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“Don't you know? We only go to growing age, was pretty nearly slow school three months in winter and three murder in the long run. They did not in summer. I thought you did so in let girls go to school with any persistAmerica. I know Mr. Webster did. ency after they were twelve or fourteen. I read it in his Life."
After they were twenty, they might I was on the point of saying that we study what they chose. knew now how to train more powerful “But the main difference between men than Mr. Webster, but the words our schools and yours," said he, “is stuck in my throat, and the boy rattled that your teacher is only expected to on.
hear the lesson recited. Our teacher “The teachers have to be there all is expected to teach it also. You have the time, except when they go in re- in America, therefore, sixty scholars to treat. They take turns about retreat. one teacher. We do not pretend to But we are in two choroi; I am choros- have more than twenty to one teacher. boy now, James is anti-choros. Cho We do this the easier because we let ros have school in January, February, no child go to school more than half March, July, August, September. Next the time ; nor, even with the strongest, year I shall be anti-choros.”
more than four hours a day.. " Which do you like best, — off-term “Why,” said he, “I was at a college or school ? ” said I.
in America once, where, with splendid “0, both is as good as one. When mathematicians, they had had. but one either begins, we like it. We get rather man teach any mathematics for thirty sick of either before the three months years. And he was travelling in Euare over."
rope when I was there. The others “What do you do in your off-terms ?” only heard recitations of those who said I, – "go fishing ?”
could learn without being taught.” * No, of course not,” said he, "ex- “I was once there," said I. cept Strep, and Hipp, and Chal, and those boys, because their fathers are The boat's repairs still lingered, and fishermen. No, we have to be in our on Sunday little Phil. came round with fathers' offices, we big boys; the little a note from his mother, to ask if I fellows, they let them stay at home. would go to church with them. If I If I was here without you now, that had rather go to the cathedral or elsetruant - officer we passed just now where, Phil. would show me the way. vould have had me at home before this I preferred to go with him and her time. Well, you see they think we together. It was a pretty little church, learn about business, and I guess we - quite open and airy it would seem do. I know I do," said he, “and some to us,-excellent chance to see dancing times I think I should like to be a vines, or fiying birds, or falling rains, or Proxepus when I am grown up, but I other “meteors outside,” if the preachdo not know."
er proved dull or the hymns undevout. I asked George about this, the same But I found my attention was well evening. He said the boy was pretty held within. Not that the preaching nearly right about it. They had come was anything to be repeated. The round to the determination that the em- sermon was short, unpretending, but ployment of children, merely because alive and devout. It was a sonnet, all their wages were lower than men's, was on one theme; that theme pressed, very dangerous economy. The chances and pressed, and pressed again, and, of were that the children were over- a sudden, the preacher was done. worked, and that their constitution “You say you know God loves you," was fatally impaired. “We do not he said. “I hope you do, but I am want any Manchester-trained children going to tell you once more that he here." Then they had found that loves you, and once more and once steady brain-work on girls, at the more." What pleased me in it all was a certain unity of service, from the he will be removed at once. The govbeginning to the end. The congrega- ernment will appoint a temporary subtion's singing seemed to suggest the stitute, and order an election of his prayer ; the prayer seemed to con- successor.” tinue in the symphony of the organ; “Do you mean there is no fixed and, while I was in revery, the organ election-day ? " .ceased; but as it was ordered, the ser “None at all,” said Philip. “We mon took up the theme of my revery, are always voting. When we stopped and so that one theme ran through the just now I went in to vote for an alderwhole. The service was not ten things, man of our ward, in place of a man who like the ten parts of a concert, it was has resigned. I wish I had taken you one act of communion or worship. in with me, though there was nothing Part of this was due, I guess, to this, to see. Only three or four great books, that we were in a small church, sitting each headed with the name of a candior kneeling near each other, close date. I wrote my name in Andrew enough to get the feeling of com- Second's book. He is, on the whole, munion, - not parted, indeed, in any the best man. The books will be open way. We had been talking together, three months. No one, of course, can as we stood in the churchyard before the vote more than once, and at the end service began, and when we assembled of that time there will be a count, and in the church the sense of sympathy a proclamation will be made. Then continued. I told Kleone that I liked about removal ; any one who is disthe home feeling of the church, and satisfied with a public officer puts his she was pleased. She said she was name up at the head of a book in the afraid I should have preferred the ca- election office. Of course there are dozthedral. There were four large cathe- ens of books all the time. But unless drals, open, as the churches were, to all there is real incapacity, nobody cares. the town; and all the clergy, of what- Sometimes, when one man wants anever order, took turns in conducting other's place, he gets up a great breeze, the service in them. There were seven the newspapers get hold of it, and evsuccessive services in each of them erybody is canvassed who can be got that Sunday. But each clergyman had to the spot. But it is very hard to turn his own special charge beside, – I out a competent officer. If in three should think of not more than a hun- months, however, at all the registries, dred families. And these families, gen- a majority of the voters express a erally neighbors in the town, indeed, wish for a man's removal, he has to seemed, naturally enough, to grow into go out. Practically, I look in once a very familiar personal relations with week at that office to see what is going each other.
