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SUBSCRIPTION—Stamped for Postage—20s. PEE ANNUM Payable in advance by Cash, or PosMJffice Order to BOOSEY & SONS, 28 Holies Street, Cavendish Square, London, W.

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THE ART-WORLD.

NEW ILLUSTRATED ART PAPER. On SATURDAY, March 1, 1862, price Fivei'ehce (Stamped for Toil Sixpence), No 1. of

HE ART-WORLD, AND INTERNATIONAL EX

HIBITOR: a Weekly Illustrated Journal of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture Ornamental Art and Manufactures, Engraving, Photography, Poetry, Music, the Drama, Sec. Kdited h>- Henry Ottley, assisted by Writers of Eminence In the various departments of art.

"Everywhere I see around me
Rise the wondrous World Op Art."Longfellow.

This Journal will give a faithful report of all the productions and doings In the whole circle of the Fine and Decorative Arts—Original Articles upon the History of Art, and the interests of Artists in their profession ; Reviews of New Books relating to Art and Belles-Lettres; besides a summary of the proceedings of Artistic and Learned Societies. Art On.dits, Notes nf Important Sales of Works of Art and Vertil, Correspondence, &c, copiously illustrated in a novel style.

The tone of criticism in THE ART-WOULD will be candid and Impartial ; intolerant of glaring error jind presumptuous mediocrity ; generous and encouraging la every case where merit or promise is recognised

The contents of the International Exhibhlon of 18G2, coming within the scope of Fine or Decorative Art, will be amply described and illustrated in THE ARTWORLD. Each Number of THE AltT-WORLD will contain thirty-two hand*ome pages, printed in the best style upon paper of a fine qualitj-.

Published by S. H. Lindley, at the Office, 19 Catherine Street, Strand, where communications for the Editor, Advertisement*, (tc.t are to be addressed; and by Kent & Co.. Paternoster Row.

OT. JAMES'S HALL. — MISS MARTIN has the

k3 honour to announce her Grand Evening Concert on Tuesday, March 4th, at Eight o'clock.

Voca'ists : Miss Banks,Miss Martin, Miss M. Bradshaw; Mr. Will Cooper, Mr. Walton Smith, Mr. A. T. Mattocks, Mr. Allan Irving.

Inst rumental stit: Pianoforte MUs Fanny tluwEUj Flute, Mr. R. S. Phatten; Violin, Mr. W. Watson; Violoncello, Mr. Avlward.

Conductors: Mr. K. J. Hopkins and Mr. Avlward.

So'a Stall-, bt. Balcony, 2a. fid. Ana Is.

Tickets at Avstin's Ticket Office, 28, Piccadilly; Addison, Hr Llieu & Lucas, 210 Regent Street; Keith, Prowse & Co. 48, Cheapside; Sunday, St. Paul's Churchyard; and of the Manager, Thomas Headland, 0 Heathcote Street, W.C.

BEAUMONT INSTITUTION, Mile End.-GRAND
CONCERT, Monday next, March 3rd.
Artists: Mfsdauu's Lancia, "Rs. Georgi and Palmkr. Messrs. Weiss,
Morgan and Sims Reeves. Conductor, Mr. Frank Mori. Director, Mr. D. Francis.
Stalls, 4s.; Tickets, 2s. Gd., 2s. and Is. Commence at eight.

MR. FRED. WALKER begs to announce his GRAND EVENING CONC ERT, on Tuesday, March 4th, at Myddleton Hall, Islington.

Artist*: Miss Annie Walker. Miss Frances Wilton, Miss Julm Elton, Mrs. Winn, Mr. Theodore Distin, Mr. Fielding, Mr. Fred. Walker, Mr. Walter SelYvyn, and Mr. Winn. Pianoforte: Miss E Mi Lie Hoppers. Conductors: Mr. Sydnly Naylor and Signor Alberto Rvndeggeii.

Tickets of the princlp.il Musics>-llers, and Mr. F. Walker, 8 Warrington Street, N.W.

MSAINTON'S FIRST SOIREE MUSICALE will • take place on the 4th of March, at his Residence, No. 5 Upper Wimpole Street, at half past eigfct o'clock.

Programme :— Quartet (Ferny, Posthumous); Trio (Beethoven), in D; Quartet (Mozart\ in B flat; Solos, Pianoforte and Violin.

Executants: Messrs. Sainton' Pollitzer, Webb, Piatti. Pianist: Mr. H. C. Deacon.

Subscription for the Series, one guinea and a half; Single Ticket, half a guinea. To be had at Mr. Sainton's Residence, and at the principal Musicscllcrs.

MADAME SAINTON-DOLBY begs to announce that her MEETINGS for SINGING CONCEHTED MUSIC (for Ladies only), will be held on every fly and Thursday throughout the season.

