Bergbr and Master Fox; Harp—Herr Obertaur; Flute—Mr. B. Well*.
Conductors: Mr. Aguilar and Herr Euilb Berger. Stalls, 7s.; reserved seats, 5s.; unreserved seats, 2s. 6d. Tickets to be had at the principal Musicsellers'; at the Hanover Square Rooms; and of Mr. Leonard Walker, 5 Newman Street, Oxford Street.
ASHDOWN & PARRY (successors to Wessel & Co.) beg to inform the Profession that they forward Parcels on Sale upon receipt of references in town, Returns to be made at Midsummer and Christmas.
Their Catalogue*, which contain a grout variety of Music calculated for teaching purposes, may be had, post-free, on application.
London : 16 Hanover Square.
T>LUMENTHAL'S "DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE,"
1 * transcribed for Piano and played with such distinguished success by the composer at his Coticert at the Marchioness of Downshire's residence, Belgrave Square, is published, price 3s., by Duncan Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street,\V.; where the tong (sung by Mad. Sainton-dolby) may also be obtained, price 3s.
(A. D. 1834), 35
King Street, Cheapside, K.C.. London,
On January 1, 1862, Capital, from Premiums alone £403 105
Chabi.es iNOiUA, Actuary.
AS PERFORMED AT HI9 CONCERTS IN LONDON.
AN ORIGINAL COMPOSITION FOR THE PIANO.
"An exquisite Romance, which no imitator, however ingenious, could have written—as quaint, as fascinating, and at the same time as Thalbergian as anything of the kind that has been produced for years."
THALBERG'S ART OF SINGING,
APPLIED TO THE PIANO.
New Series. Price 3s. each.
No. 13.—Serenade from " II Barbicre."
14. —Duet from " Zauberflbtc."
15. —Barcarole from " Giani di Calais."
16. —" La ci darem " and trio, " Don Juan."
17. —Serenade by Grctry.
18. —Romance from "Otcllo."
"Among the hitherto unknown compositions were some selections from the 'Art of Singing applied to the Piano,'' Transcriptions' of Operatic Melodies, arranged in M. Thalberg's ornate and elaborate manner, invaluable to Pianists who believe that the instrument of their choice can, under skilful management, emulate the violin itself in the delivery of cantabile passages."—The Times.
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FOR ORCHESTR A.—Meyerbeer's GRAND EXHIBITION OVERTURE is now ready, for full orchestra. Price I2i. Also Auber's GRAND EXHIBITION MARCH, for orchestra. Price 7s. 6d. Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.
SIGNOR GARDONI'S NEW SONG, « Pourquoi."
SIMS REEVES' NEW SONG, "She may smile on many." Br Howard Glover. Sung by Mr. Sims Reeves with i success. Encored ou every occasion.
Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.
MOZART'S DON JUAN. 9s. Booset & Sons' New Edition, complete, for Voice and Pianoforte, with English and Italian words. The whole of the Recitatives and Notes of the Author's Instrumentation. Price 9s. In cloth (400 pages).
This splendid Edition, the best and cheapest ever publt-hed, of Moxart's great work, should be in the hands of every professor of music. Also Figaro, 9s. Zauberfiote, 5s.
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JOSEPH GODDARD'S PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC.
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BOOSEYS' -SHILLING MESSIAH, complete Vocal Score, with Accompaniment of Pianoforte cr Organ, demr 4lo (site of ** Musical Cabinet"). Price Is.— Boosry & Sosb have much pleasure in announcing their new Edition of the "Messiah," printed from a new type, on excellent paper, and in a form equally adapted for the Pianoforte or the Concert-room. The text revised by G. F. Harris, from the celebrated Edition of Dr. John Clark. Asa specimen of cheap music, this book is quite unprecedented, and It Ik only in anticipation of the universal i atro.tags it will command at the approacl.i hg Handel Festival the publishers are ;ibie to undertake It. Orders received by all Booksellers aud Musicsellers, Post free, Is, 4d. An edition in doth boards, gilt, 2s, Boosey & Sons, Holies Street.
AMERICAN PIANOFORTES. Not one of the least anomalous things in the present state of affairs on the other side of the Atlantic is, that whilst Birmingham was manufacturing arms to send to America, New York should be making pianos to send to London. The reverse would have been the more natural order of things, seeing that Europe is at the present time in the attitude of a peacemaker, whilst America unhappily is in that of a belligerent. Nevertheless it is pleasant to know that Americans are not all wedded to the dread Bellona, and that amid the fruitless strife between North and South the peaceful arts still flourish, and the meek-eyed Cecilia holds her own. It is indeed singularly striking how peaceful are all the products in the American Department of the Great Exhibition, and how the emblems of kindly plenty still prevail there. The husbandman finds ingenious tools for wooing the stubborn earth; the handicraftsman a variety of labour-saving machines for bringing useful manufactures to the million; the artist, paintings and sculpture; the musician, musical instruments. Only the warrior is left unrepresented.