on. It is something as you vote at
your clubs.” I ASKED Philip one day how long his “Did you say women as well as brother George would hold his office men ? " said I. of host, or Proxenus. Philip turned a “0, yes," said Philip, “unless a little sharply on me, and asked if I had woman or a man has formally withany complaints to make, being, in fact, drawn from the roll. You see, the roll rather a quick-tempered person. I is the list, not only of voters, but of solsoothed him by explaining that all that diers. For a man to withdraw, is to I asked about was the tenure of office say he is a coward and dares not take in their system, and he apologized. his chance in war. Sometimes a wo
“He will be in as long as he chooses, man does not like military service, and probably. In theory, he remains in if she takes her name off I do not until a majority of the voters, which think the public feeling about it is quite is to say the adult men and women, the same as with a man. She may. join in a petition for his removal. Then have things to do at home.”
“ But do you mean that most of the The old man confessed that the women serve in the army?” said I. place for poor men was the best place
"Of course they do,” said he. “They he ever saw; the markets were cheap, wanted to vote, so we put them on the work was light, the inns were neat, the roll. You do not see them much. the people were civil, the music was Most of the women's regiments are good, the churches were free, and the heavy artillery, in the forts, which can priests did not lie. He believed the be worked just as well by persons of reason that nobody ever came back less as of more muscle if you have from Sybaris was, that nobody wantenough of them. Each regiment in ed to. our service is on duty a month, and in The Proxenus nodded, well pleased. reserve six. You know we have no dis- “So Battista and his brother would tant posts.”
like to stay a few nionths; and he found “We have a great many near-sighted he might bring Caterina too, when my men in America,” said I, “ who cannot Excellency had returned from Galliserve in the army."
poli; or did my Excellency think that, “We make our near-sighted men when Garibaldi had driven out the work heavy guns, serve in light artil- Bourbons, all the world would be like lery, or, in very bad cases, we detail Sybaris ?". them to the police work of the camps," My Excellency hoped so; but did not said he. The deaf and dumb men we dare promise. detail to serve the military telegraphs. They keep secrets well. The blind “You see now," said George, “why men serve in the bands. And the men you hear so little of Sybaris. Enough without legs ride in barouches in state people come to us. But you are the processions. Everybody serves some- only man I ever saw leave Sybaris who where."
did not mean to return." “ That is the reason,” said I, with a “ And I,” said I, — “ do you think I sigh, “why everybody has so much am never coming here again ?" time in Sybaris ! "
“You found it a hard harbor to
make," said the Proxenus. “We have But the reader has more than enough published no sailing directions since of this. Else I would print my journal St. Paul touched here, and those which of " A Week in Sybaris.” By Thursday he wrote — he sent them to the Cothe boat was mended. I hunted up the rinthians yonder — neither they nor old fisherman and his boys. He was any one else have seemed to underwilling to go where my Excellency bade, stand.” but he said his boys wanted to stay. “Good by." They would like to live here..
“God bless you! Good by.” And "Among the devils ? " said I. I sailed for Gallipoli.
T H E PIANO IN T H E U NITED STATES.
WENTY-FIVE thousand pianos were made in the United States last year !