Particulars can be burned at Mad. Sainton-dolby's residence, where the meetings take place, 5 Upper Wimpole Street.

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HE MUSICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.—Four

Seaion, 1862.-The FIRST ORCHESTRAL CONCERT, at St. James's 1

on Wednesday Evening, March 12th.

NB. To commence precisely at Eight o'clock. Doors open in Regent Street and Piccadilly at Half-past Seven. Conductor: M> . Alfred Mellon.

Programme — Mozart's Overture, Die; Zauberflote; Concerto, Violin, Horn Joachim; Beethoven's Overture, Leonora-Fidelio No. I; Mendelssohn's Symphony in A, Op. 91 j Berlioz's Overture, "Le Carnaval Romain." Vocalists; Mesdames GtrBRHARKLLA and Sainton.Dolby. Members are respectfully requested to apply for their Tickets to Messrs. Cramer. —'- and Wood, 201 Regent Street, from whom Programmes can be obtained. A

limited number of admissions to the Gallery may be had of Messrs. Cramer and Co., and of Mr. Austin, Saint James's Hal), price 3s. 6d

St. James's Hall.

. 6d.

CHARLES SALAMAN, Hon Sec.

36 Baker Street, Portman Square, W.

"rpHE QUEEN'S CONCERT ROOMS in Hanover

s Square—the home of the time-honoured and justly-renowned Concerts of the Philharmonic Society -are still unsurpassed. Well adapted to the transmission of sound, as they have ever been, they are now completely renovated, so at to increase in every way both the comfort of the audience and the convenience of the orchestra. In the decoration of the large Concert Room and its dependencies, no expense has been spared ; and the general effect, while, perhaps, from the point of view of abstract * taste.' In some degree open to criticism, is certainly enlivening. The lighting of the Concert Hoorn is a novelty which may be fairly pronounced a great success ; and not less important in their way are the improvements which have been made in the ventilation of the building—the most difficult of problems, where crowds are used to congregate. On other details—such as the new arrangements for seating the audience, and for facilitating their ingress and egress—it is unnecessary to dwell Enough that the Hanover Square Rooms—where Weber, Spohr and Mendelssohn first stirred up the enthusiasm of a London musical audience—are at this present period as worthy as ever of their long-estahlished repute."—y the Times, Feb. 13.

MESSRS. KLINDWORTH, H. BLAGROVE, DEICIIMANN, R. BLAGROVE, and DAUBERT'S CONCERTS of CHAMBER MUSIC (Second Season), atthe Hanover Square Rooms, on Tuesday Evenings, March 11 and 25, and April 8.

Programme of the first Concert: Trios by Volkmann and Frakck, Biethovrn's Trio for Violin, Viola and Violoncello In G, and Sonata (bach). Vocalist, Mist Banks.

Subscription Tickets, U. Is. j Single Tickets, 10s. fid.; Family Tickets to admit three to one Concert, One Guinea, to be obtained at the principal Music Warehouses, and of the Concert-givers.

MR. F. R. VENUA (Pupil of Mr. Balfe), Professor of
Singing to the Sydenham, Victoria, Wcstbourne and Charing Cross Colleges;
P to the Polytechnic Institution, 309 Regent Street.
Address, No.' 9 Store Street, Bedford Square.

MR. WALTER SELWYN will sing Ascher's popular
Song, "ALICE, WHERE ART THOU?" at Myddleton Hall, on Tuesday

Evening.

MR. FRED. PENNA (Baritone), begs to announce his REMOVAL to No. 74 Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park, to which address he requests that all communications respecting Concerts, Oratorios, Ac, may be sent.

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rpO ORGANISTS.—WANTED, for the Parish Church

I of Banbury, an ORGANIST. The duties are to instruct the Choir, men and boys, to attend at three Services on Sunday and one Evening Service in the week. To* population of Banbury is above 10.0CO, and the neighbourhood is also very populossi ^ The appointment would afford to an all master an excellent field for private teaching. Salary-30/. per annum. The office is now vacant.

Apply to the Vicar of Banbury.

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RANDEGGER'S TRIO, "I NAVIGANTI," will be sung at Myddleton Hall, on Tuesday Evening, by Miss AiriftE Walkir, Mr. Feed, Walkbh, and Mr. Winn.

THE CECILIAN PITCH PIPE (a new invention), for the waistcoat pocket, is superior to all others, being much more powerful in tone than any other at present in use—the pitch does not vary, whether sounded Piano or Forte—is easily repaired, or the pitch altered if required.

Price (any note) 2s. 6d. Post-free.
Boosby & Chino, 24 Holies Street, W.

EVANS'S ENGLISH HARMONIUMS for Cottages, Schools, Drawing Rooms, Churches, Literary and other public InKtitutione, are made in every possible variety at prices from 6 to 140 guineas. The Manufacturer* have to announce the complete success of a New Patent Self-Acting Blowing Machine, the only self-acting blower that has ever succeeded, which may be seen in operation at Holies Street daily.