The International Exhibition is so rich in musical instruments from all parts of the Globe, that in ordinary times it would not excite surprise that our cousins from the other side of the Atlantic had availed themselves of a good opportunity to show the Old World that they too can do something in the way of making them, especially as regards the pianoforte. A few travelled artists, and one or two manufacturers, were at least aware that excellent pianos were made in the States, and that exportation from Europe had virtually ceased. The more enthusiastic of the artists who long since had visited America did not hesitate to claim for the pianos made there a high perfection of tone and workmanship, but the sceptical hesitated to believe that the trade had progressed so far as it really has. We are now able to judge for ourselves. Messrs. Steinway & Sons, of New York, exhibit four pianos in the American department. They are so excellent that the jury has awarded a prize to and an encomium on the fortunate makers. When we find that they are thus officially ranked with the best instruments in the building, we may readily conclude that they combine all the best known points of the manufacture, and perhaps introduce some novelties. The instruments are handsome in exterior, displaying taste and richness of carving without any overwrought striving for splendour, or special predilection for mere cabinet work. Musically they are of the fullest compass, and speak with real grandeur of tone,—a square or horizontal piano made by this house having the power of an average grand, and withal a quality of sound which will bear favourable comparison with that of any country. In America the square piano takes the place of the upright piano here. It is the instrument of the home circle. To this circumstance may be ascribed the marked improvements which have been made in its manufacture—improvements which we may here add have been extended also to grand pianos. The manufacturers claim the following peculiarities in the building of their instruments:—
1. A norol distribution of the sounding i board, of the bridges, and of the strings; 'Jndly, A new construction of the iron frame j and 3rdly, The adoption of a double repeating mechanism, which imparts to the touch greater ease, elasticity, and promptness.
The opinion has widely obtained latterly that the square or horizontal piano could not be perfected to the same extent as the grand, as, indeed, the fruitless efforts in that direction would seem to demonstrate. The attempt to
obtain more power and volume of tone by stretching the lower-toned wires over the shorter or higher-toned ones (called overstringing), in order to gain more room and sounding board surface, proved only partially successful, in consequence of the inequalities in the scale which resulted from that plan. The makers who were most enthusiastic for the theory abandoned it at length as impracticable ; but Messrs. Steinway & Sons seem to have extended their experiments to a successful issue. By the invention of an ingenious acoustical instrument, they were enabled to ascertain the exact vibrations of the sounding board, and to place the bridges — two or more, as the case might require — on exactly the spots that would least interfere with the same. The result was a great increase of tone, and unusual equality throughout the scale. This principle they have applied to all kinds of pianos, with the most satisfactory results.
Being enabled, then, to allot to each individual string a larger share of sounding board, and to bring it into closer harmony with the workings of the same, their next efforts were directed to the quality of the tone produced. To combine the mellowness of wood-constructed pianos with the strength and brilliancy of those in which iron constituted a principle feature, was obviously the desideratum. The pianos exhibited at South Kensington, described by the Jury as "powerful, clear, and brilliant," demonstrate the gratifying, and in many respects surprising, success which has attended this effort. The iron frame used by Messrs. Steinway & Sons is a single casting, contrived — for horizontal pianos — in such a way that the heretofore unavoidable intersections of the sounding-board bridges are entirely done away. This important modification secures at once an even and uninterrupted scale. In consequence, too, of the pressure of the iron frame upon and against the tuning-block — thus welding, as it were, the two substances into one solid whole — they have obviated the transverse vibrations, and avoided those dull thumping by-tones which are so offensive to the sensitive ear. The iron frames of the grand pianos are upon the same principle, being distinguished only by the shape of the iron bars, which form a triangle pressing with the broad end against the tuningblock, — a construction which gives strength, and assists materially in keeping the instrument in tune.
The advantage of Messrs. Steinways' double repetition .action over that heretofore in use seems to consist in its independence of the "jack" and "nut," thereby permitting a free and unrestrained movement. Experience has shown that all appendages to either the "jack," the "nut," or the "hammer," ultimately and inevitably result in a rattling kind of noise, and an injury to the tone, whereas this mechanism insures ease, elasticity, promptness, and force of touch.