This is the estimate of the persons
who know most of this branch of manufacture, but it is only an approximation to the truth; for, besides the sixty makers in New York, the thirty in Boston, the twenty in Philadelphia, the fifteen in Baltimore, the ten in Albany, and the less number in Cincinnati, Buffalo, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco, there are small makers in many country towns, and even in villages, who buy the parts of a piano in the nearest city, put them together, and sell the instrument in the neighborhood. The returns of the houses which supply the ivory keys of the piano to all the makers in the country are confirmatory of this estimate; which, we may add, is that of Messrs. Steinway of New York, who have made it a point to collect both the literature and the statistics of the instrument, of which they are among the largest manufacturers in the world. The makers’ prices of pianos now range from two hundred and ninety dollars to one thousand; and the prices to the public, from four hundred and fifty dollars to fifteen hundred. We
may conclude, therefore, that the peo
ple of the United States during the year 1866 expended fifteen millions of dollars in the purchase of new pianos. It is not true that we export many pianos to foreign countries, as the public are led to suppose from the advertisements of imaginative manufacturers. American citizens—all but the few consummately able kings of business— allow a free play to their imagination in advertising the products of their skill. Canada buys a small number of our pianos; Cuba, a few ; Mexico, a few ; South America, a few; and now and then one is sent to Europe, or taken thither by a Thalberg or a Gottschalk; but an inflated currency and a war tariff make it impossible for Americans
to compete with European makers in anything but excellence. In price, they cannot compete. Every disinterested and competent judge with whom we have conversed on this subject gives it as his deliberate opinion that the best American piano is the best of all pianos, and the one longest capable of resisting the effects of a trying climate; yet we cannot sell them, at present, in any considerable numbers, in any market but our own. Protectionists are requested to note this fact, which is not an isolated fact. America possesses such an astonishing genius for inventing and combining labor-saving machinery, that we could now supply the world with many of its choicest products, in the teeth of native competition, but for the tariff, the taxes, and the inflation, which double the cost of producing. The time may come, however, when we shall sell pianos at Paris, and watches in London, as we already do sewing-machines everywhere. Twenty-five thousand pianos a year, at a cost of fifteen millions of dollars : Presented in this manner, the figures produce an effect upon the mind, and we wonder that an imperfectly reconstructed country could absorb in a single year, and that year an unprosperous one, so large a number of costly musical instruments. But, upon performing a sum in long division, we discover that these startling figures merely mean, that every working-day in this country one hundred and twelve persons buy a new piano. When we consider, that every hotel, steamboat, and public school above a certain very moderate grade, must have from one to four pianos, and that young ladies' seminaries jingle with them from basement to garret, (one school in New York has thirty Chickerings,) and that almost every couple that sets up housekeeping on a respectable scale considers a piano only less indispensable than a kitchen range, we are rather inclined to
wonder at the smallness than at the largeness of the number.
The trade in new pianos, however, is nothing to the countless transactions in old. Here figures are impossible; but probably ten second-hand pianos are sold to one new one. The business of letting pianos is also one of great extent. It is computed by the wellinformed, that the number of these instruments now “out,” in the city of New York, is three thousand. There is one firm in Boston that usually has a thousand let. As the rent of a piano ranges from six dollars to twelve dollars a month, – cartage both ways paid by the hirer, —it may be inferred that this business, when conducted on a large scale, and with the requisite vigilance, is not unprofitable. In fact, the income of a piano-letting business has approached eighty thousand dollars per annum, of which one third was profit. It has, however, its risks and drawbacks. From June to September, the owner of the instruments must find storage for the greater part of his stock, and must do without most of his monthly returns. Many of those who hire pianos, too, are persons “hanging on the verge” of society, who have little respect for the property of others, and vanish to parts unknown, leaving a damaged piano behind them.
England alone surpasses the United States in the number of pianos annually manufactured. In 1852, the one hundred and eighty English makers produced twenty-three thousand pianos, —fifteen hundred grands, fifteen hundred squares, and twenty thousand uprights. As England has enjoyed fifteen years of prosperity since, it is probable that the annual number now exceeds that of the United States. The English people, however, pay much less money for the thirty thousand pianos which they probably buy every year, than we do for our twenty-five thousand. In London, the retail price of the best Broadwood grand, in plain mahogany case, is one hundred and thirtyfive guineas; which is a little more than half the price of the correspond
ing American instrument. The best London square piano, in plain case, is sixty guineas, – almost exactly half the American price. Two thirds of all the pianos made in England are low-priced uprights, –averaging thirty-five guineas, - which would not stand in our climate for a year. England, therefore, supplies herself and the British empire with pianos at an annual expenditure of about eight millions of our present dollars. American makers, we may add, have recently taken a hint from their English brethren with regard to the upright instrument. Space is getting to be the dearest of all luxuries in our cities, and it has become highly desirable to have pianos that occupy less of it than the square instrument which we usually see. Successful attempts have been recently made to apply the new methods of construction to the upright piano, with a view to make it as durable as those of the usual forms. Such a brisk demand has sprung up for the improved uprights, that the leading makers are producing them in considerable numbers, and the Messrs. Steinway are erecting a new building for the sole purpose of manufacturing them. The American uprights, however, cannot be cheap. Such is the nature of the American climate, that a piano, to be tolerable, must be excellent; and while parts of the upright cost more than the corresponding parts of the square, no part of it costs less. Six hundred dollars is the price of the upright in plain rosewood case, —fifty dollars more than a plain rosewood square. Paris pianos are renowned, the world over, and consequently three tenths of all the pianos made in Paris are exported to foreign countries. France, too, owing to the cheapness of labor, can make a better cheap piano than any other country. In 1852, there were ten thousand pianos made in Paris, at an average cost of one thousand francs each; and, we are informed, a very good new upright piano can now be bought in France for one hundred dollars. But in France the average