. The most distinguished living musicians, including Balfe, Sterndale Benuett, Cipriani Potter, Best, Henry Smart, &c, have testified to the extraordinary merits of Evans's Harmoniums.

See testimonials attached to Illustrated Catalogues of Harmoniums, to be had gratis of the Manufacturers,

Boosby & Chino, 24 Holies Street, London.

EVANS'S ENGLISH MODEL HARMONIUM, with two rows of keys, price 6G guineas in oak case, or 70 guineas in rosewood case, combines every modern improvement. The most beautiful and varied orchestral effects can be produced upon this instrument, which possesses every gradation of tone from the greatest power to the most delicate piano pieces. The English Model Harmonium is managed with that facility which charactfrites all Evans's Harmoniums, and is equally effective both in the drawing room and church.

Boosby & Chino, Manufacturers, 24 Holies Street, London, W.

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Just Published, Price 4s.,

ASCHER'S ALICE. Transcribed for the Pianoforte, is now ready, and may be obtained or the Publishers, Duncan Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street, W.

Just Published, Price N.,

ASCHER'S "ALICE." Transcription facile for the Pianoforte, by BaaNhOff, is now ready, and may be obtained of the Publishers. Duncan Davison &co., 244 Regent Street, W.

"rpHOSE TELL-TALE EYES," and "COME, DEAR

J_ ONE, BACK TO ME." Music by James Lea Summirs. Price 2s. Cd each. "Both these songs have the charm so welcome to all who really care for art, of being written with taste mid correctness. The melodies, too, while natural and unpretending, are decidedly expressive."—Musical World.

London: Duncan Davison & Co., 244 Regent Street, W.

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EOBERT COCKS AND CO.'S LIST OF NEW MUSIC. By W. Vincent Wallaob. For Pianoforte, ** Souvenir des lodes Orieutales," Melodie, M. "La Plainte da Berger," .Idyll, 3s. "Graziflla," Nocturne, 3s. "The Shepherd's Roundelay, a Pastoral "sketch, 4<. "Twilight," Romance, is. 6d. "Forget me not," Romance, 2s. 6d. By Brinlky Richards. "The Mountaineer's Lay," for the Pianoforte. From the Burlington Album. 2s. 6d. "In Memoriam "—His late R.H. the Prince Consort: Elegy for Piano. By Bkinley Richards. With appropriate illustration, 3s.

WELSH PART-SONGS. No.]. "The Vale," for Four Voices. Words by George Linley. Arranged by Brinley Richards. Price 2d.

WELSH FANTASIAS. By Bbinley Richards. No. 1, North Wales j No. 2, South Wales. Each 4i. "Mr. Richards performed his two Pianoforte Fantasias, both of which were encored. These pieces, in which several of the most beautiful melodies of both divisions of the principality are charmingly treated, have been received by the public with great and deserved favour. — Illustrated London News. London : Robert Cocks & Co., New Burlington Street, and of all I

fetters to ibt (Settlor.

w u

NEGLECTED COMPOSERS. Sib,—In the admirable criticism upon Benedict's new opera, appearing in last week's number of the Musical World, you say, and justly,—" It is strange, that since 1846, when The Crusaders, his third opera, was produced at Drury Lane Theatre, a dramatic composer of such eminence should have been neglected by the directors of our operatic establishments." Strange it is, but true. Equally strange, permit me to say, is it that the composer of The Mountain Sylph, and Fair Rosamond, an Englishman by birth, should have been still more neglected, when it is well known that for more than sixteen years he has had operas ready for production. But John Barnett has been, and is, a neglected musician. Respecting this gentleman and E. J. Loder, kindly allow me to make a very brief quotation from one of my musical lectures:—

"To meet with the best compositions of this musician (speaking of Loder) it is necessary to go into the 'Byways of Song.' Why is it so? Lord Macaulay, in one of his admirable essays, remarks that 'in those things which concern this life, and this world, man constantly becomes wiser and wiser.' Now is this true as regards music? To my thinking it is not. Were it so, we should hear as much of Barnett as of Blonditi, and of Loder as of Leotard. . . . However, though we hear so little of such composers as Loder and Barnett now, we must hope for days when good music will be the real sensation music (that's the word I believe) and the performance of a great and accomplished artist will excite as much admiration as the ascension of a Blondin, the boundings of 'Flying Man,'or the jutnpings of a 'perfect cure.' Such institutions as the 'Monday Popular Concerts ' are highly calculated to bring about this desirable state of things. Long may they flourish!"

Frederick Pexna. Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park, 26/A February.