These fine instruments have attracted the attention they merit, and have been purchased by Messrs. Cramer, Beale & Wood, who, we learn, have become the English agents for Messrs. Steinway & Sons.
Boston (massachusetts).—The Mendelssohn Quintette Club are setting out upon a summer tour, dispensing Art and courting Nature, through the free mountain regions of New Hampshire and Vermont. On their way they will furnish the music for the commencement exercises at Burlington and Middlebury Colleges,— music worthy of such "classic shades." They mean also to give concerts in various places, especially at the favourite resorts in and about the White Mountains. Truly the visitors to North Conway and the Glen House and 1'ranconia have good things in store for them. How Beethoven will sound under the solemn shadow of the mountains 1— Dwight't Journal.
Maria Luigi (Carlo Zenobio Salvadore) Cherubini was born at Florence, on September 8, 1760. This date has been generally accepted as the correct one, on the strength of the notice with which the great master himself furnished Choron, author of the Dictionnaire historique des Mu siciens, in the year 1809. On the other hand, in the autograph list of his compositions which was published, from his papers, at Paris, in 1843, by Bottce de Toulmon, Cherubini names September 14 as the day of his birth. In the same year, 1760, Prince Esterhazy appointed Haydn, then twenty-eight, his Capellmcister. Three years later, Mozart, a boy of seven, excited the wonder of the Parisians; while Beethoven first beheld the light of day ten years after the subject of this memoir, f
Cherubini's father, Bartolomeo, was a musician. He gave lessons in Florence, and was maestro al cembalo (pianoforte acconipanyist) at the Pergola. The sou received musical instruction when only in his sixth year. At nine, he learned harmony and thorough-bass from the Felicis, father and son, and continued his studies in composition, as well as in singing, under Pietro Bizarri and Joseph Castrucci. His extraordinary talent for composition quickly developed itself. When only in his fourteenth year, he wrote a mass (the first in his list), and an intermezzo for a private theatre. These works were speedily followed by two masses for four voices with orchestra; and, before he had attained his seventeenth year, by two "Dixits," several " Lamentations," a " Miserere," a "Te Deum," an oratorio (performed in St. Peter's church, Florence), a motet, a second intermezzo, a grand cantata, and several operas.
Despite the seductions of incipient reputation and wondering applause, young Cherubini felt the necessity of continued and deeper musical study in order to enable him to attain the high eminence towards which his genius irresistibly impelled him. He yearned to work under a great master; and the admiration of Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tuscany, and eventually Emperor, furnished him with the means. In the year 1777, having been granted an annual allowance by the Grand Duke, he proceeded to Bologna, and placed himself under the superintendence of the eminent Sarti. When Sarti, in 1779, went to the cathedral at Milan, as successor to Fioroni, Cherubini followed him; so that he enjoyed the instruction of that admirable teacher for nearly four years. This instruction, after the manner of the Italian masters of the period, was of a far more practical than systematically theoretical nature. Working and writing in imitation of great models formed its principal feature. In this way all the necessary rules of art were learned and exemplified, under the nnccasing supervision; of the teacher, who, however, rarely gave any other reasons for his corrections than the authority of the school. Consequently in the list of Cherubini's works during this period we find, for the most part, only antiphonies, or choral songs for four, five, and six voices, after the fashion of the old composers of the Romish Church. These student-works constitute the result of his exertions up to his twentieth year. Thus he laboured eleven years in educating himself to become a thorough musician— an example of perseverance and serious resolve, which, of a truth, forms a striking contrast to the rapidity which marks the education of many modern composers. We must not, however, forget that custom, and the mode of teaching adopted by the' composers of that age, had something to do with these long years of study. A rational systematically progressive method of instruction was not known, or, at any rate, not applied. Nevertheless, that, thanks to the mode of study in question, Cherubini invariably proved a more sure and complete master of musical composition than he otherwise would have done, is shown indisputably by all his subsequent productions; though as a teacher of the theory of his art he always manifested, in his scientific explanations, a certain amount of awkwardness, also the result of the course of study he had pursued. While for all his rules he was ready with the most admirable examples, which displayed the fullness and solidity of his knowledge, ho either disdained or found it a really difficult task to explain theoretically what he taught practically with the utmost perfection ; and he used to get annoyed when people did not understand the half hints which he threw out. Yet, in 1835, he published a book of theoretical instruction, Court de Contrepoint et de Fugue. How does this agree with the above facts? Fetis furnishes us, in the second edition of his Biographie Universale, with an explanation, which must be considered all the more reliable, inasmuch as he himself enjoyed the advantage of Cherubini's instruction. According to Fetis, "Cherubini never thought of writing any manual of this description. He had, however, written for his pupils models of
* From the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung. Translated expressly for the Musical World by J. V. Bridgeman.
