The Evolution of Parental Care

Front Cover
Princeton University Press, 1991 - Family & Relationships - 352 pages
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Synthesizing studies of parental care in a wide variety of animals, this book is the first attempt to provide general answers to the following important questions: Why does the extent of parental care vary so widely between species? Why do only females care for eggs and young in some animals, only males in others, and both parents in a few? To what extent is parental care adjusted to variation in its benefits to offspring and its costs to parents? How do parents divide their resources between their sons and daughters? In this book separate chapters examine the evolution of variation in egg and neonate size, of viviparity and other forms of bearing, and of differences in the duration of incubation, gestation, and lactation. The book reviews theoretical and empirical predictions concerning the evolution of parental care and examines the extent to which these are supported by empirical evidence. The author examines the distribution of parental care among offspring, reviews the empirical evidence that parents invest to different extents in their sons and daughters, and discusses the degree to which parents manipulate the sex ratio of their progeny in relation to the availability of resources.

 

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Contents

Parental Care and Competition for Mates
3
12 Parental Care and Competition for Mates
5
13 The Evolution of Parental Care
7
14 Definitions of Parental Care and Parental Investment
8
Forms of Parental Care
13
23 Production of Gametes
14
24 Care of Eggs
15
25 Care of Young without Provisioning from Sources outside the Egg
19
77 Parental Care in Reptiles
125
78 Summary
126
Parental Care in Birds and Mammals
131
82 Models of Parental Care
140
84 Why Dont Males Always Assist with Parental Care?
145
85 Why Do Males Agree to Being the Only Caregiver in Some Monogamous Birds?
146
86 Why Do Males Agree to Polyandry?
147
87 Why Are Males Responsible for All Care in Some Polygynous Birds?
150

26 Provisioning Young before Hatching or Birth
20
27 Provisioning Young after Hatching or Birth
22
28 Care of Offspring after Nutritional Independence
25
29 Social Assistance to Mature Offspring
27
The Costs of Breeding
31
32 Parental Expenditure
32
33 Correlations between Components of Fitness
34
34 The Limitations of Phenotypic Correlations
39
35 Experimental Manipulation of Parental Expenditure
41
36 Negative Genetic Correlations between Fitness Components
43
37 Summary
46
Propagule Size
49
43 How Much Time Should Be Spent in the Egg?
54
44 Constraints on Propagule Size
57
45 Variation in Propagule Size
61
46 Egg Size and Parental Care
65
47 Is There a Single Optimal Propagule Size or an Optimal Range of Variation?
66
48 Summary
68
Viviparity
71
52 Viviparity among Invertebrates
73
53 Viviparity in Fish
74
54 Viviparity in Amphibia
77
55 Viviparity in Reptiles
78
56 On the Absence of Viviparity in Birds
79
57 Viviparity in Mammals
80
58 Summary
82
Incubation Gestation and Lactation
85
62 Body Size and the Duration of Development Periods
88
63 Incubation
89
64 Gestation and Age at Weaning
90
65 Lactation
92
66 Milk Composition
94
67 Summary
99
Parental Care in Ectotherms
101
72 The Evolution of Parental Care by Males and Females
102
73 The Maintenance of Parental Care by Males and Females
104
74 Parental Care in Invertebrates
107
75 Parental Care in Fish
111
76 Parental Care in Amphibia
123
88 Summary
151
Parental Tactics 1 Variation in Care in Relation to Benefits
155
92 Parental Care and ParentOffspring Relatedness
157
93 Parental Care and Brood Size
158
94 Parental Care and Offspring Age
161
95 Parental Care and Offspring Quality
164
96 Brood Reduction
165
97 Brood Desertion
170
98 Summary
172
Parental Tactics 2 Variation in Care in Relation to Costs
175
Restraint or Constraint?
176
104 Reproductive Value and Terminal Investment
178
105 Parental Investment by Males and Access to Mating Partners
182
106 Parental Investment and Conflicts of Interest between Caregivers
183
107 Parental Decision Rules
188
108 Summary
190
ParentOffspring Conflict
193
Predictions
201
114 Summary
206
Parental Investment in Sons and Daughters
209
123 Parental Expenditure and Sex Differences in Early Growth
213
124 Energy Expenditure on Sons and Daughters
215
125 Reproductive Costs of Sons and Daughters
218
126 Sex Allocation or Differential Extraction?
221
127 Sex Differences in Parental Investment and the Population Sex Ratio
223
128 Summary
226
Sex Ratios and Differential Juvenile Mortality
229
132 Sex Ratio Variation at Hatching or Birth
232
133 Sex Differences in Juvenile Mortality
242
134 Summary
252
Conclusions
255
143 Why Does the Extent of Parental Care Vary So Widely among Species?
257
144 Why Do Only Females Care for Eggs and Young in Some Species Only Males in Others and Both Parents in a Few?
258
145 To What Extent Is Parental Care Adjusted to Variation in Its Benefits to Offspring and Its Costs to Parents?
261
146 How Do Parents Divide Their Investment between Sons and Daughters?
262
147 Prospects
263
References
267
Indexes
333
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Page 320 - Bull., 21:1-55. . 1976. A revision of the poison-arrow frogs of the genus Phyllobates Bibron in Sagra (Family Dendrobatidae).

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