"Once Too Often."—Mr. Howard Glover has just brought out at Drury Lane Theatre un opeictta entitled Once Too Often, which is very highly spoken of by critics. Produced at Christmas time, our readers might fancy that Once Too Often was a political satire upon the behaviour of the Yankees on the "Trent difficulty." Such, however, is not the case, for though Mr. Glover is both a clever journalist and composer, he wisely remembers that "there's a place for everything," though the "difficulty" has been harmoniously settled,and produced no discord.—Liverpool Porcupine.

Mr. W. Seymour Smith gave a lecture on "Music," assisted by Mrs. Seymour Smith, with vocal and instrumental illustrations, at the Whitlington Club, on Thursday week, which proved highly attractive. Amongst the "illustrations," those which seemed to please the most were the song "Hearts of oak," and a duet for the pianoforte (a war march), the former sung with great spirit by Mr. Seymour Smith, and the latter capitally played by Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Smith. Tho audience were evidently pleased with the lecture, and the announcement of its repetition at an early period was received with satisfaction.

Scuwerin.— Anew and orginal operetta, Der Hauirer, by Herr Gustav Horteh a member of the band at the Court Theatre, has been produced and favourably received.

NOTICE.

In consequence of an unusual press of matter, the Reviews of New Music are unavoidably postponed until next week.

THE MENTAL HISTORY OF POETRY*

Br Joseph Goddard.

"To search through nil I felt or saw.
The springs of life, the depths of eve.
And reach the law within the law."

Trniiyson.

In turning to investigate the presence and influence of the musical instinct as betrayed in Poetry, it will be first necessary to recur to the consideration of that primary condition of the breast, that high and broad pressure of admiration which precedes the advent of all art-phenomena.

It will no doubt have been observed that, in speaking of this emotion of "admiration," we have almost always simultaneously alluded to the mental faculty of "imagination." The coincident coupling of these terms, in fact, is of general occurrence wherever either is mentioned.

Now this does not result altogether from a confusion of terms or ideas, although, in most instances, where these ideas are conjunctively alluded to, there is only visible a vague consciousness of some general connection between them, whilst a knowledge of their exact relationship, of the true nature of their distinctiveness and of their connection, is not often betrayed where they are spoken of.

The truth is, imagination is a mental endowment, and wherever it exists, a warm and strong instinct of admiration ensues, as a matter of course. Imagination begins in the possession of vivid mental memory, the power of recalling, in peculiar life and warmth, imagery in the mind, and thus it embraces the ability of mentally suspending before the attention scenes, circumstances and truths simultaneously. It here begins to invoke the aciion of another faculty, generally understood as a more purely mental property, for through this simultaneous exhibition in the mind of a more or leas wide array of truths and circumstances, the exact relationship of these truths becomes more distinctly visible, and thus their complete nature is surveyed in a sympathetically wide embrace of the "reason."

But so far, there is only an act of imagination in a literal sense— there is only an exercise of this faculty of a direct and simple character, although even at this point of the process the grand truth is visible that the faculty of reason would be of little service without that of imagination—that, in point of fact, this latter quality is part of any important and comprehensive endowment of the former—that, in truth, imagination is the moral universe in which the intellectual system exists—that, to borrow the words of a former definition of this subject, "it is the spiritual glow and moral radiance of this faculty which defines the celestial concave of the mind, as the sun describes that of the material universe, in the absence of which the operations of 1 reason' would nttain to no further result than could those of nature without the warm and luminous concave of heaven."t

Wheie this faculty exists, then, of conceiving and sustaining a considerable number of known truths in the mind,—where, consequently, the correct relationship and complete nature of these truths is thus visible (and only in these circumstances can this full knowledge be realised), what is more obvious than that the reason in these circumstances, contemplating the exact relationship, the complete nature of the nrray of truth spread before it, will, in the same line of glance, in the same visual ray of inspection, also perceive its onward connection with new truth.

Now it is the perception of this onward continuation of truth which constitutes an act of imagination in the high sense in which the operation of that faculty is generally understood, that is, as almost synonymous with the act of creation, although discovery more than creation is the true character of the mental act involved.

* Continued from pagi 117.

f The nature of this imaginative faculty will be found also treated of in "The Philosophy of Music," where several of the truths are laid down, of which the above remarks are the substance.

This explains the reason and rationality of what has been mostly regarded as something mysterious and unaccountable, namely, the presence of the pure imaginative faculty—that sanguine mental temperament—side by side with a highly cultivated and carefully trained material order of intellect;—with those qualities of mind such as the power and habit of closely grappling with hard, literal fact, and whose prevailing method of action is physical induction, which, in the majority of cases, are supposed to be the least likely to be associated with it. Nevertheless, the sky-cleaving flight of imagination is seen to be allied with the precise and earthly step by step tread of reason, and that, particularly in the cases of the highest and greatest exemplifications of this latter endowment, as is illustrated in the examples of navigators, astronomers, and of scientific minds, relating to all departments of discovery, and of the most elevated of their order.