f The writer might have added that the year preceding Cherubini's birth was also that of Handel's death. — Ed.
all kinds of counterpoint, single and double, imitation, canons and fugues. Prefixed to this collection were two or three pages of fundamental rules, comprising pretty much what Muttei* had given in his work. All Cherubini's pupils copied out these pages, and know what they contain. Some one, though I cannot say who, now hit upon the idea of turning the collection of examples to account. It was, however, necessary to have accompanying letter-press. Cherubini would not write it, and so Halcvy undertook the task. It was in this way that Cherubini's Course of Counterpoint was produced. It was precisely in this manner, also, that Cherubini contributed only practically to the various "schools " of the Paris Conservatory, though he did so, certainly, most admirably, as, for instance, in the case of the "Singing School" by his classical solfeggi, and, in that of the "violin and violoncello schools," by the examples which accompanied them. Sarti, however, did not keep his favourite pupil employed only in contrapuntal studies. We learn from Cherubini's own entries before his catalogue, that his master initiated him in the secrets of dramatic composition as well, and made him compose the airs, &c, of the second parts in his operas. In the autumn of 1780, Cherubini, then in his twentieth year, began his career as a dramatic composer, with the opera of Quinto Fabio, performed in Alessandria, during the fair. He inserts it in his list with the remark: "This was my first opera; I had then completed mynineteenth (twentieth?) year"—without saying anything about the success, which, to all appearance, was not very great, since he was not requested to write an opera for 1781, and, during that year, composed nothing for the stage, except portions of another opera, intended for Venice, and which he actually began, although for reasons not known, he never finished it. The year 1782, on the other hand, was fertile in compositions, part of which, probably, he had prepared in the foregoing year. Three grand three-act operas were produced: Armida, during the Carnival, at Florence; Adriano in Siria, in the spring, for the opening of the new theatre at Leghorn; and Mesenzio, in the autumn, at Florence. In addition to these, he wrote, in the same year, ten Notturnos for two voices, four melodies for one voice, an aria, with full band, for Cresccntini, one for Rubini (an older tenor of that name), and two duets with accompaniment of two Cars d' Amour, t for an Englishman. Under the date of 1783, we learn from the catalogue the fact, previously unknown, that Cherubini wrote a second opera, called Quinto Fabio, played at Rome in the month of January. In the same year, also, his comic opera, Lo Sposo di tre, Marito di Nessuna, was produced in Venice.
From the publications of the day, we find that Cherubini's was already a celebrated name in Italy. The comic opera just mentioned appears to have been successful in Venice. The composer was there called "II Cherubino," "less as a play upon his name, than on account of the beauty of his melodies" (Indice teatrale for 1784). The Jesuits of Florence, in order to fill their church for some charitable purpose, even manufactured an oratorio out of fragments selected from his operas, and he himself composed two fresh choruses for it (1787). In the same year, he supplied the theatre at Florence with the opera, L'ldalide, in two acts, and that at Mantua with Alessandro Del? Indie, in three.
(To be continued.)
Weimar.—The Grand Ducal Theatre closed a short time since. During the season the following operas were performed:—Die Kinder der Haide, by Rubinstein; Robert le Viable; Gounod's Faust; Die Zauberfltite; Wagner's Fliegender Hollander; Le Prophite; Die Saalnixe, by Kauer j Lohengrin; Orpheus in der Unterteelt; Fra Diavolo; Tannliaiiser, and Don Juan, which masterpiece brought the season to a close.
* Pater Mattci, Martini's most faithful pupil (and instructor of Rossini), died in 1825, in his native city, Bologna. He left behind him a theoretical work, Practico d'Accompagnamento sopra Bassi numerati. Sec, con diverse Fughe, Bologna, 1825 and 1830, in three volumes. The examples, however, are alone admirable. Mattei also owed, therefore, his immense reputation as a teacher to his practical method of instruction. Fetis can refer only to this book, since nothing is known of any other theoretical work by Mattei.
f Cor dAmour, Amorsliorn, and, also, Amorschall, was the name given by tho Russian musician, Kolbal, to a horn which he invented about 1760, and the improvements in which consisted of valves and a semicircular cover upon the opening. This idea of a valve-horn was not pursued farther, because the "Iventionshornes" introduced a short time subsequently were another step towards the end afterwards obtained by the "Ventilhorner."