It is not here intended, however, to imply that all high imaginative offspring is identical in nature with purely rational discovery and palpable mental induction, but that the process of both is in the same line of mental volition, that many of the generally underslood purely imaginative conceptions, from their prophetic character on the one hand and the ultimate confirmation of their existence as part of the wide empire of reason on the other, may be regarded as having resulted from a latent extension of the intellect, of an involuntary onward spring of the reason to a new and distant conclusion, of the considerations of the intermediate space having occurred so unconsciously and rapidly as to render the result like inspiration. ,

It may be remarked, as generally confirmatory of the truth of these views, that the greatest and most brilliant exponents of the imaginative faculty, be they poets, painters, or musicians, are inevitably, and always have been, those representatives of art who unite with their respective art-endowment the more comprehensive intelligence—the more extended knowledge. At all events, these considerations are sufficient to show that it is this rational direction —this natural vista, towards which the lens of imagination should be directed, in which this faculty should be exercised and cultivated, and through which alone its highest and greatest results can be achieved. The imaginative offspring of ignorance, invoked in an ostentatious spirit of contempt for rational knowledge, but in a real inability or sluggishness of mind,—is but of little worth; it beams with a false and meretricious lustre, it is mostly the result of an action of the mind, morbid and desultory, and its fascination and attractiveness must assuredly diminish and ultimately pale into oblivion before the kingly and sunrise-beam of natural truth, tasle and intelligence.

We are now enabled to perceive somewhat of the reason and consistency of the fact of any important endowment of imagination being inevitably attended by a copious flow of the sentiment of admiration; for this latter phenomenon is simply that enthusiasm and mental rapture which is always elicited by the contemplation of perfect and new truth. If it be incorrect, however, to speak of the imaginative survey as embracing absolutely material truth, it is still the light of truth which illumines it, and ihe imagery on which it fulls will glow in all the warmth and colour of that divine radiance. This imagery may not, be palpable, substantial, or of a bodily character, yet it may shine still in the ray of reason, which penetrates beyond the realms of ordinary fact, as the sun lights other and more etherial objects than those existent on the earth ; if it be not material truth, it is its fanciful reflection, its exaggerated spectrum, defined in the clouds of the obscure, and is thus a phenomenon, at all events, allied to material truth—its asreal rainbow-splendour scintillated from the denser forms and latent colours of the material world into the remote azure of the mind.

(To be continued.)

AdemnapattiNorina.—" Samcdi, pour lahuitiemerepresentation de la compagnie italienne, Don Pasquale, une des plus hcureuses partitions que Donizetti ait jamais improvisees stir un sujet a la foi3 tendre ct comique, la finesse, l'esprit, la grace, hi legcretc brillanto dc la voix sont les qualitcs requises pour le role de Norina, et ce sunt celles que possedc au plus haut degre Mile. Patti. Elle ne pouvait done manquer d'y ctre parfaite, et tout son role a ete pour le public uno serie d'enchantements et de surprises. Aux merveilles de sa vocalisation, MUe. Patti joint un jeu plein d'esprit et de finesse."—EtoUe Beige.

MOZART AND THE ClIIMES AT POTSDAM*.

Is reply to my appeal, in No. 49 of this paper, for information from those persons who were able to furnish me with it, I have received numerous communications, for which I beg to return the writers my in >•'- sincere thanks.

The question at issue is this: When, and by what or whote means came the melody of the song. "Ueb' immer Trcu trad Redlichkeit?" which, as every one knows, is the same as Papageno's song in Die Zauberflote, to bo chosen for the chimes of the Court and Garrison Church at Potsdam. The official documents contain nothing on the subject, and even the oldest inhabitants can only say, "It was always so." The selection of this song, both as a Freemason's song and an operatic composition, for the chimes of a Royal and Evangelical Prussian Church appears very remarkable, and worthy of thorough ininvestigation.

first on the list of my correspondents comes Major the Baron von Lcdebur, who is now retired from active service, and well known as a most competent musical critic and historian. He has been kind enough to send me a letter, from which I extract the following passage, bearing more especially upon the matter in question.

"In Hoffmann von Fallerslcben's interesting work, Unsere ViMsihiimliehen Lieder, second edition, Engelmann, Lcipsic, 1859, a work which is certainly sometimes erroneous, at page 129, the author says :—

'•'Ueb' immer Treu und Redlichkeit,' 1775, author, Ludwig Holtz, born at Mariensee, near Hanover, Dec. 21, 1748, died at Hanover, Dec. 21, 1776. First published in the Vossisches Musenalmanach, 1779, pp. 117—120. Melody from Mozart's ZauberflSte, 1791, to the words, 'Ein Miidchen oder Weibchen.' This melody, with words by Holtz, was first published in the Freimaurer Lieder mil Melodien {Freemasons' Songs with Melodies), Boheim, one thaler, second edition, Berlin, 1795, No. 1. It was exceeding popular in the lodges and elsewhere, and was even employed for the purposes of the Church."

Major von Ledebur does not, it is true, possess a copy of the second cditiun which he mentions above, but he has one of the third edition of these Freemasons' Songs, published 1798, by Herr Boheim, who was an actor and singer at the Royal National Theatre, Berlin. "The song is there to be found at p<<ge 5, and Mozart is named as the composer. Ic is, therefore, probable, that Mozart's music was simply applied to Holtz's words."

Such is the information furnished by Major von Ledebur.

Furthermore, I received from the editor of the Hamburg Altonaer Theater-Zeitung, Herr F. Fritsch, as well as from Herr G. Meyerbeer, Royal Music Director-General, No. 49 of the above Theater-Zeitung, which, in answer to my appeal, contains the following account, that certainly appears conclusive: —

"The song: 'Ueb'immer Treu und Redlichkeit,' is a genuine masonic song, by whom it was originally written I am unable to say; as it is now sung in all lodges (including those of France and Belgium), the German words are arranged by the well-known Viennese poet, Aloys Blumauer, and set to music by Mozart, expressly for the St. Joseph's Lodge, in Vienna, of which lodge both the Emperor Francis I. and Joseph II. were members. It was composed, moreover, for the reception of Leopold Mozart into the lodge. This reception took place, at the instigation of his renowned son, on the occasion of Leopold's lust visit to Vienna in 1785-86. Mozart, sen., did not live out the year 1787, the year in which Mozart celebrated his greatest triumph, Don Giovanni, in Prague. In 1790, that is, two years later, Joseph II. died, and one of the first acts of his successor, Leopold H., was an order that all the lodges of Austria should be closed until further notice; it was not until the reign of Francis II. that the institution was actually abolished in Austria. But the Austrian Freemasons, up to the present day, pay no attention to this. They consider their lodges as simply closed, that is to say, wherever there arc five masons in one and the same place, there exists an invisible lodge, though no masonic work is over done. The libretto of Die ZuuberfltSte is, as every ono knows, nothing mote than a glorification of Freemasonry. Emmanuel Schicknneder suggested the idea. A young man, then engaged as a chorister in Schickaneder's theatre, and also a mason — he pluyed, in the lodge, the viol in the quartet, with pianoforte accompaniments — carried out the idea, and Mozart set the words to music. But Schickancder thought the music much too learned, and, as ho himself told the late Julius Miller, the tenor, cut out half the score. With regard, more especially, to the pieces in which Papageno has to sing, Mozatt could do

* From the Neue Berliner Musik-Zeitung. — Translated for the Musical World.

nothing which met with Schickaneder's approbation. The duet: 'Bel Minnern, welcho Liebe fiihlen,' he was compelled to set no less than four times; Papageno's first sons, ' Der Vogelpargcr bin ich ja' had to be written three times, while, lastly, Sehickaneder was so exacting with the song,' Ein Madchen oder Weibchen," that Mozart angrily exclaimed: 'I suppose you would like me to compose it after the model of ' Ueb * immer Treu und Redlichkeit!' Sehickaneder replied with delight: 'Yes; that's it. The song is popular, only you must substitute something for the second part.' This was done, and, as I have been informed by my esteemed friend, Adalbert Gyrowitz, on the night of the first representation of Die ZauberflSte, in the then Theater an der Wien (on the Wiedn, in the Stahrenbergisch.es Freihaus, near tho Naschmarkt), it was this very song, which, with the overture, and the Priests' March in F major which proved the greatest success in the opera. In tho month of March 1848, preparations were being made to re-open the St. Joseph's Lodge. Weigl, Gyrowetz and Lewy (sen.), were already dead, and thus the arrangement of the musical library belonging to the lodge was confided to me. Being well acquainted with Mozart's handwriting, I soon discovered the song in question, which, composed at first in E flat major, is marked: Andante con molto, ma non molto. My late friend, Fuchs, also, to w hom I showed the manuscript, immediately recognised Mozart's handwriting, The book bore the date of 1786, and contained, moreover, autographs of Martini, Wenzl Miiller, and other composers, then living at Vienna. Mozart's song-number was 203, and Fuchs directly took a true copy, which, with many other documents relating to Mozart must be among his papers.*

"J. P. Lyser."

"Altona Dec. 11, 1861."

According to this valuable communication, tho belief prevalent at Potsdam, that the song was played on the chimes as far back as the time of Frederick the Great, is, at any rate, erroneous, if, indeed, it cannot be proved that Mozart pursued the same course with some song already existing, which Blumenauer pursued with the masonic song sung in the lodges to Holtz's words. The supposition that Blumenauer adapted the words, would, in the first place, be reconcilable with Holtz's undonbted authorship. Just as Blumenauer used Holtz's verses, which had been in existence for ten years, Mozart may have profited by an already existing composition of the sarne! Herr Lyset's account would, at least, incline us to believe something of the sort.

Despite of all that has here been said, however, the question still remains, how and when was the melody set on the chimes? In Berlin, Die Zauberfllite was not known till 1794, the first performance having taken place on the 12th May. After having been sung, on the stage, by a comic personage, would this melody have been chosen for an hourly recurring admonition from the tower of a church? If we refer it to the period of 1786—1794, the supposition is contradicted by WSIlner's well-known tendencies in church matters, which would scarcely have permitted the adoption for the chimes of a song known to belong exclusively to Freemasonry. King Friedrich Wilhelm, also, sought, more especially in the more severe observance of all religious and ecclesiastical matters, to establish a contrast to the state of things during the reign of his great predecessor. In the official documents, however, we find only a notice, that, on the occasion of some repairs, in 1797, Herr Roeschcr, the organist, rccomposed all the tunes 1 1797 is tho year of the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm III. who was neither a Freemason, nor at that period, a patron of the stage or of music.

Thus, despite all the accounts we have received, and quite apart from the fact that they do not perfectly agree with each other, the subject is still shrouded in doubt, and consequently I am the more justified in wishing that it may be yet more thoroughly investigated.

That W. A. Mozart used other composers' melodies, is a fact of which I am able to adduce a proof, hitherto, as far as I am aware, little known in Germany. The last time I saw Beaumarchais' Mortage de Figaro, at the Theatre Francais, Paris, in 1846, it struck me that in the third act the supernumeraries were made to march to Mozart's music in the opera'of the same name. The next day, I mentioned the subject to M. Regnier, who has studied deeply and conscientiously the history of the Theatre Francais. He assured me that the march had been played at the very first representation of Beaumarchais' comedy, that is to say, in 1775, and came originally from Spain, whence Beaumarchais' brought it with him to France. He said, moreover, that the original score of tho Spanish march is still preserved in the archives of the Theatre Francais. We

* In many German lodges, after the melody of the trio of the three boys: "Seid uns warn zweiten Mai wiilkommen," a reception-song, also, is sung, the first words being: "Sei, neucr Bruder, uns wiilkommen." How frequently the Priests' Choruses and the song: "In diesen heiligen Hallcn " is heard in the lodges, all masons know.

know that Mozart was in Paris at the tine the comedy was first performed there. Perhaps, he remembered Moliere's apophthegm: "Je prends mon bien ou je le trouve."

This fact, also, is, I think, worthy of further investigation.

Potsdam, January 2. L. Schneider.

THE STUDENTS AND THE REID CONCERT. (From a Correspondent,') "avld Reekie" is rife in disputation about the conduct of the students of the University, who so strangely demeaned themselves on the occasion of the recent concert given by the "Sisters Marcbisio" at the Music Hall. The majority denounces the students; but the young gentlemen have a strong party who insist that they have been wronged, and that they were induced to proceed to extreme measures to obtain redress. As there is so much difference of opinion on the subject, I transmit you an extract and a letter, from the Edinburgh Courant, which, I think, places the whole affair in a sufficiently clear liglit, and will enable your readers to form a correct judgment. The extract is as follows :—

"Yesterday great excitement continued to prevail among the students of the University on the subject of the Reid Concert, and considerable exultation was expressed by those who had succeeded in forcing their way into the Music Hall, and had made the subsequent demonstration at Marrhfield House. On further inquiry into the subject, we learn that it has been the custom for some years to distribute tickets for the concert to all fourth-year students. This arrangement was, we believe, entered into with concurrence of the students themselves, who were content tbat the admission should be made a special privilege of alumni of that rank. The number of fourth-year students in the faculties of arts and medicine averages about 300, and in the faculty of law probably 100 more. In order that all those so entitled should participate in the advantage, nbout 400 tickets hare of late years been regularly set apart for their use. This year, for what reason we have not learned, the number was reduced to 150, and the distribution for the first time was made at the matriculation office. The number of students being, of course, greatly in excess of the number of tickets supplied to the secretary for distribution, the scene took place which a correspondent yesterday described in our columns, his statement, however, being inaccurate as to the number of tickets issued. The disappointed students, after the tumult at the secretary's office subsided, held a meeting, and it was proposed to memorialise the Scnatus on the subject. This representation of the grievance satisfied a large proportion of the meeting, but there were others who, seeing no prospect of redress being given in time, resolved on stronger steps, resulting, as our readers arc already aware, in the forcible entrance of the Music Hall on the night of the concert. Comparatively few of the students immediately aggrieved took part in the demonstration, but those who did were at once joined by a large body of the younger alumni, sympathising with their seniors, and foreseeing a future privilege cut off.

"Some of these gentlemen, unable to tolerate any criticism of their conduct, yesterday did us the honour to burn some copies of our journal in the quadrangle of the College, on account of our strictures on their proceedings. We must not wince at a little martyrdom occasionally in the cause of truth; but the youthful and fervid students of our University were sadly mistaken in supposing that they found in us an enemy of their true interests or of their proper rights, which wo hove always done our utmost to maintain. We only hope that, for the future, they will choose more peaceable means of making known their claims, and of obtaining redress when aggrieved.

"We have heard it said that one reason assigned for the limitation of the number of tickets has been that in numerous instances the students, not appreciating the privilege conferred on them, have sold their tickets to persons anxious to obtain admission. It is not very wonderful that some of the number should so little esteem the advantage as to part with their tickets, or that some of the outdoor public, who have no access to the concert, should be willing to buy, but it was quite absurd to punish the whole body for the offence of a few j and if the reason alleged had any force at all, it would necessarily apply to the exclusion of the students altogether, and not to any mere limitation of the number of tickets, which were simply given to those who were foremost in the scramble for them."

The letter appears to take a less favourable view of the students' conduct, and, indeed, does not hesitate to brand it with the strongest terms.

Edinburgh, February 14th. "Sin,—The disgraceful, yet characteristic, conduct of the students in relation to this concert, last night, appears to have arisen from an entire misapprehension of their rights. It cannot be too well known, that students attending the College havo no right to demand admission to the concert. In this respect they arc precisely on the same footing as the other members of the public. The concert is not given for behoof of the College, and there is no connection betwixt them. So true is this that no one, whatever his office or position in the University may be, has a legal right to demand admission to the concert. Some years ago two of the most eminent counsel at the Scottish bar were consulted on this point, ond they said—'In regard to the distribution of the tickets, it does not appear to us that any one person more than another has a legal right to demand them.' The direction in General Reid's will, instituting the concert, is plain nnd distinct, and it may be useful, thus publicly, to make it known. It is as follows:— 'And as I leave all my music-books (particularly those of my own composition) to the Professor of Music in that College, it is my wish that in every year after his appointment, he will cause a Concert of Music to be performed on the \3th of February, being my birthday, in which shall be in'roduced one solo for the German flute, hautbois, or clarionet, also one march and one minuet, with accompaniments by a select band, in order to show the taste of music about the middle of the last century, when they were by me composed, and with a view also to keep my memory in remembrance.'

"The concert was therefore intended simply to be commemorative of the General— 'to keep my memory in remembrance,' and 'in order to show the taste of music about the middle of lost century;' and the entire direction of the arrangements lor the concert is devolved upon the Professor of Music for the time being. It is not said who are to be admitted to the concert; this is left to the Professor to regulate — having a due regard to the object of the testator in instituting it. The pretension set up by the students is inconsistent with that object; and if yhlded to, would defeat it. It may be a right and proper thing to give tickets to certain of the students, especially to those of them attending the music class; but this can only be done under certain restrictions and limitations, and any attempt upon the part of the general body of students to demand admission as H right the Professor ought strenuously to resist. Their conduct in forcing themselves into the hall last night was a public offence, and can only be palliated on the score of ignorance." "L. M."

Now, for my own part, T was not deeply interested in the abstract question whether the University students were or were not admissible to the concert. I went to the Music Hall expecting a rare treat, such as had not been presented in the northern capital for a long time. I was anxious to henr the "Sisters," whose praises seem the natural echo of their voices, wheresoever they sing; and yearned to listen once more to the magnificent tone ami grand playing of Vieuxtemps. But, indeed, I heard little of what I expected. The Music Hall at times was converted into a bear-garden, and scarcely a piece was gone through without interruption, destroying all gratification; or, nt least, the fear of interruption took away the zest of pleasure. This was my grievance, and I think that, as one of the "disappointed," I have most right to complain. It seems that the authorities of the college "reck not their own reid," or they would have managed to have the " Reid Concert" conducted with some show of decency.

Young Reekie.

MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS. At the concert on Monday evening (the 76th) M. Vieuxtemps took his leave, until next winter, of the patrons of these entertainments, whom he has delighted since November last with his magnificent play, and by whom his worth is so thoroughly appreciated. A larger audience was probably never assembled in St. James's Hall, which was literally thronged to the doors. The programme was one of more than ordinary interest. M. Vieuxtemps led two quartets, besides joining Miss Arabella Goddard in Mozart's lOtlt sonata for pianoforte and violin (in D). The quartets were Mendelssohn's in A minor, and Beethoven's in A major. That of Mendelssohn was reintroduced in consequence of the marked sensation it produced at the opening concert of the season, when M. Vieuxtemps (associated, as on the present occasion, with Herr L. Ries, Mr. Henry Webb, and Signor Piatti) made his first appearance. The success of this work—which, whether the age at which

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